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The rose is one of the oldest flowers in cultivation and most
popular of all garden flowers.
The rose is an ornamental shrub with upright or climbing stem.
Roses can be one of the more profitable flower crops to grow,
but also one of the most Difficult.
IMPORTANCE AND USES
Perfume and allied products
• Rose water
• Rose oil
BOTANICAL DESCRIPTIONOF ROSES
Rose belongs to family Rosaceae.
All species of this flower with minor exception belongs to the genus Rosa.
There are about 150 recognized and described species of roses.
The genus Rosa is divided into 4 sub genera namely- Eurosa, Platyrhodon,
CLASSIFICATION OF ROSES
Hybrid tea:- (Hybrid perpetual x Tea roses)
First variety:- La France created in1867
Floribunda:-(H.T. x Poliantha)
First hybrid:- Princess Helene
Tea Roses(Tea scented china roses)
Grandifiora:-(H.T. x Floribunda)
First variety:-Buccaneer in 1952
Polyantha:-(R. multiflora x R.wichuriana) x R. indica
First cultivar :- La paquerette (1875)
Miniature rose :- popular as baby roses with small flowers.
Climbers and ramblers:- clusters of small, single or double
China roses:- (R.chinensis)
Damask Rose:- (R. damascena)
Bourbon rose:- (china rose x damask rose)
Cabbage rose:-(R. centifolia)
It has some medicinal properties
Musk rose:- (R.moschata)
R. rugosa:-cold resistant
IARI released varieties:
IIHR Released Variety
CULTIVARS SUITABLE FOR PROTECTED
Grand Gala, First Red, Jaguar, Sasha, Happiness,
Kiss, Europe, Roval, Nobles, Pink, Vanity Fair, Better
Amour, Rodeo, Confetti, Yellow Gloria
Indian Puma, Candid, Mercedes, Jazz, Orange
Eskimo, White Pearl
Commercial method:- T budding
Dormant eyes on a scion of chosen variety are budded by T
method on a rootstock.
Scion:- any commercial variety.
Rootstock:- R. multiflora is more suitable for southern parts as
indicated by research done at IIHR. Bangalore.
Budded plants take less time to build up and produce
economic production in short time.
The temperature should be maintained between 15-18 C.⁰
High temperature in polyhouse can be managed by simple ventilation,
evaporative cooling from pad and fan system, micro sprinklers, foggers
Low temperature at night is more detrimental for growth and flowering of
Humidity is maintained between 50-60% in poly house specially during hot
summer months with the help of mist or sprinklers.
CO₂ level of 1000ppm is ideal for quality bloom production of rose.
In open field condition ideal temperature is 15-28 C⁰ and humidity 75%.
INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENT PARAMETERS
Increase in temperature resulted in reduction in juvenile period, length of leafy shoots
and fresh weight of shoot in Hybrid Tea rose.
Low temperature beyond 100
C in polyhouse promote diseases.
At low temperature , growth and flower production become slow but the quality of
flowers are better.
(Ginzburg et al.,1983)
The stem and flower buds in some roses do not elongate or expand until there has
been an exposure to cool temperature.
Winter chilling was found to be necessary for flower bud formation in R. damascena.
Very high humidity often result in condensation of low temperature encourage the
incidence of diseases.
An ideal soil should be rich loose and structurally stable with a depth of
around 50 cm ensuring optimum drainage and aeration of the roots.
Roses do not tolerate water logging and high water table therefore an ideal
soil must have a stable water table at the active root zone.
Roses can also be grown in soil less media like rock wool, peat, coco peat,
Soil pH should be slightly acidic 6.2-6.8.
The soil should be dug to a depth of 60 cm. and incorporated with organic or
inorganic additives to improve the soil structure.
Soil sterilizing is an important technique to prevent the soil from soil borne
Soil sterilizing techniques:-
Chemical sterilization:To control soil borne phytopthora,fusarium and
Fumigation with 2% Formeldehyde (or)
Methyl bromide-30g/m2 (or)
Recent chemical-Dazomate (Basaline)-30g/m2
Covered with plastic sheet for 3 days
Manure and Fertilizers
Roses are gross feeder.
The requirement of major nutrient are broadcasted on the beds and mixed
into the upper 30 cm of soil.
After establishment of plant nutrition is applied through irrigation system.
CONCENTRATED REQUIRED FOR
NUTRIENTS SUMMER(PPM/L) WINTER(PPM/L)
NITROGEN 100-200 150-160
AMMONIUM 20-25 20-25
NITRATE 80-100 130-140
PHOSPHORUS 20-25 30-35
POTASSIUM 120-140 160-170
CALCIUM 60-80 90-100
MAGNESSIUM 30-35 35-40
SULPHUR 40-50 40-50
Effect of different Growing Media on plant growth
Anderson et al.,(2005)
oIdeal method of planting of rose
double row system
oPlant to plant distance -25 cm.
oRow to row distance-30 cm.
oLong stemmed varieties are
planted at 25-26 cm.
oShort stemmed varieties are
planted at 18-25 cm.
o Planting time: October-
Plant growth regulators
Regulate the growth and flowering
Increases the length of shoots
Increases the number of nodes
Prolonged the period of flowering and enhanced the yield.
BA along with Adenine applied with lanolin paste : Induction
of bud break and shoot development.
CCC(3%) solution caused dwarfing and improve flowering.
Effect of Growth Regulators on Plant Growth Parameters
Khan et al.,(2007)
Roses do not like water logging condition but need plenty of water for their
growth and development.
Frequency of irrigation depends on the water requirement of particular
Ideal method-Drip irrigation system
Another method of irrigation –Sub surface ,in which water is directly delivered
at the root zone without any losses.
Regular soil moisture is very essential for rose.
Deficiency of soil moisture can be detected by:
Marginal browning of leaves
Rolled and curled leaf
Bent neck of flowers
Manual weed control is effective if done frequently.
Chemical control is economical, convenient and effective.
Diuron @ 2 kg ai/hac.
Oxyfluorofen @0.5 kg ai/hac.
Rice straw mulch is also effective.
Major weeds of rose :- Anagallis arvensis, Melilotus albums.
Chinopodium alba,Poligonum etc.
Important technique for commercial production of rose.
The aim is to achieve a high performance production frame work.
It conserve soil moisture.
It is done with paddy straw, dried leaves.
Also promotes growth and flowering.
It promotes physical properties of the soil.
Effect of Bending stage on Stem length
Kirubel et al., 2010
Effect of Bending height, Bending length and Flower removal on Stem
Kirubel et al., 2010
For cut flower production:-
First week of October (North Indian condition)
Last week of June and again last week of November (Bangalore condition)
The height of pruning varies from 30-45 cm. from ground.
For hybrid tea roses:-
A sharp cut should be given at an angle of about 45º above eye bud.
FLORIBUNDA:- Pruned lightly
POLYANTHAS:-Need thinning of over crowded branches.
CLIMBERS:-Removal of unwanted wood to control size and shape.
Effects of different preservatives on the vase life of Rose cultivars
(Trika and Whisky Mac)
Butt et al., 2004
Effects of pulsing solutions and varieties on Flower
longevity and Flower head diameter
Transport from the farm to the customer
Cold store (Farm)
Refrigerated truck to the airport
Cold store (Airport)
Loading the aircrafts direct from the cold store within 5-10
Unloading to the cold store in the receiving country
Refrigerated truck to the customer
Under protected cultivation ; 150-300 quality flower stems per
Under open field condition ; 10- 20 flower stems (Hybrid Tea )
10-50 quintals/hactare (R. damascena)
Singh , A.K. (2006) Flower crops Cultivation and management .
Bose , T.K.,Yadav , L.P., Pal ,P. , Das,P. , Parthasarathy, V.A. Commercial
Randhawa , G.S. and Mukhopadhyay, A. Floriculture in India.