tuberculosis Day 2022 ppt.pptx

1 Apr 2023

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tuberculosis Day 2022 ppt.pptx

  2. Introduction • Tuberculosis is one of the ten major causes of mortality worldwide. The trend of increasing TB cases and drug resistance in India is very disturbing. • Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by a bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. • Each day, over 4000 people lose their lives to TB and close to 30,000 people fall ill with this preventable and curable disease. TB remains the world’s deadliest infectious killer.
  3. theme of World TB Day 2022? • For the first time in over a decade, TB deaths increased in 2020. The theme of World TB Day 2022 - 'Invest to End TB. Save Lives.' –conveys the urgent need to invest resources to ramp up the fight against TB and achieve the commitments to end TB made by global leaders. • Each day, over 4000 people lose their lives to TB and close to 30,000 people fall ill with this preventable and curable disease. TB is one of the leading causes of mortality in India. It kills more than 4,00,000 people in India every year. But these deaths can be prevented. With proper care and treatment, TB patients can be cured and the battle against TB can be won.
  4. Types of TB Form
  5. Normal lungs
  6. The Respiratory System • When we breathe in, air flows through the nose or mouth, down the throat, through the voice box, and down the windpipe (trachea). • The air then comes to two main large airways (the right and left bronchial tubes). • These large airways branch into smaller and smaller airways (bronchioles). Wrapped around the airways are muscles that crisscross each other. • We have no control over these muscles, and their exact purpose is not known. Air continues through these small airways until it finally reaches the tiny balloon-like air sacs (alveoli). It is at these air sacs that the oxygen is taken into the blood.
  7. History of World TB Day • On March 24, 1882, Dr. Robert Koch announced the discovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacteria that causes tuberculosis (TB). • During this time, TB killed one out of every seven people living in the United States and Europe. • Dr. Koch’s discovery was the most important step taken toward the control and elimination of this deadly disease. • A century later, March 24 was designated World TB Day: a day to educate the public about the impact of TB around the world.
  8. Problem statement • Worldwide, TB is the 13th leading cause of death and the second leading infectious killer after COVID-19 (above HIV/AIDS). • In 2020, an estimated 10 million people fell ill with tuberculosis (TB) worldwide. 5.6 million men, 3.3 million women and 1.1 million children. TB is present in all countries and age groups.
  9. Transmission • TB is spread through the air by a person suffering from TB. A single patient can infect 10 or more people in a year. •
  10. Fact about TB caused Bacteria
  11. Symptoms • Common symptoms of TB are: • Cough for three weeks or more, sometimes with blood-streaked sputum • Fever, especially at night • Weight loss • Loss of appetite •
  12. Vulnerable population • Those most vulnerable to falling ill with TB include • very poor and/or malnourished/ undernourished people, • people living with HIV/AIDS, • children and women, • contacts of people with TB including health workers, migrants, refugees and internally displaced persons, • miners and mining-affected persons, • persons with diabetes, • elderly, • ethnic minorities, • indigenous populations, • substance users and homeless persons. •
  13. Strongest risk factors for TB among adults - HIV • The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV, the virus that causes AIDS) is the strongest risk factor for tuberculosis among adults. • Tuberculosis is one of the earliest opportunistic diseases to develop amongst persons infected with HIV. • HIV debilitates the immune system increasing the vulnerability to TB and increasing the risk of progression from TB infection to TB disease. • An HIV positive person is six times (50-60% life time risk) more likely of developing TB disease once infected with TB bacilli, as compared to an HIV negative person, who has a 10% life-time risk. •
  14. Pathophysiology
  15. Tuberculosis in children • Children account for an estimated 11 % of all TB cases in the world. TB in children is often missed or overlooked due to non-specific symptoms and limitation of diagnostic tools. Children at greater risk for Tuberculosis. Some groups of children are at greater risk for tuberculosis than others. These include: • Children living in a household with an adult who has active tuberculosis • Children living in a household with an adult who is at high risk for contracting TB • Children infected with HIV or another immuno compromising condition • Children born in a country that has a high prevalence of tuberculosis • Children from communities that are medically under served •
  16. Diagnosis • Under Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) the following methods are used to diagnose various forms of Tuberculosis: • Microscopy • Culture (Solid, Liquid) • Molecular tests Line Probe Assay (LPA), Cartridge Based Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (CBNAAT) • Mantoux Test • X-ray and other imaging techniques • Histopathology
  17. Tuberculosis X ray findngs
  18. Treatment • Today, four drugs are used to treat TB disease: isoniazid (1951), pyrazinamide (1952), ethambutol (1961), and rifampin (1966). This 4-drug cocktail is still the most common treatment for drug-susceptible TB. • Directly Observed Treatment Short-course (DOTS) is the strategy followed for treatment of TB. • Tuberculosis treatment requires at least 6 months of treatment. • TB treatment with DOTS reduces the morbidity and mortality among people living with HIV.
  19. Treatment schedule • New cases : • IP: (2)HRZE for 8 weeks 2months • CP:(4)HRE 16 weeks for 4 months
  20. Medical management
  21. Diet plan for TB patients
  22. To keep your lungs healthy, do the following: • Stop smoking, and avoid secondhand smoke or environmental irritants. • Eat foods rich in antioxidants. • Get vaccinations like the flu vaccine and the pneumonia vaccine. ... • Exercise more frequently, which can help your lungs function properly. • Improve indoor air quality.
  23. Your health in your hands
  24. Hand hygiene practices
  25. Respiratory hygiene
  26. Physical exercises
  27. Continued
  28. Continued
  29. Continued
  30. Healthy food for lungs
  31. Antibacterial therapy food
  32. Best food for improve breathing
  33. Natural pain killers
  34. Recent changes in RNTCP
  35. Gaps in TB treatment • “Missed” is the gap between the estimated number of people who became ill with TB in a year and the number of people who were notified to national TB programmes. In 2018, in India 2.69 million people fell ill with TB and about 0.449 million people died. Only 1.99 million people with TB were notified. Every year 7 lakh people with TB are missing out on quality care. The vast majority of people dying of TB are missed
  36. Vaccine BCG • Albert Calmette and Jean-Marie Camille Guerin developed the Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine in 1921. Prior to developing the BCG vaccine, Calmette developed the first antivenom to treat snake venom. • The BCG vaccine is not widely used in the United States, but it is often given to infants and small children to prevent TB meningitis in countries where TB is common. BCG does not always protect people from getting TB. TB blood tests are the preferred TB test for people who have received the BCG vaccine. • Vaccination - The TB vaccine, BCG, addresses the tuberculosis problem in children to some extent.
  37. NATIONAL STRATEGIC PLAN FOR TUBERCULOSIS ELIMINATION 2017–2025 • In 2020 the RNTCP was renamed the National Treatment Elimination Program (NTEP) to emphasize the aim of the Government of India to eliminate TB in India by 2025.
  38. Delamanid • Delamanid is one of two drugs developed specifically for the treatment of TB in the last 40 years. It is the first approved drug in the class of nitro-dihydro- imidazo-oxazoles for the treatment of MDR-TB. • It has been developed by Otsuka Pharmaceutical Ltd. for the treatment of MDR-TB. • Delamanid was first approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) in November 2014 and subsequently by regulatory authorities in Japan, Republic of Korea, Hong Kong, Turkey and Philippines (4-6,8-21).
  39. CONTINUED • The approval dated 14 June 2017 reads as follows: “ • Drug name: Delamanid (50 mg); • Indication: Indicated in adults aged 18 or over 18 years as part of combination therapy of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) due to multi-drug tuberculosis (MDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis;
  41. What is DOTS? • DOTS stands for directly observed treatment short course, the curative treatment for tuberculosis. It is the name for a comprehensive strategy which primary health services around the world are using to detect and cure TB patients
  42. It combines five elements: • Political commitment to a National Tuberculosis Control Programme. • Microscopy services to detect the infectious cases among those people attending health care facilities with symptoms of pulmonary tuberculosis, most importantly cough of 3 weeks duration or more. • Regular uninterrupted supply of anti-TB drugs. The establishment of a dependable, high quality supply of anti-TB drugs throughout the health system is an essential part of the DOTS strategy to ensure that the treatment of TB patients is never interrupted. • Direct observation of the treatment for at least initial intensive phase. As a part of DOTS strategy health workers counsel and observe their patients swallowing each dose of powerful combination of medicines. • Monitoring and accountability system for programme supervision and evaluation of treatment of each patient diagnosed.
  43. What are the advantages of DOTS • DOTS produces cure rate high as 95 percent. • DOTS guarantees quicker and surer relief from the disease. • DOTS has changed the lives of 17 lakh patients in India. • DOTS is a strategy for alleviating poverty. Saving lives, reducing the duration of illness, and preventing new infectious cases would mean fewer years of employment lost. • DOTS prolongs survival of HIV-Infected TB patients. • DOTS prevents treatment failure and the emergence of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis by ensuring patient compliance and uninterrupted supply of anti-TB drug. • DOTS increases the reach of health services. The DOTS strategy has been remarkably successful in promoting the development of peripheral health services. • DOTS is available for free at all Health Centres.
  44. Tuberculosis Dos and Don’t’s • Do’s • Have 2 sputum examinations done if you have cough of three weeks or more. These tests are done free of cost at Government sputum microscopy centers. • Take all the medicines for the full prescribed period on regular basis. • Understand that TB can be cured. • Use handkerchief when coughing or sneezing. • Spilt in spittoons containing house-hold germicides. Don’ts Don't avoid medical care if you have cough of three weeks or more. Don't rely only on X-ray for diagnosis of TB. Don't stop medicines before your physician discontinues them. Don't discriminate against TB patients. Don't spit indiscriminately
  45. Important information • Not everyone gets side effects. • If you get side effects, inform and consult your doctor/nurse • Early action prevents side effects • Some symptoms may be experienced due to other causes and need investigation • Don't stop your drugs or restart them on your own. • Don't share your drugs or advice treatment to others. • Don't smoke or drink alcohol as it can worsen side effects • Main Adverse Reactions •