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E.g. : XYZ Events Ltd organised a wedding with the usual white and blue decorations, when the customer had expected something new and original.
Example- If Amazon Prime Video were to suffer from this gap, then it could be that they offer all the right jokes but the streaming quality level isn’t enough.
Example- Supply not matching the demand in restaurant.
In the worst cases, such gaps may cause the customer to turn suppliers. Example- A company commercialising slimming products boasts that customers may lose up to 4-5 kgs/week. But they do not specify that a strict diet and regular exercise must accompany the treatment for it to have the desired effect.
MBA MARKETING SEMESTER 3RD
Quality refers to totality of features & characteristics of a product or a service that bear on its ability to
An assessment of how well a delivered service conforms to the client's expectations is defined as Service
Service business operators often assess the service quality provided to their customers in order to
o To improve their services
o To quickly identify problems, and
o To better assess client satisfaction.
It is a service quality framework developed in 80’s by Zeithaml, Parsuraman and Berry, aiming at measuring the
scale of quality in service sectors.
It is designed to capture consumer expectations and perceptions of a service along the following five dimensions
that are believed to represent service quality- responsiveness, assurance, tangible, empathy, reliability
1. Responsiveness- the willingness to help customers and provide prompt service
2. Assurance- the knowledge and courtesy of employees and their ability to convey trust and confidence
3. Tangible- the appearance of physical facilities, equipment, personnel and communication material
4. Empathy- the provision of caring, individualized attention to the customer
5. Reliability- the ability to perform the promised service dependably and accurately
Businesses use the SERVQUAL instrument (i.e. questionnaire) to measure potential service quality problems
and the model of service quality to help diagnose possible causes of the problem.
The model of service quality is built on the expectancy-confirmation paradigm
According to the paradigm consumers perceive quality in terms of their perceptions of how well a given
service delivery meets their expectations of that delivery.
Thus, service quality can be conceptualised as a simple equation:
Where SQ is service quality
P is individual’s perceptions of a given service delivery
E is individual’s expectation’s of a given service delivery
When customer expectations are greater than their perceptions of received delivery, service quality is
deemed low. When perceptions exceed expectations then service quality is high.
The model shows the five major satisfaction gaps that
organizations must address when seeking to meet
customer expectations. The model was first proposed by
A. Parasuraman, Valarie Zeithaml, and Leonard L. Berry in
In the Gap Model of Service Quality, customer
satisfaction is largely a function of perception. If the
customer perceives that the service meets their
expectations then they will be satisfied. If not, they’ll be
dissatisfied. If they are dissatisfied then it will be because
of one of the five customer service “gaps”.
The knowledge gap is the difference between the customer’s expectations of the service & the company’s
provision of that service.
Essentially the gap arises because the management does not know exactly what the customer’s expect. This
can occur as a result of insufficient research or communication failures.
Reason’s this gap arises-
Lack of management and customer interaction.
Lack of communication between service employees and management.
Insufficient market research.
Insufficient relationship focus.
Failure to listen to customer complaints.
The policy gap is the difference between management’s
understanding of the customer needs and the translation of that
understanding into service delivery policies and standards.
Reasons this gap arises-
Lack of customer service standards.
Poorly defined service levels.
Failure to regularly update service level standards.
This gap causes the customer to seek a better service else where.
Also known as the delivery gap, it is the difference between service
delivery policies and standards and the actual delivery of the service.
Reasons this gap arises-
Deficiencies in human resources policies.
Failure to match supply to demand.
Employee lack of knowledge of the product.
Lack of cohesive teamwork to deliver the product or service.
The communication gap is the gap between what gets promised to
customers through advertising and what gets delivered.
Reasons for this gap-
Viewing external communications as separate to what’s going
Insufficient communications between the operations and
Such a gap leads to customer dissatisfaction. This happens because what
they receive is isn’t what they were promised.
The customer gap is the difference between customer expectations and customer
Customer gap can happen because of one of the other four gaps
This gap occurs because
customers do not always understand what the service has done for them or
they misinterpret the service quality.
GAP ACTIONS TO CLOSE THE GAP OPTIONS TO CONSIDER
1. THE KNOWLEDGE GAP Learning what the customers expect. Customer research, increasing interaction between
management, customer and service staff,
2. THE POLICY GAP Creating the right service quality
Update policies regularly, set measurable service quality
goals, set-communicate and reinforce quality standards,
reward staff for achievement of quality goals.
3. THE DELIVERY GAP Ensuring that performance meets the
Train and empower the employees, provide right
technology tools and equipment, focus on internal
marketing and take step to retain high performing
4. THE COMMUNICATION
Ensuring the product or service
delivered matches and promises made
Getting employee input to your advertising campaigns,
use reality advertising, Manage customer
5. THE CUSTOMER GAP Closing the other 4 gaps in the model. -
Assess the effectiveness and Impact of operating services
Teamwork and management support
People drive service quality
Quality efforts should continuously improve
There is no substitute to Leadership in service quality
Customer defined standards
Identify customer perception
Lost customer analysis
Critical incident study