Designing Institutions for social
transformation:
models for scaling up inclusive grassroots innovations
Anil Gupta, IIMA,...
Five Models of inclusive social innovations
a)bridges, brokers and benevolent bania (money lender, informal or formal
like...
Dimensions of Inclusion
BYPASSED
–Spaces
–Sectors
–Seasons: stable to fluctuating
–Social segments
–Skills and knowledge
I...
Form, feature and function
CIRCULARITY AFFORDABILITY
DURABILITY/
RENEWABILITY/
MULTI-
FUNCTIONALITY
Accessibility
Adaptability &
redesignability
Availability
Redesinability
Acceptability
Affordability
Reliability,
Environm...
IS FRUGALITY RELEVANT ONLY FOR
POOR?
- DEMATERIALIZATION
- PLANNED RENEWABILITY
- EACH COMPONENT TO HAVE
FATIGUE FACTOR IM...
Honey Bee Network
founded in 1987-1988
A nameless, faceless innovator or traditional knowledge
holder comes into contact w...
Intellectual
capital
Ethical Capital
( internal regulations)
Social capital
Trust, reciprocity and third part sanctions
Ex...
Bridging the gaps left unmet by markets
and state
Values in Vogue: Institutional Pathways for
Sustaining Grassroots Innova...
Innovation
InvestmentEnterprise
GOLDEN TRIANGLE for rewarding CREATIVITY
Leadership is
to take note of
ex ante and ex
post...
Overcoming knowledge and power
asymmetries
• The ex-ante transaction costs have four
components:
• (i) searching informati...
• The ex-post transaction costs include
• (i) monitoring and compliance,
• (ii) side payments, i.e., concessions which can...
blending
Passion,
purpose
and
Performance
Through
Platforms
SRISTI, gian, National Innovation Foundation,
techpedia.in, Ho...
1898, King of Gondal,
Bhagwantsinh ji
Honey Bee 17(1 & 2) January-June 2006
Micro venture finance is primarily for
innovative
activities for which demand is yet to be
created
Micro finance is given ...
Making strategic breakthroughs
incremental innovations,
adaptive trials, user-led
modifications. , incubation
R & D with e...
How to reward:
Portfolio of Incentives for Innovations
material-individual
Ipr or non ipr based
awards
Awards
R and d gran...
Meghalaya
Technology is like
words,
institutions are
like grammar
and culture is like
thesaurus
Three pillars of
sustainab...
Long tail of innovation (only a few
innovations achieve scale, a large number sell a few pieces
or in a few communities)
L...
Learning platforms
from concrete to abstract
1) Artefactual - as a replication of solution level
2) Analogic - metaphor to...
Few Variations of
Bullet Santi / Handio
Automated Circular Kiln that
Mansukhbhai made specially for the baking tawas and diyas
One of the kiln he uses today
Bicycle Hoe: China-India
Gopal Malhari Bhise, Ahmednagar,Maharashtra
Zhang Xingming, Shaanxi ProvinceLao Yang, Shan dong p...
A problem unsolved, but not any more
The solution
• New hand pump has a provision
of 25% water donation for the
animal trough, which is collected
from the runo...
Dynamics of social unmet need
assessment
assurance
low
high
lowCapacity
High
Unfelt, apathy, Assisted
Articulation of
need...
Taxonomy of innovative solutions
bridging the
Need gap
need
enhancement
need
elimination
need
transformation
Dynamics of social unmet need
assessment
assurance
low
high
lowCapacity
High
Unfelt, apathy, Assisted
Articulation of
need...
Taxonomy of innovative solutions
bridging the
Need gap
need
enhancement
need
elimination
need
transformation
Information/Knowledge/Wisdom
Innovation Playground
Inside out
High Low
High
Low
DBDB
Sponge
Pollinator ostrich
Outside in
...
The President of India honours grassroots innovators, launches
National Innovation Clubs and hosts an innovation exhibitio...
The former President awards children innovators every year at the
IGNITE Award function by NIF at IIMA
Initiative to Insti...
National Innovation Clubs
•Search: Celebrating the decade of
innovation by scouting and
mapping the creativity and
innovat...
Ignite
Recognising creativity of children and nurturing
their dreams:
thank God, children are much less patient with inert...
I want a high tech school bus
which can give alert signal as
it approaches my bus stop. I
would not miss my bus this
way!!...
Modified walker with adjustable legs
Shalini Kumari
Bihar
Shalini’s grandfather uses a walker to assist him
while he walks...
Innovation is simple
yet so obscure
roots of inertia
If a person is sitting on the chair in a wrong posture, an
alarm will start ringing and not stop until the person
corrects...
Nisha Chaube
NOIDA
Bag with folding seat
Arnab from, West Bengal
Arnab, west bengal
Typhoid Fever
•Typhoid is one of the most common worldwide bacterial diseases transmitted by
ingestion of food and water, ...
www.techpedia.in
• a portal by SRISTI (sristi.org) pooling 167,000
engineering projects by 400k students from
over 600 ins...
Bicyle Refrigerator For Rural Areas
Student/ Author : Sagar Chandrakant Gadkar, Amol Raghunath Kachare, Sanjay
Shivaji Kac...
Shanu Sharma, Vardan, IITK
Image, Speech Recognition and
Speech Synthesis
for people with hearing and speaking disabilities
Saurabh Saket and Rahul R...
Has any big company given you a fridge that also provides hot water, keeps food
warm and consumes less electricity?
Lpg ga...
Vazra, head load carrier by Lohar
Mind to Market
The Case of Herbavate
Herbvate Skin Ointment
It is based on the knowledge of seven innovators from six
districts: Sabarkanth, Panchmahal, Dang, ...
Informal Network of like minded
people and organizations. It has
no physical address
First formal steps,
an NGO to
support...
Functions
Scouting
and
Documentation
Dissemination &
Information
Technology
Value Addition
& Product
Development
IPRs
Mana...
Current Status
• Scouted more than 200,000, ideas,
innovations, traditional knowledge
practices (Not all unique)
• 690 pat...
g2G
grassroots to global
Global GIAN – Building a Global Value
Chain for the Augmentation of Green
Grassroots Innovations
Sales made internationally
1. Coconut tree climber- USA (Florida, Massachussets, California, Hawaii
etc.) Australia, Maldi...
Product queries:
Sl no. Innovation/product Countires
1 Coconut/palm tree climbing device USA, United Kingdom, Vietnam, Aus...
Culturally Alive India
www.sristi.org/cultural
Rider Induced bicycle
Mr. Kanak Das, Assam
Bicycle based sprayer
Mr. Mansukhbhai Jagani, Gujarat
Bicycle with gear
Mr. Jay...
Emerging Models of Innovation
a)Building upon what disadvantaged people are
rich in: inability to live with problems
unsol...
d) Inverted model of innovations: children invent, engineers
fabricate, and companies commercialize
e) Pooling of distribu...
Rethinking logistics for sustainable
future
learning from grassroots innovators
anil k gupta
anilg@sristi.org
shall we joi...
How did it happen:
The journey…..
SOCIETY FOR RESEARCH AND INITIATIVES FOR
SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGIES AND INSTITUTIONS
(www....
Creativity counts
Knowledge matters
Innovations transform
Incentives inspire
(not just individual, but also collective, no...
designing innovation, insitutions for social transformation D1s3 gupta anil iciig
designing innovation, insitutions for social transformation D1s3 gupta anil iciig
designing innovation, insitutions for social transformation D1s3 gupta anil iciig
designing innovation, insitutions for social transformation D1s3 gupta anil iciig
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designing innovation, insitutions for social transformation D1s3 gupta anil iciig

  1. 1. Designing Institutions for social transformation: models for scaling up inclusive grassroots innovations Anil Gupta, IIMA, Honey Bee Network and NIF anilgb@gmail.com www.nifindia.org www.sristi.org
  2. 2. Five Models of inclusive social innovations a)bridges, brokers and benevolent bania (money lender, informal or formal like bank or micro finance) -1987; reducing the transaction costs of innovators, investors, and entrepreneurs b)Meeting unmet Needs: Need-felt or unfelt, articulated, not articulated, aggregated or not aggregated, registered or not registered, responded or not responded, 1990 c)Spawning, Sustaining, and Scaling up local or grassroots innovations, 1988-89, Honey Bee Network d)5-S and 4-A model; exclusion over space, skill, sector, season, and social segment; Access, Assurance, Ability and Attitude towards resources, institutions, technology and culture ( 1988, 1992, 1995) e)Accessibility, Affordability, Availability and augmentability, 2014-15
  3. 3. Dimensions of Inclusion BYPASSED –Spaces –Sectors –Seasons: stable to fluctuating –Social segments –Skills and knowledge Inclusive Frugal Innovation
  4. 4. Form, feature and function CIRCULARITY AFFORDABILITY DURABILITY/ RENEWABILITY/ MULTI- FUNCTIONALITY
  5. 5. Accessibility Adaptability & redesignability Availability Redesinability Acceptability Affordability Reliability, Environmental suitability
  6. 6. IS FRUGALITY RELEVANT ONLY FOR POOR? - DEMATERIALIZATION - PLANNED RENEWABILITY - EACH COMPONENT TO HAVE FATIGUE FACTOR IMPRINTED - MARKET FOR USING PARTS WITH UNTAPPED ENERGY LEFT, TO DELAY ENTROPY - SUSTAINBILITY IS THE SOUL OF FRUGALITY
  7. 7. Honey Bee Network founded in 1987-1988 A nameless, faceless innovator or traditional knowledge holder comes into contact with the Network and gets an identity, voice, visibility and viability of its sustainable vision .
  8. 8. Intellectual capital Ethical Capital ( internal regulations) Social capital Trust, reciprocity and third part sanctions External regulation Intellectual property ( that part of ic from the commercial applications of which, one can exclude others for a given period of time) Natural capital ( commoditization of resources, stored, sold, exchanged, controlled) Source: Gupta, 2001
  9. 9. Bridging the gaps left unmet by markets and state Values in Vogue: Institutional Pathways for Sustaining Grassroots Innovations for Creating Public Goods Boundary rules Resource allocation rules Governance rules Conflict resolution rules Source: Gupta, 1985
  10. 10. Innovation InvestmentEnterprise GOLDEN TRIANGLE for rewarding CREATIVITY Leadership is to take note of ex ante and ex post transaction costs and deal with them upfront, If not, these are transferred to the weaker partner
  11. 11. Overcoming knowledge and power asymmetries • The ex-ante transaction costs have four components: • (i) searching information about innovation, investment, fabricator, entrepreneur, policy maker, logistics provider etc., • (ii) finding supplier, • (iii) negotiating social contract and • (iv) drawing up the social contract.
  12. 12. • The ex-post transaction costs include • (i) monitoring and compliance, • (ii) side payments, i.e., concessions which can make the contract enforceable through modified inducements/ discounts, • (iii) resolution of conflicts if any and • (iv) redrawing the contract if none of the above help in going ahead with the contract. • While designing the eco system, the institutions and actors have to reduce their transaction costs if any mediating platform has to have legitimacy.
  13. 13. blending Passion, purpose and Performance Through Platforms SRISTI, gian, National Innovation Foundation, techpedia.in, Honey bee network Next: open source multimedia multi-language content for children, cultural creativity, innovations in governance
  14. 14. 1898, King of Gondal, Bhagwantsinh ji
  15. 15. Honey Bee 17(1 & 2) January-June 2006
  16. 16. Micro venture finance is primarily for innovative activities for which demand is yet to be created Micro finance is given for goods and services for which markets do exis From Microfinance to Micro Venture Innovation Finance( gian, 1997, SIDBI at NIF, MVIF2003) some thing neeeds to change :)
  17. 17. Making strategic breakthroughs incremental innovations, adaptive trials, user-led modifications. , incubation R & D with external experts, new actors and new arrangements Product Development, amplify the form, features and functions Paradigmatic disruption, discontinuity and non-parameteric approaches , sanctuary model Known Known Unknown Unknown Domain characteristics Technologicalplatforms
  18. 18. How to reward: Portfolio of Incentives for Innovations material-individual Ipr or non ipr based awards Awards R and d grants Endowments non-material-individual Recognition Honour Memorial material-collective Trust funds Venture and incubation funds Collective awards Support for Institution building Endowments non-material-collective Policy changes Pedagogic changes Forms of Incentives Material non material Target of individual Incentives collective
  19. 19. Meghalaya Technology is like words, institutions are like grammar and culture is like thesaurus Three pillars of sustainabilitySustainability equation
  20. 20. Long tail of innovation (only a few innovations achieve scale, a large number sell a few pieces or in a few communities) Long nose of innovation: Take long time to come into market Room for maneuver
  21. 21. Learning platforms from concrete to abstract 1) Artefactual - as a replication of solution level 2) Analogic - metaphor to inspire 3) Heuristic - as a model or principle 4) Gestalt - configurational level Gupta, 2012, Own compilation
  22. 22. Few Variations of Bullet Santi / Handio
  23. 23. Automated Circular Kiln that Mansukhbhai made specially for the baking tawas and diyas
  24. 24. One of the kiln he uses today
  25. 25. Bicycle Hoe: China-India Gopal Malhari Bhise, Ahmednagar,Maharashtra Zhang Xingming, Shaanxi ProvinceLao Yang, Shan dong province Wang Fuhe Miyun County, Beijing
  26. 26. A problem unsolved, but not any more
  27. 27. The solution • New hand pump has a provision of 25% water donation for the animal trough, which is collected from the runoff • A provision of about 1 liter water storage inside the head of the pump which can be utilized through a tap for use as a drinking source just by pumping once
  28. 28. Dynamics of social unmet need assessment assurance low high lowCapacity High Unfelt, apathy, Assisted Articulation of need gap Innovation, self-design, entreprenuria larticulation Engagement for demand driven delivery and co creation
  29. 29. Taxonomy of innovative solutions bridging the Need gap need enhancement need elimination need transformation
  30. 30. Dynamics of social unmet need assessment assurance low high lowCapacity High Unfelt, apathy, Assisted Articulation of need gap Innovation, self-design, entreprenuria larticulation Engagement for demand driven delivery and co creation
  31. 31. Taxonomy of innovative solutions bridging the Need gap need enhancement need elimination need transformation
  32. 32. Information/Knowledge/Wisdom Innovation Playground Inside out High Low High Low DBDB Sponge Pollinator ostrich Outside in Large heart, big mind, Dil bada dimaag bada
  33. 33. The President of India honours grassroots innovators, launches National Innovation Clubs and hosts an innovation exhibition at the President’s house; NIF becomes an Institute of Department of Science and Technology Initiative to Institutionalisation
  34. 34. The former President awards children innovators every year at the IGNITE Award function by NIF at IIMA Initiative to Institutionalisation
  35. 35. National Innovation Clubs •Search: Celebrating the decade of innovation by scouting and mapping the creativity and innovations in the hinterland •Spread: Disseminating/Cross- pollinating innovations across spaces, social segments and sectors •Celebrate: Recognising achievers in different social spheres •Sense or Benchmark: Identifying the roots of persistent problems and the mindsets that trigger their continued tolerance in society
  36. 36. Ignite Recognising creativity of children and nurturing their dreams: thank God, children are much less patient with inertia than us
  37. 37. I want a high tech school bus which can give alert signal as it approaches my bus stop. I would not miss my bus this way!!: pallavi, 9th class I want to integrate the gait of a person with a mobile. As walking style differ person to person, the software will be able to identify the signals based on the body movements while walking If the mobile will sense a different movement once act will lock itself and send a message about its location predefined number. : anurag rathor 9th class Why pierce skin to get a blood test done? I wish to make a blood testing system that would do the required test by scanning the skin surface or testing the skin excretions :srishti class iv
  38. 38. Modified walker with adjustable legs Shalini Kumari Bihar Shalini’s grandfather uses a walker to assist him while he walks. But she noticed that he could only use the walker comfortably while walking on a level surface. Shalini came up with the idea of the modified walker with adjustable legs. She has also thought of including a folding seat so that the user can rest for a while when required and fitted a horn and a light to it as well. NIF licensed this technology to a company recently
  39. 39. Innovation is simple yet so obscure roots of inertia
  40. 40. If a person is sitting on the chair in a wrong posture, an alarm will start ringing and not stop until the person corrects the posture. The height of the chair can also be adjusted using a handle. Posture correcting chair Kulsoom Rizvi, 5, Muzaffarnagar, UP & Tarun Anand, 10, Hardoi, UP
  41. 41. Nisha Chaube NOIDA Bag with folding seat
  42. 42. Arnab from, West Bengal
  43. 43. Arnab, west bengal
  44. 44. Typhoid Fever •Typhoid is one of the most common worldwide bacterial diseases transmitted by ingestion of food and water, contaminated with Salmonella typhi. Poor sanitation conditions promote the occurrence and re-occurrence of typhoid •Symptoms of typhoid includes frequent fever and gastric problems. •Typhoid fever persist for three weeks to a month, which may be fatal if not treated. •Treatment of typhoid includes various chemical drugs such as ampicillin, chloramphenicol, amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin etc •Resistance of causal organism towards these commonly used drugs is one of the major concern worldwide. Typhoid resistance to these drugs are known as Multi Drug Resistant Typhoid (MDR-Typhoid) Herbal Formulation for Typhoid: •Extract and fractions obtained from Shorea robusta was evaluated against causal organism of typhoid and all of them showed good control in in vitro conditions. •Toxicity of the above was also tested in in vivo conditions in Swiss albino mice at different dose and it was found non-toxic even at the oral dose of 1200mg/kg.
  45. 45. www.techpedia.in • a portal by SRISTI (sristi.org) pooling 167,000 engineering projects by 400k students from over 600 institutions • engaging with youth
  46. 46. Bicyle Refrigerator For Rural Areas Student/ Author : Sagar Chandrakant Gadkar, Amol Raghunath Kachare, Sanjay Shivaji Kachare, Suyog Hanmant Jadhav Guided By : Prof. S. A. Khot College : Padmabhushan Vasantraodada Patil Institute of technology, Budhgaon, Sangli It is a 50 lit capacity, refrigerator which is powered by a rear wheel of bicycle. To achieve the required rpm of compressor we provide a larger pulley of dia 20 inch on rear wheel shaft through which pulley we run the compressor and achieved the required output. Steady paddling of bicycle at 14 km/hr. for 30 minutes at an ambient temperature of 35 C, brings down the temperature in box to 8 C.
  47. 47. Shanu Sharma, Vardan, IITK
  48. 48. Image, Speech Recognition and Speech Synthesis for people with hearing and speaking disabilities Saurabh Saket and Rahul Ranjan Bhutta College of Engineering & Technology, Ludhiana
  49. 49. Has any big company given you a fridge that also provides hot water, keeps food warm and consumes less electricity? Lpg gas based refrigerator Chintan, Mayank, Biren Mehsana Hot water from fridge Dhruv Mehsana Exhaust pipe cools drivers cabin, Pune
  50. 50. Vazra, head load carrier by Lohar
  51. 51. Mind to Market The Case of Herbavate
  52. 52. Herbvate Skin Ointment It is based on the knowledge of seven innovators from six districts: Sabarkanth, Panchmahal, Dang, Mahsana, Patan and Bhavnagar of Gujarat. Herbavate exhibits remarkable properties against eczema and a variety of inflammatory and infectious skin conditions. Communities: The innovators of Herbavate: 1. Amratbhai Shankarbhai Rawal, Mehsana Gujarat. 2. Kunjubhai Kakadiyabhai Bhoya, Dang Gujarat 3. Pujabhai Dabhi, Sabarkantha, Gujarat 4. Karshanbhai Parmar, Sabarkantha Gujarat 5. Laxmanbhai Pagi, Panchmahal, Gujarat 6. Lilabhai Rawal, Patan Gujarat 7. Lakhabhai Becharbhai Khatana, Bhavnagar Gujarat
  53. 53. Informal Network of like minded people and organizations. It has no physical address First formal steps, an NGO to support the HBN Regional Technology Business Incubators to augment grassroots innovation through value addition & business development National level body supported by DST. Govt of India to scale up green grassroots innovations HBN- Incubator of Institutions
  54. 54. Functions Scouting and Documentation Dissemination & Information Technology Value Addition & Product Development IPRs Management NIF Enterprise & Business Development
  55. 55. Current Status • Scouted more than 200,000, ideas, innovations, traditional knowledge practices (Not all unique) • 690 patents filed on behalf of innovators • 550 projects supported for value addition • 185 projects under Micro venture innovation fund • Transferred 73 technologies to 85 licensees
  56. 56. g2G grassroots to global Global GIAN – Building a Global Value Chain for the Augmentation of Green Grassroots Innovations
  57. 57. Sales made internationally 1. Coconut tree climber- USA (Florida, Massachussets, California, Hawaii etc.) Australia, Maldives, Sri Lanka, Brazil, Mexico, West Indies 2. Pomegranate deseeder - Turkey, USA 3. Garlic peeling machine - Pakistan 4. Arecanut husker - Singapore 5. Milking machine - Phillipines, Uganda, Ethiopia 6. Resin grading machine - Peru 7. Cassava peeling machine - Kenya 8. Herbal growth promoters - Ghana
  58. 58. Product queries: Sl no. Innovation/product Countires 1 Coconut/palm tree climbing device USA, United Kingdom, Vietnam, Australia, Sri Lanka, Mexico, Iran, West Indies 2 Entech oil expeller USA, United Kingdom, Australia, Phillipines, Canada, Kenya, Colombia, S. Africa, Switzerland, Poland, Indonesia, Belgium 3 Garlic peeling machine Slovenia, USA, Turkey, Peru, Singapore, Iran , Venezuela, Pakistan 4 Pomegranate deseeding machine USA, Australia, Turkey, Venezuela, Hongkong, Israel, Netherlands, Thailand, UAE, Iran, United Kingdom 5 Cassava peeling machine Congo, USA, Benin, Nigeria, Kenya, UAE, Uganda 6 Aaruni tilting cart Uganda 7 Coconut defibring machine China 8 Coconut dehusker Mexico, New Zealand, USA, Philippines, Bangladesh 9 Lemon cutting machine S. Africa 10 Milking machine Bangladesh, Uganda, Ecuador 11 Palm leaf mat weaving machine Fiji 12 Rain Gun (Chandraprabha) Sudan 13 Tea making machine Bangladesh, 14 Tile making machine Bangladesh, Kenya, Rwanda, Ghana, Zambia 15 Trench digging machine Pakistan 16 Zero head water turbine Egypt 17 Arecanut dehusking machine Chile
  59. 59. Culturally Alive India www.sristi.org/cultural
  60. 60. Rider Induced bicycle Mr. Kanak Das, Assam Bicycle based sprayer Mr. Mansukhbhai Jagani, Gujarat Bicycle with gear Mr. Jayanti J Patel,GujaratBamboo bicycle Mr. Dodhi Pathak, Assam Amphibious Bicycle Mohd. Saidullah, Bihar Bicycle based mobile spray pump Subhas Vasantrao Jagtap, Maharastra Multipurpose Bicycle Md. Kamruddin, Rajasthan Bicycle operated pump Mr. Vikram Rathore, AP Bicycle based portable Pump Mr. Nasiruddin Gayen, WB Bicycle based Innovations
  61. 61. Emerging Models of Innovation a)Building upon what disadvantaged people are rich in: inability to live with problems unsolved – overcoming inertia b) Empathetic innovation: samvedana se srijansheelta, kho kho model of innovation (innovation relay) c)Going beyond long tail, long nose of innovation to turbulent innovation
  62. 62. d) Inverted model of innovations: children invent, engineers fabricate, and companies commercialize e) Pooling of distributed ideas for innovation and experimentation : uncommon from common f) distributed mind management: www.techpedia.in - transcending the limits of frugality g) Moving blackboards: learning from unexpected quarters Emerging Models of Innovation
  63. 63. Rethinking logistics for sustainable future learning from grassroots innovators anil k gupta anilg@sristi.org shall we join hands in learning from grassroots green innovators fortune really lies at the Top of the innovation, ethical, and value pyramid thus, poor people are not at the bottom of all pyramids Minds on the margin are not marginal minds anil k gupta National Innovation Foundation, SRISTI, honey bee network, IIMA www.sristi.org/anilg www.nifindia.org
  64. 64. How did it happen: The journey….. SOCIETY FOR RESEARCH AND INITIATIVES FOR SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGIES AND INSTITUTIONS (www.SRISTI.org) info@sristi.org GRASSROOTS INNOVATION AUGMENTATION NETWORK (www.GIAN.org) NATIONAL INNOVATION FOUNDATION (www.NIFindia.org) info@nifindia.org anilg@sristi.org The Honey Bee Network, an informal global social movement, started in 1987-88,
  65. 65. Creativity counts Knowledge matters Innovations transform Incentives inspire (not just individual, but also collective, not just material, but also non-material) Join the Honey Bee Network! For rewarding indigenous creativity and innovation www.techpedia.in, www.sristi.org, www.nif.org.in anilgb@gmail.com

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