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COUNTRY STATUS REPORT: BHUTAN
REGIONAL WORKSHOP ON FISHERIES AND MARINE GENETIC
RESOURCES AND THEIR AMELIORATION
National ...
PRESENTATION OUTLINE
 Introduction .
 Importance of Fish and Marine Genetic Resources.
 Status of Fish and Marine Genet...
1. Introduction
 Bhutan is small, landlock and mountainous country.
 Total area 38,394 sq.km (375 km along east-west and...
1. Carp Farm in Bhutan 2. Trout Farm in Bhutan
3. Community Based Fishery
Management Program in Bhutan
 Department of For...
2. Importance of Fish and Marine Genetic Resources
1.83
3.01
4.45
10.11
10.988.76
6.50
5.46
2.73 2.85
0.00
2.00
4.00
6.00
...
3(a) Unique Underutilized Fish & Marine Genetic Resources
 Aquaculture candidate = Exotic Fishes species
in Bhutan. No re...
3(b) Germplasm Collection, Characterization, Evaluation, Conservation and Development
 In field of fisheries, proper coll...
3(c) Processing, Value Addition and Development
 Fishes are mostly sold fresh.
 Processing, value addition and product
d...
NYA-DOSEM Picture Courtesy: Sonam Norbu, Facebook Page.
4) Challenges and Opportunities
 Food and nutrition security and food self-sufficiency
 The self-sufficiency of meat (ch...
5) Marketing, Commercialization and Trade
 In Bhutan, fish farming is still at its infancy
whereas CBFMP is recent concep...
6) Strategies Adopted to Harness Potential of Underutilized FMGR
 Assessment of fisheries resources of Bhutan.
 Associat...
 Both the aquaculture and fisheries center are engaged in ex-situ rearing of
important fishes.
Sonam D. Jamtsho
 Promoti...
7) Major Focused Area for Underutilized FMGR
 Permissible fishing
ground.
 Permissible fish species.
 Permissible fish ...
8) Infrastructure, Capacity Building and Financial Investment
 Fisheries received attention lately.
 Production and mark...
7) Future Thrust
1. Molecular genomics in fish
identification, development
of gene banks and genetic
database of fish.
2. ...
6. Integrate adaptive
management practices within
CBFMP.
Fisheries Conservation Foundation
CATCH LIMIT
CBFMP
ADAPTIVE
MANA...
 Invest in capacity development of the stakeholders.
 Collaborate within regional and international organizations.
 Dev...
THANK YOU FOR YOUR KIND ATTENTION!!!
REGIONAL WORKSHOP ON FISHERIES AND MARINE GENETIC RESOURCES AND THEIR AMELIORATION  COUNTRY STATUS REPORT: BHUTAN
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REGIONAL WORKSHOP ON FISHERIES AND MARINE GENETIC RESOURCES AND THEIR AMELIORATION COUNTRY STATUS REPORT: BHUTAN

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REGIONAL WORKSHOP ON FISHERIES AND MARINE GENETIC RESOURCES AND THEIR AMELIORATION COUNTRY STATUS REPORT: BHUTAN by Gopal Prasad Khanal Presented during the Regional Workshop on Underutilized Fish and Marine Genetic Resources and their Amelioration, 10-12 July 2019, Location: Colombo, Sri Lanka

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REGIONAL WORKSHOP ON FISHERIES AND MARINE GENETIC RESOURCES AND THEIR AMELIORATION COUNTRY STATUS REPORT: BHUTAN

  1. 1. COUNTRY STATUS REPORT: BHUTAN REGIONAL WORKSHOP ON FISHERIES AND MARINE GENETIC RESOURCES AND THEIR AMELIORATION National Aquatic Resources Research and Development Agency, Colombo, Sri Lanka July 10-12, 2019 Gopal Prasad Khanal National Research and Development Centre for Riverine and Lake Fisheries (NRDCR&LF) Department of Livestock (DoL), Ministry of Agriculture and Forests (MoAF) Fisheries Conservation Foundation DoL-MoAF
  2. 2. PRESENTATION OUTLINE  Introduction .  Importance of Fish and Marine Genetic Resources.  Status of Fish and Marine Genetic Resources.  Processing, Value Addition and Development.  Challenges and Opportunities.  Marketing, Commercialization and Trade.  Strategies Adopted to Harness Potential of Underutilized FMGR.  Infrastructure, Capacity Building and Financial Investment.  Future Thrust
  3. 3. 1. Introduction  Bhutan is small, landlock and mountainous country.  Total area 38,394 sq.km (375 km along east-west and 175 km north- south axis)  Within such small area, great altitudinal variation exists ranging from 97 m in south to 7570 m in extreme north.  Constitutes 7.60% of Eastern Himalaya Region of Himalayan Hotspots. Xu J. et al. (2019) Thoni & Gurung (2014) Thoni & Gurung (2018)  Concurrently, our freshwater ecosystem is home to diverse flora and fauna.  Fisheries Resources: 130 species of fishes.  118 indigenous species (8 endemic) and 12 exotics.
  4. 4. 1. Carp Farm in Bhutan 2. Trout Farm in Bhutan 3. Community Based Fishery Management Program in Bhutan  Department of Forests and Park Services (DoFPS) regulates fishing in Bhutan (FNCRR, 2017).  Communities with customary rights  Proper management plans (Community Based Fisheries Management Program- CBCFMP).
  5. 5. 2. Importance of Fish and Marine Genetic Resources 1.83 3.01 4.45 10.11 10.988.76 6.50 5.46 2.73 2.85 0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 12.00 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 Self Sufficiency Rate (%) Per Capita Consumption (kg/person/year) Fig. 2 Domestic Fish Production and ImportFig. 1 SSR & Per Capita Consumption (kg/person/year)  Average per capita fish consumption: (2014-2018) = 5.29 kg/person/year.  Per capita fish consumption in Bhutan (based oh household consumption survey, 2009): 5.58 kg/person/year (Needham & Funge-Smith, 2014).  Fish accounted 3.18 percent of all protein consumed.  Import value: Nu. 179.31 million to Nu. 402.27 million (average: Nu. 281.14 million). 119.09 149.11 187.63 222.52 228.40 6405.25 4804.71 4026.08 1978.07 1851.55 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 FISH(MT) YEAR Domestic Production Import
  6. 6. 3(a) Unique Underutilized Fish & Marine Genetic Resources  Aquaculture candidate = Exotic Fishes species in Bhutan. No research on utilization of indigenous fish for culture.  Potential of fisheries: Not evaluated yet.  Most abundant fishes are legalized for sustainable harvest under CBFMP in certain catchment area of rivers.  The CBFMP is facilitated by The National Research and Development Centre for Riverine and Lake Fisheries (NRDCR&LF) in collaboration with DoFPS and other stakeholders.  These species contributed 5.46 % (6.5 MT) of domestic fish production in 2014 and 9.42 % (21 MT) in 2017.
  7. 7. 3(b) Germplasm Collection, Characterization, Evaluation, Conservation and Development  In field of fisheries, proper collection, characterization, evaluation, conservation and development of germplasm is yet to be initiated in Bhutan.  Ex-situ conservation of prioritized species has been initiated.  Lately, fish specimens in form of fin clips are being tissue banked for genomic studies.  Captive breeding of golden mahseer was success at NRDCA in 2013 and the rudimentary technique is further being researched for improvement. Collection of germplasm like sperm, ova and embryos for preservation of genetic resources to secure biological diversity for population reconstitution needs attention, and can be realized only with similar support from regional and international organizations.
  8. 8. 3(c) Processing, Value Addition and Development  Fishes are mostly sold fresh.  Processing, value addition and product development -> No major interventions.  The processed fishes mainly include the smoked and salted fishes.  “Nya Doesem”  Most of snowtrout from Harachhu CBFMG is processed into Nya Doesem.  Hot smoked fish.
  9. 9. NYA-DOSEM Picture Courtesy: Sonam Norbu, Facebook Page.
  10. 10. 4) Challenges and Opportunities  Food and nutrition security and food self-sufficiency  The self-sufficiency of meat (chicken, pork, fish and chevon) is only 37.9%.  3.05% is contributed by fish.  Self-sufficiency of fresh fish is only about 14.5% (223 MT) of which 13.13% (221) is represented by cultured fishes and about 1.36 % (21 MT) by capture fisheries.  The introduction of exotics to enhance domestic food fish production neglected scoping same potential from our own indigenous species.  Aquaculture sector needs further strengthening ( * species diversification ** development of climate resilient fish farming techniques).
  11. 11. 5) Marketing, Commercialization and Trade  In Bhutan, fish farming is still at its infancy whereas CBFMP is recent concept.  Commercialization and trade are yet to be developed.  In major fish aquaculture production areas, government facilitate marketing of fish in refrigerated vans.  CBFMG are provided with coolbox to facilitate transport of freshly harvested fish within their locality.  Fabricated smoking chambers are also provided in case to meet the small-scale consumer specific demands.
  12. 12. 6) Strategies Adopted to Harness Potential of Underutilized FMGR  Assessment of fisheries resources of Bhutan.  Associated with hydropower sector in accessing their impacts.  Fish conservation centers and other conservation measures are proposed as mitigation measures. NRDCA, Gelegphu NRDCR&LF, Haa Golden Mahseer Conservation Centre, Harachhu NRDCR&LF aims be competent authority for the provision of technical advice for sustainable utilization, conservation and management of fisheries resources in Bhutan.
  13. 13.  Both the aquaculture and fisheries center are engaged in ex-situ rearing of important fishes. Sonam D. Jamtsho  Promotion of CBFMP  Engagement of locals as in validating the potential of fishery resources for CBFMP.
  14. 14. 7) Major Focused Area for Underutilized FMGR  Permissible fishing ground.  Permissible fish species.  Permissible fish size.  Permissible fishing gear.  Permissible fishing season.  Fishing quota and fishing effort. Golden mahseer, a totally protected fish in Bhutan. Kurichhu CBFMG Fishing Ground  Utilize fisheries resources with sustainable management practices, and  Develop sense of ownership to the resources among community.  Reduce incidences of illegal, indiscriminate and destructive fishing practices.  Benefit the community in terms of socioeconomic enhancement. 2. Captive Breeding of Fishes 1. Community Based Fisheries Management Program
  15. 15. 8) Infrastructure, Capacity Building and Financial Investment  Fisheries received attention lately.  Production and marketing infrastructures are not well developed.  The capacity of stakeholders engaged needs prior attention, exposure and upgradation. NRDCRLF NRDCA RLDC’s Dzongkhags (Districts)  Intervention in latest innovations (area such as genetics, germplasm collection, characterization, evaluation, conservation and development) are prerequisite.  Institution requires strengthening in technical capacity.  Insignificant resource allocation, need prioritization and are fragmented within different stakeholders.
  16. 16. 7) Future Thrust 1. Molecular genomics in fish identification, development of gene banks and genetic database of fish. 2. Potential fisheries resources (enhancing food, nutrition and economic security)- Map and Document 3. Promote CBFMP in closed lakes with indigenous fish species through responsible management practices. 4. Initiate advanced fish breeding and rearing researches for important indigenous fish species. 5. Initiate more scientific fish conservation and management plans.
  17. 17. 6. Integrate adaptive management practices within CBFMP. Fisheries Conservation Foundation CATCH LIMIT CBFMP ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT SURVIVAL AND REPRODUCTION RECRUITMENTGROWTH MONOTORING MONOTORING  Change timing or location of CBFMP. 7. Study fish migration and interactions among biotic communities and abiotic components of an ecosystem. 8. Study the impact of developmental activities and exotic species on indigenous fish populations.
  18. 18.  Invest in capacity development of the stakeholders.  Collaborate within regional and international organizations.  Develop infrastructure and facilities for advanced studies and enhance research programmes.  Seek funding support from national, regional and international organizations. Prerequisite for Future Thrust
  19. 19. THANK YOU FOR YOUR KIND ATTENTION!!!

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