2. Internet of Things
Definition: IoT is a technology transition in which devices will allow us to sense and control
the physical world . By making objects smarter and connecting them through network.
Goal: The basic premise and goal of IoT is to “connect the unconnected.” means objects will be
connected so that they can communicate and interact with people and other objects.
Tighter integration between physical world and computer is enabled.
This improves efficiency, accuracy, automation, and the enabling of advanced applications.
6. IOTAND DIGITIZATION
IoT focuses on connecting “things,” such as objects
and machines, to a computer network, such as the
While digitization explores the concept of converting
our daily life tasks in a digital format
If We can incorporate both these technologies into our
environment, it is possible to increase the efficiency as
well as the robustness of all the computer systems by
7. CONVERGENCE OF ITAND OT
IT focused on data communication with security, it supports connections to connection to
internet related data and technology.
OT focuses on the management and control of physical devices existing and operating in the
Technology convergence: Allowing different technologies to integrate and interoperate
efficiently as a single cohesive system, businesses can generally improve efficiency, reduce
errors, cut costs, enhance workflows and gain competitive advantages.
IT and OT convergence is the integration of information technology (IT) systems with
operational technology (OT) systems.
13. One M2M IoT Standardized Architecture
In the past several years, architectural standards and frameworks have emerged to address the
challenge of designing massive-scale IoT networks.
The European telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) created the M2M Technical
committee in 2008.
The goal of this committee was to create a common architecture that would help accelerate
the adoption of M2M applications and devices.
14. Over the time, the scope has expanded to include the Internet of Things.
In 2012 ETSI and 13 other founding members launched one M2M as a global initiative designed
to promote efficient M2M communication systems and IoT.
The one M2M architecture divides IoT functions into three major domains: the application
layer, the services layer and the network layer.
This architecture may seem simple and somewhat generic at first glance, it is very rich and
promotes interoperability through IT-friendly APIs and supports a wide range of IoT
16. Applications Layer: The one M2M architecture gives major attention to connectivity between devices and their
applications. This domain includes the application layer protocols and its also standardize the API definitions
for interaction with Business Intelligence (BI) Systems. Applications tend to be industry specific and have
their own sets of data models and thus they are shown as vertical entities.
Services Layer: This layer is a horizontal framework across the vertical industry applications.
horizontal modules include : physical network that the IoT applications run on, and management protocols,
and the hardware. Examples include backhaul communications via cellular, MPLS (Multiprotocol label
switching) networks, VPNs and so on. Riding on top is the common services layer. This conceptual layer adds
APIs and middleware supporting third party services and applications.
17. Network Layer: This is the communication domain for the IoT devices and endpoints. It
includes the devices and the communication network/infrastructures that links them.
This communication infrastructure includes wireless mesh technologies such as IEEE 802.15.4,
and wireless point to multipoint systems IEEE 801.11ah.
18. IoT World Forum (IoT WF) Standardized Architecture
It is seven-layer IoT architectural reference model.
Using this reference model, we are able to achieve the following:
Decompose the IoT problem into smaller parts
Identify different technologies at each layer and how they relate to one
Define a system in which different parts can be provided by different
Have a process of defining interfaces that leads to interoperability
Define a tiered security model that is enforced at the transition points
19. Layer1: Physical Devices and Controllers Layer
This layer is home to the “things” in the Internet of Things, including the various endpoint devices and sensors
that send and receive information.
The size of these “things” can range from almost microscopic sensors to giant machines in a factory.
Their primary function is generating data and being capable of being queried and/or controlled over a
20. Layer 2: Connectivity Layer
The focus is on connectivity. The most important function of this IoT layer is the reliable and
timely transmission of data.
Communication between layer 1 devices edge computing layers
Switching and routing translation between protocols, network level security.
22. Module2: Constrained-node
Constrained-node networks are often referred to as low-power and Lossy networks (LLNs).
Lossy networks indicates that network performance may suffer from interference and variability due to harsh radio
Layer-1 and Layer-2 protocols that can be used for constrained-node networks must be evaluated in the context of the
following characteristics for use-case applicability: data rate and throughput, latency and determinism, and overhead
The IoT access technologies developed for constrained nodes
optimized for low power consumption, but they are also limited in terms of data rate, which depends on the selected
frequency band, and throughput.
23. The data rates available from IoT access technologies range from 100 bps with protocols such as
Sigfox to 10s of megabits per second with technologies such as LTE and IEEE 802.11ac.
24. IoTAccess Technologies
EEE 802.15.4 is a wireless access technology for low-cost and low-data-rate devices that are
powered or run on batteries.
This access technology enables easy installation using a compact protocol stack, simple and
IEEE 802.15.4 is commonly found in the following types of deployments:
Home and building automation
Industrial wireless sensor networks
Interactive toys and remote controls
25. Limitations of IEEE 802.15.4
Focuses on only MAC reliability,
and susceptibility to interference and multipath fading because it lacks a
26. Standardization and Alliance
IEEE 802.15.4 - Task Group 4 defines low-data-rate PHY and MAC layer specifications for
wireless personal area networks (WPAN).
The IEEE 802.15.4 PHY and MAC layers are the foundations for several networking protocol
stacks for their physical and link layer levels
29. IoTAccess Technologies continued…
IEEE 802.15.4g and 802.15.4e
802.15.4g seeks to optimize large outdoor wireless mesh networks for field area networks
This technology applies to IoT use cases such as the following:
Smart parking meters
Electrical vehicle charging stations
Public lighting systems
Environmental wireless sensors in smart cities
Distributed automation and Supervisory control and data acquisition systems(SCADA for
30. Standardization and Alliances
802.15.4g-2012 and 802.15.4e-2012 are simply amendments to IEEE 802.15.4- 2011.
IEEE 802.15 Task Group 4 standards body authors, maintains, and integrates them into the next
release of the core specification.
To guarantee interoperability, the Wi-SUN Alliance was formed.
It defines communication profiles for smart utility and related networks.
These profiles are based on open standards, such as 802.15.4g-2012, 802.15.4e2012, IPv6,
6LoWPAN, and UDP for the FAN profile.
The Wi-SUN Alliance performs the same function as the Wi-Fi Alliance and WiMAX Forum
31. IoT Access Technologies continued..
IEEE 1901.2a-2013 is a wired technology that is an update to the original IEEE 1901.2
This is a standard for Narrowband Power Line Communication (NB-PLC)
Its is narrowband spectrum for low power, long range, and resistance to interference over the
same wires that carry electric power.
32. usage of IEEE 1901.2a
Smart metering: NB-PLC can be used to automate the reading of utility meters, such as electric, gas, and water meters.
This is true particularly in Europe, where PLC is the preferred technology for utilities deploying smart meter solutions.
Distribution automation: NB-PLC can be used for distribution automation, which involves monitoring and controlling all
the devices in the power grid.
Public lighting: A common use for NB-PLC is with public lighting—the lights found in cities and along streets,
highways, and public areas such as parks.
Electric vehicle charging stations: NB-PLC can be used for electric vehicle charging stations, where the batteries of
electric vehicles can be recharged.
Microgrids: NB-PLC can be used for microgrids, local energy grids that can disconnect from the traditional grid and
Renewable energy: NB-PLC can be used in renewable energy applications, such as solar, wind power, hydroelectric, and