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Validation and Blockchain: Challenges and Opportunities

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The presentation gives a brief introduction to blockchain technology, and explores possible applications for the technology to the Validation of Non-Formal and Informal Learning within the European Union.

Delivered with Alex Grech at the European Validation Festival in Brusels on 15-16 June 2018

Publié dans : Formation
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Validation and Blockchain: Challenges and Opportunities

  1. 1. ALEX GRECH AND ANTHONY F. CAMILLERI VALIDATION AND BLOCKCHAIN CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES EUROPEAN VALIDATION FESTIVAL, THE EGG BRUSSELS 14 JUNE 2018
  2. 2. DOMAIN OF FRAUDSTERS & CRYPTOCULTURE BITCOIN HYPE!FINTECH BUBBLE LET’S WAIT. ONE FOR THE FUTURE GOVERNMENTS ARE MAKING THIS ILLEGAL! NOTHING TO DO WITH EDUCATION!
  3. 3. FORMAL LEARNING QUALIFICATION RECOGNITION OF SKILLS EXPERIENTIAL SOCIAL TYPES OF CREDENTIALS The EQF only Captures a Fraction of the Spectrum of Credentials
  4. 4. MICRO- CREDENTIALS NANO-DEGREES MICRO- MASTERS CERTIFICATES BADGES LICENSES ENDORSEMENTS • Smaller modules of learning than covered in conventional academic awards • Part of Digital Credentialing Ecosystem made possible by digital communications technologies establishing networks of interest through which people share information about what a learner knows and can do
  5. 5. In Europe Higher Education and Tertiary Education Qualifications are still in increasing demand
  6. 6. Higher Education and Tertiary Education Qualifications are still in increasing demand
  7. 7. The value of degrees and qualifications is decreasing New models of (higher) education are thriving The End of Traditional Degrees?
  8. 8. The value of degrees and qualifications is decreasing New models of (higher) education are thriving Traditional Degrees remain the Gold Standard for Employment
  9. 9. Source: Career Arc In a crowded job-market a degree is easily understood
  10. 10. The Blockchain has the potential to give non-formal certificates some of the same status and features as formal degrees
  11. 11. WHAT IS BLOCKCHAIN?
  12. 12. Blockchain is a digital way for people to transfer assets directly between each other without an intermediary
  13. 13. A Public Decentralised Ledger
  14. 14. Central Database Structure of a MODERN DATABASE Users store their information Institution manages & controls Parties consult database
  15. 15. WHAT CAN GO WRONG?
  16. 16. • Institutional Staff can change grades after the fact • Students can compromise a database Data can be changed (hacked) • Data loss through disasters (fire, war, etc) • Data loss through accidents Data can be deleted • Students not given access to metrics held on them • Disputes over ownership of intellectual property Institution can prevent access • Institutions can charge for verifying data (certificates) • Digital data only available through proprietary systems Institution can put conditions on access • Sharing data with third parties • Profiling of students Institution can use data in an unauthorised manner
  17. 17. By removing a central authority, blockchain eliminates these problems Each user (node) stores a complete copy of the database Each user (node) has to approve each entry The version with the most copies is the ‘true’ version
  18. 18. Notarization on the blockchain means storing its hash on the ledger
  19. 19. THE SOCIAL VALUE PROPOSITION OF BLOCKHAIN
  20. 20. SELF- SOVEREIGNTY & IDENTITY
  21. 21. INTEROPERABILITY
  22. 22. TRUST ARCHITECTURE DECENTRALISED
  23. 23. TRANSPARENCY & PROVENANCE
  24. 24. IMMUTABILITY
  25. 25. DISINTERMEDIATION
  26. 26. HOW BLOCKCHAIN CAN START TO IMPACT INFORMAL & NON-FORMAL LEARNING
  27. 27. Three Applications for Blockchain in Validation 1. Automatically Verifiable Secure Credentials 2. Reputational Systems for Validation 3. Directory of Trusted Issuers
  28. 28. Automatically Verifiable Secure Credentials  Any institution can issue a digital credential (in any format) to a learner and register the hash of that credential on a blockchain  The learner can hold the credential themselves on their own device or in an online wallet  Any person wishing to check the authenticity can simply compare the hash of the document against the entry on the chain.
  29. 29. Automatically Verifiable Secure Credentials tamper-proof revocable user-held independently-verifiable
  30. 30. Applications
  31. 31. Reputational Systems for Validation learners request validation of a specific skill; evidence requested or standardised text call for validators on the network validators validate the test or evidence validators reputation is defined by their own level of competence in the skill; Learning is validated once certain score is received Validators not reaching consensus are penalised Learner’s reputation increases Learners can now validate skill levels lower than their own
  32. 32. Reputational Systems for Validation incentive-based self-organizing trusted validators reliability increases with use
  33. 33. Applications
  34. 34. An Idea A comprehensive database of skills paired with a reputational network for skill verification can give us A universal currency for learning
  35. 35. Directory of Trusted Issuers  Educational Organizations, including non-formal organizations, would hold wallets of directly issued or reputational credentials  By sharing the wallet they could prove accreditation, legal status or other aspects of identity  Since each credential is validated, it is possible to build up trust in the instiution  It is possible to set up multi-level accreditation, where one institution accredits another, who in turn accredits another  Independent verifiers would apply KYC-tests to the wallets for different validation purposes
  36. 36. Directory of Trusted Issuers true verification of identity triangulation of sources different definitions of truth
  37. 37. Applications
  38. 38. Open vs Closed Blockchains Open Chains • decentralized governance • data portability • independent verification • direct access to wallets • open standards Closed Chains • centralised governance • data silos • Verification through intermediaries • Mediated access to wallets • Proprietary closed standards
  39. 39. An Open Eco-System Direct all EU (and MS) action towards “Open Blockchain ” From a public-policy perspective only Open Blockchain offer a desirable social value proposition 1

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