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Pseudocereals (grain amaranth, buckwheat, chenopods) Kuldeep Singh, NBPGR, India

  1. Strategies on Underutilized Crops for Food and Nutritional Security: Pseudocereals Kuldeep Singh, FNAAS Director ICAR- National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, New Delhi Regional Expert Consultation on Underutilized crops for Food and Nutrition Security in Asia and Pacific November 13-15, 2017, Bangkok
  2. Neglected and underused crops are domesticated plant species that have been used for centuries for their food, fibre, fodder, oil or medicinal properties, but have been reduced in importance over time owing to particular supply and use constraints. Crop group No. of species Cereal and Pseudo cereals 13 Fruit and nut species 33 Vegetable & Pulse crops 33 Root and tuber crops 17 Oil seed crops 16 Globally >100 species have been grouped as underutilized Crops (UU Crops).
  3.  All India Coordinated Research Project (AICRP) on UU & UE Plants was initiated in 1982 and is now functioning as AICRN on Potential Crops under the umbrella of ICAR, New Delhi.  The main objective is to generate improved technologies in selected crops of the minor economic importance for food, fodder and industrial use.  The NBPGR, New Delhi is coordinating and conducting research on 17 crops of food, fodder and industrial value through 14 main, 9 cooperating and 15 voluntary centers located in diverse agro-climatic zones of India. Research Network of UU Crops in India
  4. The list of selected 17 crops under the Network  Pseudocreals: Grain Amaranth (Amaranthus sp.), Buckwheat (Fagopyrum sp.), Grain Chenopods (Chenopodium sp.)  Minor Cereal: Job’s Tear (Coix lacryma – jobi L.)  Food Legumes: Rice Bean (Vigna umbellate (Thunb.) Ohwi and Ohashi), Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.), Adzuki Bean (Vigna angularis (Wild.) Ohwi & Ohashi), Winged Bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC.  Vegetables: Kankoda (Momordica dioica (Roxb.) Ex. Wild), Kalingada [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.)]  Oil Seed Crops: Perilla (Perilla frutescens L.), Simarouba (Simarouba glauca DC), Tumba [Citruillus colocynthis (L.) Schrad, Jatropha (Jatropha curcas), Ojoba (Simmondsia chinensis)
  5. Partners in Delivery of Outputs Main Centres Cooperating Centres Voluntary Centres 1. CSK HPKV, Palampur 1. NBPGR, New Delhi 1. VPKAS, Almora 2.UUHF, Ranichauri 2. NBPGR RS, Bhowali 2. CSK HPKV, Sangla 2. PAU, Ludhiana 3. NBPGR RS, Jodhpur 3. CAZRI, Jaisalmer 4. CCS HAU, Hisar 4. NBPGR RS, Akola 4. ICAR, NEH, Shillong 5. SK RAU, Mandor 5. NBPGR RS, Shillong 5. ICAR, NEH, Basar, 6. NDUA&T, Faizabad 6. NBPGR RS, Shimla 6. ICAR, NEH, Lamphelpat 7. BAU, Ranchi 7. NBPGR RS, Hyderabad 7.ICAR, NEH, Kolasib 8. SDAU, S.K. Nagar 8. NBPGR RS, Ranchi 8. ICAR, NEH, Medziphema 9. MPKV, Rahuri 9. NBPGR RS, Thrissur 9. ICAR, NEH, Tadong 10. IGKV, Ambikapur 10. ICAR, NEH, Lembucherra 11. OUA&T, Bhubaneswar 11. CIPHET, Ludhiana 12. UAS, Bangalore 12. IARI, New Delhi 13. TNAU, Mettupalayam 13. PU, Chandigarh 14. UBKV, Cooch Behar 14. CIARI, Port Blair 15. CAU Pasighat
  6. Pseudo cereals Grain Amaranth Buckwheat Grain Chenopods 5822 accessions 1000 accessions 197 accessions
  7. Important Traits Associated with Pseudocereals  Wider adaptability  Higher nutritional value  Medicinal value  Resilient in nature  Tolerant to biotic and abiotic stresses
  8. Nutritional status of pseudocereals (per 100g) Pseudocereals Protei n (g) Carbohy- drates (g) Lipid (g) Crude fibre (g) Mineral matter (g) Ca (mg) P (mg) Fe (mg) Amaranth 16.0 62.0 8.0 2.43 3.0 490 600 17.5 Buckwheat 13.0 72.9 7.4 10.5 2.1 120 280 15.5 Chenopodium 14.0 65.0 7.0 - 3.0 - - - Wheat 12.0 69.0 1.7 1.2 2.7 41 306 5.3 Rice 6.7 68.0 0.3 0.2 0.3 45 160 3.5
  9. Essential amino acid composition (g/100g protein) in minor crops vs cereals and milk Food grain Lysine Methionine Cystine Isoleucine Leucine Amaranth 5.0 4.0 4.0 3.0 4.7 Buckwheat 6.2 1.6 1.6 3.7 6.2 Wheat 2.8 1.5 2.2 3.3 6.7 Rice 3.8 2.3 1.4 3.8 3.2 Milk 5.8 3.7 2.1 5.0 7.3
  10. Amaranth  Grains used for breads, biscuits, flakes, cake, pastry, crackers, ice cream and lysine rich baby foods.  Excellent source of iron and β-carotene. Rich in folic acid and thus increases blood hemoglobin. Lysine in seed proteins as much as in milk (5%), higher than cereals.  Amaranth oil containing squalene, a cosmetic ingredient and skin penetrant is also used as lubricant for computer discs  Disease treatment – measles, snake bite, FMD of animal, kidney stone, chest congestion, piles  AMA-1 gene has been isolated and introduced in rice and potato due to high quality protein
  11. Diversity in Grain Amaranth
  12. IC20306 & IC07920 has Long Inflorescence
  13. Trait Range Mean+SE Promising accessions Days to flowering 58-116 90.76+0.59 IC382253, IC382748, IC381185 Plant height (cm) 100.5-330.5 248.18+1.72 IC363742, IC415220, IC415236 Infl. length (cm) 29.3-197.4 75.58+0.73 IC398233, IC415222, IC415224 Days to maturity 124-175 156.52+0.36 IC328903, EC519556, IC260313 1000-seed wt. (g) 0.30-0.95 0.69+0.01 IC321282, IC363767, IC363768 Seed yield/plant (g) 10.00-186.39 49.24+1.09 IC362199, IC313250, IC313270 Accessions superior for multiple traits Accessions Traits IC333211, IC341505, IC321281, IC329550 Plant height, Infl. length, Seed yield/plant Range of variation for agro-morphological traits in grain amaranth germplasm at Shimla center of NBPGR
  14. Varieties and Cropping Systems Developed  Six varieties for hills (Annapurna, Durga, VL Chua 44, PRA-1, PRA-2, PRA-3) and six varieties for plains (GA-1, Suvarna, GA-2, BGA-2, GA-3, RMA-4) have been released for grain purpose  The crop can be grown as a pure crop as well as inter crop.  In hills the crop can be suitably grown as a mixed crop with either maize, small millets, French bean or other beans. The best economic yields can be obtained when amaranth and French bean are grown in 1: 2 ratio.  In Western India as a pure crop, the B: C ratio has been recorded to be higher than wheat, potato and chickpea at farmers’ fields  In Tamil NAdu, and Odhissa, inter cropping with pigeonpea has been found to be most profitable.
  15. Benefit-cost ( B: C) ratio of cultivating wheat, gram and amaranth at farmers’ fields in Gujrat Farmer Wheat Gram Amaranth 1 1.87 1.83 2.35 2 1.80 1.77 1.97 3 1.73 1.37 2.17 4 1.81 1.73 2.49 5 1.79 1.70 2.69
  16. Varietal Evaluation and Selection in Grain Amaranth at Bangalore centre
  17. SUVARN’ KBGA-1 Varieties released in Grain Amaranth
  18. Popularisation of amaranth in non-conventional area in Tamil Nadu
  19. Cropping System of Tribals Millet with pulses Local Grain Amaranth variety in millets – mixed cropping Grain Amaranth HYV in millets Grain Amaranth and Maize
  20. Value added products from Grain Amaranth Popped grain Grain Laddus Chapathi Chikkies Biscuits Snacks
  21. Post Harvest Operations in Grain Amaranth Threshing Winnowing Drying Final Grain
  22. What is needed? • Awareness programs to convince the nutritional benefits of Grain Amaranth. • Extension activities to popularize the growing and use of the grain • Explore the Market Potential for Value added products of Grain Amaranth • Make the crop more profitable comparing to other existing crops
  23. Buckwheat  The plant has a medicinal value also due to presence of a glucoside called ‘rutin’ which strengthens blood vessels and is used in the treatment of several other diseases also.  Excellent source of lysine Buckwheat ( also known as Ogla, Phaphra, Bharesha)
  24. Diversity in Buckwheat
  25. Character Range Mean+SE Promising accessions Plant height (cm) 36 - 195 95.73+1.65 RSR/SKS-41, EC286379, EC18225 No of Infl./Plant 4 - 36 13.52+0.29 IC321798, IC294344, IC026596 Days to maturity 74 - 149 127.97+0.76 JCR-2134, IC321798, IC013531 No of Seed/Infl. 2 - 9 4.21+0.07 EC321798, IC013140, IC204020 Seed yield/plant (g) 0.2 - 3.3 1.15+0.04 EC018225, EC321798, EC286379 Accessions superior for multiple traits Accessions Traits EC286379, EC329178, IC026596 No of infl./plant, days to maturity, seed yield/plant and plant height Range of variation for agro-morphological traits in buckwheat germplasm maintained at NBPGR
  26. Buck wheat
  27. Mean grain yield (q/ha)of buckwheat varieties in North –Western hills S. No. Variety Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Weighted Mean Rank Fagopyrum tataricum 1 Himgiri 14.65 7.67 10.06 9.53 10.67 I 2 Himpriya 12.69 8.20 7.99 10.26 9.89 II Fagopyrum esculentum 3 PRB-1 9.90 5.32 6.83 7.54 7.54 III 4 VL 7 5.85 8.67 5.09 4.99 5.98 IV
  28. Varieties developed by AICRN – Potential Crops Himpriya HimgiriBUCKWHEAT
  29. Chenopods  Chenopodium contains etherel oil, a substance resembling cholesterol, ammonia and amines in both free and combined forms.  The grain chenopod is more nutritive than the cereals and is equivalent to whole dried milk.  Chenopods contain exceptionally high lysine comparable with animal food sources and have higher amount of methionine and cystine.
  30. Distinct morphological traits - a, b, c different inflorescence colors, d - plant height; e - seed colors, f - leaf length and width, g - inflorescence length and h - Stem diameter Diversity in Chenopodium quinoa
  31. Character Range Mean+SE Promising accessions Infl. length (cm) 29.05-62.66 45.35+0.86 IC108819, IC109731, EC359449, Leaf length (cm) 4.10-17.20 13.08+0.31 EC359449, IC258332, EC349447 Leaf width (cm) 2.20-18.10 11.05+0.50 EC359449, EC349447, EC359448 Days to 80% maturity 101-155 128.11+2.21 IC415477, IC381078, NIC22488 1000-seed wt. (g) 0.40-1.30 0.69+0.03 IC415477, IC415402, IC415494, Seed yield/plant (g) 2.58-100.12 22.95+2.58 IC415477, NIC-15022, NIC-22492 Accessions superior for multiple traits Accessions Traits IC108817, IC108819, IC415477, IC341703 Days to 80% maturity, Seed yield/plant, Seed weight & Plant height Range of variation for agro-morphological traits in Chenopods germplasm maintained at the station
  32. Chenopodium quinoa
  33. Germplasm Registration Easy dehulling type buckwheat (INGR No. 04034) Tartary buckwheat has a tightly adhering hull that makes it difficult to dehull and contains a bitter component that affects its palatability. The hull can be removed to get white kernel just by rubbing the seeds with hand, thus an useful breeding material to diversify the uses of tartary buckwheat. Brown seeded chenopod (INGR 04093) An accession 'IC258253' registered had been collected from Pangi (HP) and found to have brown to whitish seed colour. Its high seed yield at par with other high yielding varieties of black seeded chenopods, lower plant height and early maturity are added the advantages of this genetic stock.
  34. UU Crops and traits need research attention Crops Traits to be improved Grain amaranth Lodging, seed size, seed shattering, insect resistance (Spoladea recurvalis – Amranths catterpillar) Buckwheat Lodging, difficult to de hull, asynchronous maturity, self incompatibility, seed size, colour, shattering, bitterness, phenols Chenopods Seed size, colour, & shattering, lodging, saponin content, Over all, yield increase is the primary objectives for all these crops
  35. Thanks Acknowledgements Mohar Singh JC Rana BS Phogat Hanuman Lal Haiger Ashok Kumar Niranjan Murty