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Fish Genetic resources -India
Kuldeep K. Lal & J K Jena
ICAR-National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources Lucknow
NASC Comple...
 Aquaculture to fill the growing
supply-demand gap
 62 percent of food fish will be
produced by aquaculture
 May not ac...
Majority of the genetic resources for food still come from the wild due to
low domestication level in fisheries sector.
...
Aquaculture : many possibilities to utilize more
 1950 ------------- farming 72 species (34 families)
 2013 ------------...
Food, Health
Economy, Exports
Employment,
Tourism, Spiritual
Coastal
Aquaculture
Inland
Freshwater
Aquaculture
Mariculture...
 Total fish production of 12.60 MMT during 2017-18 from 0.75 MMT in 1950-51.
 India contributes about 6.3% of the global...
 The diversity in consumption pattern, fish as part of nutrition,
culinary preparations and tastes, and hence this also a...
Finfish species
Marine: 1982
Brackishwater: 116
Freshwater: 1039
Total : 3137
Exotic fish : 462
Shellfish species
Crustace...
 Distributed across wide variety of agro-climatic conditions ranging from tropical
to temperate to palaeo-arctic kind --D...
 Indian aquaculture
o Three species of Indian major carps, viz., Catla catla, Labeo rohita
mrigala supplemented by exotic...
Medium and minor carps
Labeo bata, L. gonius, L. dero, L. calbasu, L. fimbriatus, L.
dussumieri, Cirrhinus reba, Barbodes ...
Germplasm collection, characterization, evaluation, conservation and
documentation
Evaluation of germplasm & conservation
...
Documentation
Finfish species
Marine: 1982
Brackishwater: 116
Freshwater: 1039
Total : 3137
Exotic fish : 462
Shellfish species
Crustace...
Plectranthias alcocki
Kollam, Kerala at depth of 180-
320 m
Chaunax multilepis:
Andaman Sea at depths of 295–
350 m; Kolla...
Exploring Germplasm : Freshwater
Fish species - New to Science
Oreichthys incognito; River Mannarkkad, Kerala
State,
Knigh...
Exploring Germplasm : Freshwater
Fish species - New to Science
Labeo rajasthanicus:
river Tidi, Western Rajasthan
Pangasiu...
 Implemented a dedicated program on characterization of fish genetic stocks in their native distribution
o molecular and ...
Characterization: De novo whole genome sequence & functional genome
4 Finfish; 1 Shrimp & 1 fungal pathogen
 for structur...
 >50 different types of fish & shellfish products are exported to 75
countries around the world
 The frozen shrimp make ...
 Aquaculture
o Knowledge generation
o Explorations & document status of FGR
o Evaluation of the prioritized species & new...
Major focus /Strategies adopted to harness potential of underutilized FMGR
Capture Fishery
o Exploit the FGR from underut...
Facilities Numbers Quantity (MT d-1)
Fresh / chilled 42 1488
Live fish &
shellfish
37 2,142
Dried & salted 69 845
Indian S...
Facilities Numbers Quantity (MT)
Pre-processing / peeling shed 620 11,657
Processing units 529 27,850
Chilled store 29 11,...
 Fishing crafts 240,000
 Fishing harbors
o Major 7
o Minor 75
 Landing centers 1,537
 For promoting aquaculture,
o Fis...
Some of the cases, initiated from the perspective of enhancing use of
FGR, done experimentally or pursued for upscaling :
...
• Rare species endemic to Kerala, Clarias dussumieri captive population
bred & reached F2 generation
• Captive breeding of...
Live Germplasm Resource Centers Network-A concept
On-farm evaluation of genetic resources-stocks
NBFGR initiative
PMFGR, K...
• Horabagrus brachysoma
• Clarias dussumieri
• Labeo dussumieri
• Hemibagrus punctatus
ON-FARM EVALUATION OF PRIORITIZED F...
MARINE ORNAMENTAL FISH VILLAGE AT RATNAGIRI: PROMOTE LIVELIHOOD
TO MANGROVE DWELLERS & BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION
Funds: Ma...
Agatti Island,
•Hymnocera picta
•Lysmata amboinensis
•Sea Anemones
Conserving wild
type
Progeny to
beneficiary
Lakshadweep...
Potential fishing grounds identified along the Indian EEZ
New Trawlable Grounds & Dominant Deep Sea Resources
Arabian Sea-...
Neohariotta pinneta & Echinorhinus brucus
Bulk catch of Lamprogammus niger
A total of 80 species were
recorded from the ba...
• Record catch of pelagic crab Charybdis smithii by FORV Sagar Sampada in its
entire service of past 34 years
Survey area ...
 Biocomposition of DSL species established
 Biomass of DSL Plankton and nekton worked out.
 Trophic relations establish...
Important species of Myctophids obtained from the Arabian sea during the Cruises of FORV Sagar
Sampada Total number of spe...
REGIONAL WORKSHOP ON FISHERIES AND MARINE GENETIC RESOURCES AND THEIR AMELIORATION COUNTRY STATUS REPORT – INDIA
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REGIONAL WORKSHOP ON FISHERIES AND MARINE GENETIC RESOURCES AND THEIR AMELIORATION COUNTRY STATUS REPORT – INDIA

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REGIONAL WORKSHOP ON FISHERIES AND MARINE GENETIC RESOURCES AND THEIR AMELIORATION COUNTRY STATUS REPORT – INDIA BY Kuldeep K. Lal & J K Jena Presented during the Regional Workshop on Underutilized Fish and Marine Genetic Resources and their Amelioration, 10-12 July 2019, Location: Colombo, Sri Lanka

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REGIONAL WORKSHOP ON FISHERIES AND MARINE GENETIC RESOURCES AND THEIR AMELIORATION COUNTRY STATUS REPORT – INDIA

  1. 1. Fish Genetic resources -India Kuldeep K. Lal & J K Jena ICAR-National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources Lucknow NASC Complex, New Delhi 26th November 2018
  2. 2.  Aquaculture to fill the growing supply-demand gap  62 percent of food fish will be produced by aquaculture  May not achieve peak of 11% rise (1980)  China, India & SE Asia to account over 50%  India may grow 121% by 2030 fish production (highest growth)  China as consumer 38%  Low trophic fish still make 30% production Scenario Analyses : 2030 0 20000 40000 60000 80000 100000 120000 140000 160000 180000 200000 2008 2030 2006 2030 Fish supply Food fish consumption X1000t Capture Culture Total Capture Fishery Sustains the Present Level Need: extra 40 MMT after 2030 per year
  3. 3. Majority of the genetic resources for food still come from the wild due to low domestication level in fisheries sector.  Aquaculture is future hope: near 50% but Capture Fishery is relevant  Wild relatives source of genetic diversity for aquaculture improvement Blue Growth: Aquatic Genetic Resource (AqGR) Management Capture fishery Wild populations ----- Relatives Aquaculture ImprovementsConsumption Interventions Infrastructure KnowledgeSustenance Enhancement
  4. 4. Aquaculture : many possibilities to utilize more  1950 ------------- farming 72 species (34 families)  2013 ------------ nearly 600 species (115 families)  India …………… 6 Species (4 families)  Wide range of environments  Wide range of species/ species groups used  Range of culture methods  Range of intensities  Low carbon footprint than other animal production systems Dominated by finfish culture (66.4%) Diversifying  Domestication plants & animals about 12 000 years ago,  Over 90 percent of the aquatic species bred in captivity only within 20th century Majority still grown as wild types except Salmon and whiteleg shrimp
  5. 5. Food, Health Economy, Exports Employment, Tourism, Spiritual Coastal Aquaculture Inland Freshwater Aquaculture Mariculture Coldwater Aquaculture Inland Brackishwater Aquaculture Inland Fisheries Marine Fisheries India: Importance of FMGR in economy & food security
  6. 6.  Total fish production of 12.60 MMT during 2017-18 from 0.75 MMT in 1950-51.  India contributes about 6.3% of the global fish production.  Fisheries sector support 14 million people for food/livelihood  Contribute 0.9% to total India’s GDP (5.23% to Agriculture GDP).  Paradigm shifts - increasing contributions from inland sector & aquaculture have been significant over the years. o 65% is from inland sector & about half is realized from aquaculture. India: Importance of FMGR in economy and food security
  7. 7.  The diversity in consumption pattern, fish as part of nutrition, culinary preparations and tastes, and hence this also affect trade and priority on fish production.  The aquatic genetic resources other than finfish and shrimps such as mollusks, and seaweeds are not very popular and consumed in a few regions.  People are becoming aware of fish as health food ----- still raising consumption of fish in India is a challenge, which needs strategies to overcome  Average per capita consumption 9kg (Some regions Northeast, Goa Lakshadweep >30 Kg)  The country has largest vegetarian population in the world. Out of 53% non-vegetarian population, fish consumption as preferred food is mostly restricted to coastal states and parts of eastern and north-eastern India. Production & consumption
  8. 8. Finfish species Marine: 1982 Brackishwater: 116 Freshwater: 1039 Total : 3137 Exotic fish : 462 Shellfish species Crustaceans: 2934 Molluscs: 5000 Echinoderms: 765 Status of FMGR : Unique underutilized FMGR
  9. 9.  Distributed across wide variety of agro-climatic conditions ranging from tropical to temperate to palaeo-arctic kind --Diverse ecosystems freshwater, brackishwater and marine.  The unique various adaptive traits, evolution due to geological history.  Two important aspects of underutilized resources, o Limited species in aquaculture and exploited fishery o Intra-specific genetic diversity still inadequately used for improvement.  The native ornamental fish species : inadequate aquaculture to support trade  From capture fishery, the deep sea resources & the diversity beyond national jurisdiction are hardly used. Status of FMGR : Unique underutilized FMGR
  10. 10.  Indian aquaculture o Three species of Indian major carps, viz., Catla catla, Labeo rohita mrigala supplemented by exotic carps viz., Hypophthalmichthys Ctenophayrngodon idella and Cyprinus carpio. o Pangas catfish, Pangsianodon hypophthalmus and Tilapia o freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii o In recent years, the exotic shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei is than 95% of the total shrimp production. o Mariculture is initiated in the country : Seaweeds and fish species cobia, pompano and green mussel, Mud crab are taken up on o The captive breeding of 60 species, by different organization has and further upscaling programs are also in line. Status of FMGR : Unique underutilized FMGR
  11. 11. Medium and minor carps Labeo bata, L. gonius, L. dero, L. calbasu, L. fimbriatus, L. dussumieri, Cirrhinus reba, Barbodes carnaticus, Puntius sarana Other groups Etroplus suraetnsis, Chitala chitala, Ompok pabo, O. bimaculatus, O. Horabagrus brachysoma Anabas testudineus, Channa diplogramme, Indigenous ornamental species having export potential such as fasciata, Danio malabaricus, Puntius filamentosus, P. denisonii, P. , Status of FMGR : Unique underutilized FMGR The species can be candidate for aquaculture with regional preferences
  12. 12. Germplasm collection, characterization, evaluation, conservation and documentation Evaluation of germplasm & conservation • Important; -- lack of standard mechanism of evaluation • Needs live & growing material in captivity • Infrastructure close to habitat • Ex situ conservation- Sperms & cells & On-farm Voucher Specimens & Tissue (Ref.) Explorations & collection of material • Across aquatic habitats for species distribution : discovery of new species • Across native distribution of species : for genetic stocks Characterization • Tools as per objectives such as taxonomy or Intraspecific genetic diversity • Combination of molecular & biological tools
  13. 13. Documentation
  14. 14. Finfish species Marine: 1982 Brackishwater: 116 Freshwater: 1039 Total : 3137 Exotic fish : 462 Shellfish species Crustaceans: 2934 Molluscs: 5000 Echinoderms: 765 Documentation
  15. 15. Plectranthias alcocki Kollam, Kerala at depth of 180- 320 m Chaunax multilepis: Andaman Sea at depths of 295– 350 m; Kollam (Kerala) at depth of 200–350 m Pempheris sarayu Area: Kovalam, Kerala at depth of 5 m Exploring Germplasm : Marine Species Fish species - New to Science
  16. 16. Exploring Germplasm : Freshwater Fish species - New to Science Oreichthys incognito; River Mannarkkad, Kerala State, Knight & Kumar, 2015 Oreichthys duospilus, Unnamed Stream, Nagara Karnataka, Knight & Kumar, 2015
  17. 17. Exploring Germplasm : Freshwater Fish species - New to Science Labeo rajasthanicus: river Tidi, Western Rajasthan Pangasius silasi: River Krishna, Telangana, Rita bakalu: River Pranhita, Godavari, Telangana;
  18. 18.  Implemented a dedicated program on characterization of fish genetic stocks in their native distribution o molecular and biological markers in combination.  Documented 32 fish species, their wild relatives characterized across their native distribution range  The future direction : o document genetic diversity in farmed stocks to address the genetic erosion for healthy seed production o Integrate stock information in conservation (ex situ & in situ) & evaluation programs & registration of germplasm o Establish standardized panel of markers for monitoring future genetic alterations Characterization: Genetic Stocks
  19. 19. Characterization: De novo whole genome sequence & functional genome 4 Finfish; 1 Shrimp & 1 fungal pathogen  for structural & functional genomics information; Allele mining Indian Carp & Catfish (Rohu & Magur) Hilsa Shad A fish fungal pathogen (epizootic ulcerative syndrome) Indian white Prawn Catla Genes identified for Magur o Immune response o Hypoxia tolerance Hilsa o Salinity tolerance
  20. 20.  >50 different types of fish & shellfish products are exported to 75 countries around the world  The frozen shrimp make most of the export from the country  Ready to eat fish products, including traditional dishes are gaining popularity at regional level. o The technology is based on ICAR-CIFT research and is taken up by some private industry. However, such items fulfill the niche demands.  Solar fish dryer (ICAR-CIFT) - a value addition for producing hygienic dry fish c. Processing, value addition and product development
  21. 21.  Aquaculture o Knowledge generation o Explorations & document status of FGR o Evaluation of the prioritized species & new species for preferable traits o Establish breeding population through wild collections o Captive propagation & Package of Practices o Enabling environment & infrastructure to promote aquaculture at different strata o Policy frameworks & certification protocols for Best management practices, quality inputs and production o Improve domestic consumption of fish products o Focus on region specific packages; intensive to backyard 6/7. Major focus /Strategies adopted to harness potential of underutilized FMGR
  22. 22. Major focus /Strategies adopted to harness potential of underutilized FMGR Capture Fishery o Exploit the FGR from underutilize zones in marine o Marine Policy o Inland Fishery Policy o Modernization of fishing, harbors & landing center & cold chains o Enabling environment for high Private investment Government of India has launched new schemes Blue Revolution & Matsya Sampada to address production & infrastructure development
  23. 23. Facilities Numbers Quantity (MT d-1) Fresh / chilled 42 1488 Live fish & shellfish 37 2,142 Dried & salted 69 845 Indian Seafood handling facilities Infrastructure, capacity building & financial investment
  24. 24. Facilities Numbers Quantity (MT) Pre-processing / peeling shed 620 11,657 Processing units 529 27,850 Chilled store 29 11,376 Cold store 479 193,464 Dry fish products store 57 11,506 Ice plants 78 2,211 MT d-1 Others 32 7,701 Indian Seafood processing facilities Infrastructure, capacity building and financial investment
  25. 25.  Fishing crafts 240,000  Fishing harbors o Major 7 o Minor 75  Landing centers 1,537  For promoting aquaculture, o Fish Farmers Development Agencies (FFDAs) 429 o Brackishwater Fish Farms Development Agencies (BFDAs) 39  Annual seed production o Carp 40 billion fry o Shrimp 54 billion PLs  No. of hatcheries 1660 Infrastructure, capacity building and financial investment
  26. 26. Some of the cases, initiated from the perspective of enhancing use of FGR, done experimentally or pursued for upscaling : • Major carp based composite culture systems by incorporating minor carps. Minor carps such as Labeo calbasu, Labeo fimbriatus, Labeo gonius, Labeo bata, Cirrhinus reba, Puntius sarana exhibited promising Evaluating new discoveries • Labeo rajasthanicus: western Rajasthan, restricted population, risk of MPUAT, Udaipur. Seed production & stocking in sanctuaries for conservation, is carried out. Trials shows compatible with major carps & additional income of Rs 50 to 60 thousand per hectare (1000 USD) in 6 months culture period. • Pangasius silasi (2017) endemic to river Krishna. On-farm evaluation Case studies/success stories for improvement of health and livelihoods
  27. 27. • Rare species endemic to Kerala, Clarias dussumieri captive population bred & reached F2 generation • Captive breeding of Labeo dussumieri and Horabagrus brachysoma and stock specific ranching enhanced the capture fishery of the species in their native range. • Murrels, high valued species are promoted for upscaling at farmer’s level. • Indigenous marine ornamental species breeding facility to harmonize conservation and improving community livelihood i. Airoli (ICAR-NBFGR & Mangrove Board, Govt of Maharashtra) ii. Lashadweep islands (ICAR-NBFGR & DBT, GOI & Lakshadweep administration). Case studies/success stories for improvement of health and livelihoods
  28. 28. Live Germplasm Resource Centers Network-A concept On-farm evaluation of genetic resources-stocks NBFGR initiative PMFGR, Kerala H. Brachysoma Clarias dussumieri Hemibagrus punctatus L. dussumieri Bring together conspecifics from geographical locations Lakshadweep Ornamental Invertebrates Guwahati Ompok bimaculatus Clarias magur Nagarjuna sagar, Telangana Ompok bimaculatus Pangasius silasi Manipur Ompok bimaculatus Clarias magur Bangana devdevi NBFGR, Lucknow Indian major carps Clarias magur Ompok bimaculatus Ratnagiri Marine Ornamental A working model • Establish breeding population, • Captive propagation to aid o Conservation o Aquaculture o livelihood.
  29. 29. • Horabagrus brachysoma • Clarias dussumieri • Labeo dussumieri • Hemibagrus punctatus ON-FARM EVALUATION OF PRIORITIZED FISH GENETIC RESOURCES FOR CONSERVATION AQUACULTURE AT
  30. 30. MARINE ORNAMENTAL FISH VILLAGE AT RATNAGIRI: PROMOTE LIVELIHOOD TO MANGROVE DWELLERS & BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION Funds: Mangrove Cell, Dept. of Forests, Govt. of Maharashtra, Mumbai Master Breeding Facility at Airoli Conserved wild collections Breeding & seed Rural beneficiaries 590 (women) Ornamental Clown fish species Market Tie Up
  31. 31. Agatti Island, •Hymnocera picta •Lysmata amboinensis •Sea Anemones Conserving wild type Progeny to beneficiary Lakshadweep Islands Funding Support : Department of Biotechnology (July 2018) Germplasm Resource Center for Marine Ornamental Invertebrates: Harmonizing Biodiversity Conservation & Livelihood to the Islanders
  32. 32. Potential fishing grounds identified along the Indian EEZ New Trawlable Grounds & Dominant Deep Sea Resources Arabian Sea- 4 nos. Bay of Bengal-3 nos Andaman Sea-3 nos.
  33. 33. Neohariotta pinneta & Echinorhinus brucus Bulk catch of Lamprogammus niger A total of 80 species were recorded from the bathyal region of the Terrace off Trivandrum. CPUE recorded as 198 kg/ hr Deep sea Biodiversity Hotspots
  34. 34. • Record catch of pelagic crab Charybdis smithii by FORV Sagar Sampada in its entire service of past 34 years Survey area (Off Tuticorin along 200 m depth contours) New resources
  35. 35.  Biocomposition of DSL species established  Biomass of DSL Plankton and nekton worked out.  Trophic relations established  DSL Atlas prepared New resources: Myctophid Resources of Arabian Sea Benthosema pterotum
  36. 36. Important species of Myctophids obtained from the Arabian sea during the Cruises of FORV Sagar Sampada Total number of species - 15

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