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Soil Health and Sustainable Development Goals in the Philippines

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Soil Health and Sustainable Development Goals in the Philippines Pearl B.. Sanchez and Darryl Nelo S. Aguila

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Soil Health and Sustainable Development Goals in the Philippines

  1. 1. Soil Health and Sustainable Development Goals in the Philippines Regional Conference on Role of Soil and Plant Health Towards Achieving Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) in Asia-Pacific by APAARRI-DOA, Thailand November 21-23, 2018 Pearl B.. Sanchez and Darryl Nelo S. Aguila Agricultural Systems Institute, CAFS University of the Philippines Los Baños
  2. 2. Soil Health Issues Water-induced Soil Erosion • Exploitation of forest trees in the Philippines occur at a rate of 123,000 ha annually (previously recorded to as high as 210,000 ha of deforested land per year during the 1900’s). • Approximately 10 million ha of land are devoted to rainfed agricultural practice. In addition, 120,000 ha are bare unmanaged areas. • FAO database recorded that agricultural practice alone contributes 457 million metric tons soil loss per year. Regional Conference on Role of Soil and Plant Health Towards Achieving Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) in Asia-Pacific by APAARRI-DOA, Thailand November 21-23, 2018 (BSWM, 2013; Carating, n.d.; Tacio, 2013) ©BSWM-FAO
  3. 3. Soil Health Issues Low Soil Carbon Stocks Regional Conference on Role of Soil and Plant Health Towards Achieving Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) in Asia-Pacific by APAARRI-DOA, Thailand November 21-23, 2018 (Ilao et al., n.d.; Navarrete and Tsutsuki, 2008; DOE, n.d.) ©Bray, 2018 • Land conversion greatly reduced Philippines’ forest cover from 70% of the its area to only 22%, releasing great stocks of carbon. • Lowland cultivation alone contributes 40% of the total carbon emission (as methane) in the environment. • Although the country has 2.4 billion metric tons of coal reserves, 8.17 million metric tons of coal is being mined annually.
  4. 4. Soil Health Issues Fertility Decline in Agricultural Lands • 53% of irrigated rice fields in Asia have low inherent nutrient levels • In the Philippines, fertilizer use was recorded to be rapidly increasing by as much as 100% from 1961 to 2005. • Excessive soil mining caused by imbalanced use of fertilizers resulted in soil N, P , K and even micronutrient deficiencies in most agricultural lands of the country. Regional Conference on Role of Soil and Plant Health Towards Achieving Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) in Asia-Pacific by APAARRI-DOA, Thailand November 21-23, 2018 (Haefele et al., 2014; BSWM, 2004; FAOSTAT, 2007) ©IRRI
  5. 5. Soil Health Issues Pollution of Land and Water Resources Regional Conference on Role of Soil and Plant Health Towards Achieving Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) in Asia-Pacific by APAARRI-DOA, Thailand November 21-23, 2018 • Aside from agricultural practices (excessive fertilizer and pesticide application), fossil fuel combustion and mining, solid waste products also contaminate the soil with heavy metals. • Currently, about 35,000 metric tons of solid wastes are generated in the Philippines daily, which are usually scrapped in open dumpsites and landfills. (Remo, 2017) ©Akira Kodaka, 2017 ©Molino, 2018 ©Molino, 2018
  6. 6. Soil Health Issues Pollution of Land and Water Resources Regional Conference on Role of Soil and Plant Health Towards Achieving Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) in Asia-Pacific by APAARRI-DOA, Thailand November 21-23, 2018 • Watershed degradation: 37% of the total water pollution is contributed by agricultural practice, which includes fertilizer and pesticide use. Aside from the increasing fertilizer use, pesticide application also increased by 325% (1961 to 2005), which was intensively used in vegetable production. (FAOSTAT, 2007; Carating, n.d.) ©Tirado et al., 2008©Tirado et al., 2008
  7. 7. Initiatives in Soil Health Management • SALT System Soil conservation system employing reforestation, terracing, multiple cropping, contour farming and cover cropping. • Nutrient Management (4Rs) while minimizing impact on environment and global climate Biofertilizers/Microbial Inoculants Slow or controlled-release fertilizers • Organic Agriculture (RA 10068) Regional Conference on Role of Soil and Plant Health Towards Achieving Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) in Asia-Pacific by APAARRI-DOA, Thailand November 21-23, 2018 (ICRISAT, 2016; Philippine Daily Inquirer, 2012; PCAARRD, n.d.; Carating, n.d.)
  8. 8. Initiatives in Soil Health Management Regional Conference on Role of Soil and Plant Health Towards Achieving Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) in Asia-Pacific by APAARRI-DOA, Thailand November 21-23, 2018 (ICRISAT, 2016; Philippine Daily Inquirer, 2012; PCAARRD, n.d.; Carating, n.d.) • Other private and government programs/policies: Soil Conservation Guided farms Sustainable Corn Production in Sloping Areas (SCoPSA) Conservation Farming Village Program Yamang Lupa Program National Soil Health Program Act of 2016 (House Bill 3349) Soil and Water Conservation Act of 2016 (House Bill 2587)
  9. 9. Challenges in Dealing with Soil Health Issues 1. Individual/Farm level  Lack of willingness to participate and adapt new agricultural practices that would promote soil health 2. Local Government level  Lack of local government initiatives in disseminating good practices in soil health management (extension work) 3. National Government level  Funding constraints  Ineffective information dissemination and program extension to stakeholders  Lack of firm implementation of soil health related policies Regional Conference on Role of Soil and Plant Health Towards Achieving Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) in Asia-Pacific by APAARRI-DOA, Thailand November 21-23, 2018
  10. 10. Priority Areas to be Addressed • Promotion and Implementation  Soil Conservation Practices  Best Management Practices (Water, Nutrient and Pest)  Organic Agriculture • Establishment of National Soil Health Program  Guidelines for Soil Health Assessment  Monitor Soil Health Indicators • Funding for Agricultural R&D particularly in biotechnology, nanotechnology and other cutting edge technologies • Firm Implementation of Soil Health and related policies • Provide Incentives and Rewards to farmers Regional Conference on Role of Soil and Plant Health Towards Achieving Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) in Asia-Pacific by APAARRI-DOA, Thailand November 21-23, 2018
  11. 11. Thank you for your attention Maraming salamat po! Regional Conference on Role of Soil and Plant Health Towards Achieving Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) in Asia-Pacific by APAARRI-DOA, Thailand November 21-23, 2018

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