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Net	
  Neutrality	
  –	
  	
  
India	
  Way	
  and	
  the	
  Lessons	
  for	
  the	
  	
  
Asia-­‐Pacific	
  and	
  Global	
  Community	
  
	
  
	
  
Dr.	
  Govind	
  
Internet	
  Consultant	
  
	
  India	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
February	
  23,	
  2016	
  
CooperaIon	
  SIG	
  
APNIC	
  41	
  
Auckland,	
  New	
  Zealand	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
Sequence	
  of	
  the	
  
PresentaIon	
  
[A]	
  
Preliminary	
  Overview	
  
and	
  ObservaIons	
  
[B]	
  	
  
Net	
  Neutrality	
  
Debate	
  and	
  Key	
  
Issues	
  	
  
	
  
	
  
[C]	
  
Net	
  Neutrality	
  and	
  
India	
  Way	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
[D]	
  
Future	
  Vision	
  for	
  Net	
  
Neutrality	
  
	
  
	
  [E]	
  
Key	
  
Takeaways	
  
for	
  the	
  Asia-­‐
Pacific	
  and	
  
Global	
  
Community	
  
[A]	
  
	
  
Opening	
  Remarks	
  
	
  
 
Net-­‐Neutrality:	
  Some	
  Initial	
  Observations	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
A	
  Crucial	
  Internet	
  Debate	
  
•  During	
  last	
  decade	
  and	
  particularly	
  in	
  last	
  year,	
  the	
  Net	
  Neutrality	
  debate	
  in	
  India	
  
and	
  many	
  other	
  countries	
  like	
  the	
  USA	
  and	
  the	
  UK	
  has	
  triggered	
  
•  It	
   has	
   become	
   one	
   of	
   the	
   most	
   complex	
   and	
   crucial	
   debates	
   of	
   internet	
  
governance	
  
Emergence	
  of	
  Net	
  Neutrality	
  Advocates	
  
•  In	
   recent	
   time,	
   many	
   internet	
   consumers,	
   start-­‐ups	
   and	
   civil	
   society	
   and	
  
academia	
   people	
   have	
   become	
   net	
   neutrality	
   advocates,	
   	
   and	
   have	
   been	
  
demanding	
  and	
  participating	
  in	
  policy	
  interventions	
  
Advent	
  of	
  at	
  least	
  two	
  Schools	
  of	
  Thought	
  
•  Supporters	
  claim	
  that	
  access	
  to	
  an	
  open	
  and	
  unhindered	
  internet	
  is	
  a	
  basic	
  right	
  
of	
  every	
  user	
  
•  Opponents	
   argue	
   that	
   to	
   those	
   without	
   even	
   minimal	
   internet	
   access,	
   rather	
  
than	
  no	
  internet	
  at	
  all,	
  a	
  subsidized	
  albeit	
  some	
  	
  internet	
  is	
  better	
  
 
	
  
Net-­‐Neutrality:	
  Connotation	
  
	
  
	
  
It	
  is	
  difficult	
  to	
  define,	
  but	
  broadly	
  network	
  neutrality	
  
is	
   the	
   principle	
   of	
   non-­‐discrimination,	
   in	
   the	
  
transference	
  of	
  data	
  packets,	
  over	
  the	
  internet,	
  from	
  
content	
  providers	
  to	
  internet	
  users	
  
 
Net-­‐Neutrality	
  Regulation:	
  Pros	
  and	
  Cons	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  Regulation	
   No	
  Regulation	
  
Open	
   internet	
   and	
  
c o m m u n i c a t i o n	
  
guarded	
  
I n n o v a t i o n	
  
E n v i r o n m e n t	
  
Encouraged	
  
	
   S t a r t -­‐ U p s	
   a n d	
  
Consumers	
  Protected	
  
I s s u e	
   o f	
   L i m i t e d	
  
Internet	
  
Competition	
  Issues	
  
[B]
	
  
Net Neutrality Debate and
Key Issues
Issue	
  of	
  Zero-­‐
Ra-ng	
  
Relying	
  solely	
  on	
  zero-­‐
rating	
   to	
   enhance	
  
a c c e s s	
   c o u l d	
   b e	
  
challenging	
  	
  
Such	
   strategy	
   is	
   likely	
  
to	
  have	
  fairness	
  issues	
  
relating	
   terms	
   of	
  
services	
   and	
   in	
   such	
   a	
  
s c e n a r i o ,	
   h e a v y	
  
regulation	
   could	
   be	
  
required	
  
 
	
  
Issue	
  of	
  Limited	
  
Access	
  versus	
  
Subsidized	
  
Access	
  
	
  
	
  
When	
  access	
  is	
  less	
  and	
  
public	
   infrastructure	
   to	
  
support	
   internet	
   weak,	
  
many	
   service	
   providers	
  
argue	
  that	
  net	
  neutrality	
  
regulations	
   could	
   be	
  
hurdle	
   in	
   providing	
  
internet	
   programs	
   for	
  
poor	
  
However,	
   truth	
   is	
   that	
  
w h e r e a s	
   l i m i t e d	
  
internet	
   could	
   be	
  
problematic,	
  subsidized	
  
internet	
   could	
   help	
  
better	
  access,	
  but	
  again	
  
due	
   to	
   commercial	
  
considerations	
   this	
  
becomes	
  difficult	
  
[C]
	
  
Net Neutrality and India Way
	
  
 
	
  
Net-­‐Neutrality:	
  Background	
  of	
  the	
  Policy	
  Debates	
  in	
  India	
  
	
  
	
  
•  Public	
   debate	
   began	
   when	
   telecom	
   carrier	
   Bharti	
   Airtel	
   decided	
   to	
  
charge	
  extra,	
  for	
  the	
  use	
  of	
  applications	
  which	
  can	
  be	
  used	
  for	
  making	
  
free	
  voice	
  calls	
  over	
  the	
  internet	
  
Late	
  2014	
  
•  Facebook's	
   internet.org	
   initiative	
   to	
   provide	
   the	
   internet	
   have-­‐nots	
  
with	
  limited	
  internet,	
  further	
  triggered	
  the	
  debate	
  
2015	
  
 
Net-­‐Neutrality:	
  Policy	
  Interventions	
  in	
  India	
  
	
  
	
  
2015:	
  	
  
Initiation	
  of	
  Policy	
  
Interventions	
  
•  The	
   Telecom	
   Regulatory	
   Authority	
  
of	
   India	
   (TRAI)	
   ini-ated	
   policy	
  
interven-ons	
  in	
  2015	
  
•  On	
   March	
   27,	
   2015	
   it	
   issued	
  
consulta-on	
   paper	
   on	
   ‘Regulatory	
  
Framework	
   for	
   Over-­‐the-­‐top	
   (OTT)	
  
services	
  ’	
  
•  Then	
  on	
  December	
  9,	
  2015,	
  no-cing	
  
differen-al	
  tariffs	
  based	
  on	
  content/	
  
websites/	
  applica-ons/	
  plaTorms,	
  it	
  
issued	
  another	
  consulta-on	
  paper	
  
2016:	
  	
  
Policy	
  Milestone	
  
•  Recently,	
   in	
   	
   February	
   2016,	
   after	
  
massive	
   open	
   public	
   consultations,	
  
TRAI	
   introduced	
   Prohibition	
   of	
  
Discriminatory	
   Tariffs	
   for	
   Data	
  
Services	
  Regulations,	
  2016	
  
	
  
 
	
  
	
  
Key	
  points	
  of	
  
Regulations,	
  
2016	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
No	
  service	
  provider	
  shall	
  offer	
  or	
  
allow	
   discriminatory	
   pricing	
   for	
  
data	
  services	
  based	
  on	
  content	
  
There	
   should	
   not	
   be	
   any	
  
arrangement	
   or	
   agreement	
  
between	
   any	
   service	
   provider	
   or	
  
any	
   person	
   that	
   adheres	
   to	
  
differential	
  pricing	
  for	
  data	
  services	
  
There	
  could	
  be	
  special	
  reduction	
  of	
  
tariff	
   for	
   accessing	
   or	
   providing	
  
emergency	
   services	
   during	
   times	
  
of	
  public	
  emergency	
  
 
	
  
Net-­‐Neutrality	
  and	
  Vision	
  Digital	
  India	
  
	
  
	
  
Complementary	
  Set	
  of	
  
Policies	
  
•  Pro	
   Net-­‐Neutrality	
  
Policy	
  introduced	
  by	
  the	
  
I n d i a n	
   T e l e c o m	
  
Regulator	
   ‘TRAI’,	
   is	
  
complementary	
   to	
   the	
  
vision	
  Digital	
  India	
  
	
  
Both	
  Emphasize	
  on	
  
Digital	
  Inclusion	
  
•  Both,	
   the	
   ‘New	
   Net	
  
Neutrality	
   Policy’	
  
and	
  the	
  ‘Digital	
  India	
  
Strategy’	
   aim	
   to	
  
mitigate	
   digital	
  
divide	
  	
  
Digital	
  India:	
  The	
  
Internet	
  Focused	
  
Programme	
  
Programme	
  to	
  prepare	
  India	
  for	
  a	
  knowledge	
  
future	
  
•  Digital	
  Infrastructure	
  as	
  a	
  U-lity	
  to	
  Every	
  Ci-zen	
  
•  Governance	
  and	
  Services	
  on	
  Demand	
  
•  Digital	
  Empowerment	
  of	
  Ci-zens	
  
3	
  Key-­‐
Areas	
  
•  	
  	
  	
  Broadband	
  Highway	
  	
  
•  	
  	
  	
  Universal	
  Access	
  to	
  Phones	
  
•  	
  	
  	
  Public	
  Internet	
  Access	
  Programme	
  
•  	
  	
  	
  	
  E-­‐Governance	
  –	
  Reforming	
  government	
  	
  through	
  
Technology	
  
•  	
  	
  	
  eKran-	
  –	
  Electronic	
  delivery	
  of	
  services	
  
•  	
  	
  	
  	
  Informa-on	
  for	
  All	
  
•  	
  	
  	
  	
  Electronics	
  Manufacturing	
  
•  	
  	
  	
  	
  IT	
  for	
  Jobs	
  
•  	
  	
  	
  	
  Early	
  Harvest	
  Programmes	
  
9	
  Pillars	
  
Net	
  Neutrality	
  and	
  
Digital	
  India:	
  An	
  
Interlink	
  
Net	
  Neutrality	
  
Non-Discrimination w.r.t.
accessing similar content
No Unfounded Paid Prioritisation/
Peering
No Unreasonable Blocking
No Unreasonable Throttling
No Unreasonable Fast Lanes
No Unfounded Zero Rating/ Free
Lanes
No Limited Internet
No Limited Content
Fair availability of infrastructural
utilities
Digital	
  India	
  
Internet Access for all
Affordability of Internet
Benefits of Connectivity for all
Benefits for Local Communities
Choices for Consumers
Benefits for Makers and
Entrepreneurs
Infrastructure to Support Access
[D]
	
  
Future Vision for Net
Neutrality and Digital India	
  
 
	
  
Future	
  Envisaged	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  •  Recently,	
   on	
   February	
   8,	
   2016	
   Indian	
   Telecom	
  
Regulator	
   ‘TRAI’	
   released	
   the	
   Prohibition	
   of	
  
Discriminatory	
   Tariffs	
   for	
   Data	
   Services	
   Regulations,	
  
2016.	
  In	
  coming	
  times,	
  more	
  such	
  policies	
  within	
  and	
  
outside	
  India	
  can	
  be	
  foreseen.	
  
	
  
Clear	
  Net	
  Neutrality	
  
Policies	
  
•  From	
   Internationalized	
   Domain	
   Names	
   to	
  
Content	
   Localization,	
   to	
   free	
   and	
   subsidized	
  
internet,	
   and	
   from	
   digital	
   literacy	
   drives	
   to	
  
digital	
   infrastructure	
   initiatives,	
   	
   India	
   and	
  
other	
   countries	
   will	
   emphasis	
   on	
   digital	
  
access	
   and	
   inclusion,	
   and	
   net	
   neutrality	
   will	
  
further	
  aid	
  to	
  this.	
  	
  
Digital	
  Inclusion	
  
Initiatives	
  
[E]
	
  
Key Takeaways
for the
Asia-Pacific and
Global Community
 
  
Key    Lessons  
  
  

Public	
  Interest	
  
• Net	
  must	
  be	
  open	
  and	
  prac-ces	
  must	
  be	
  directed	
  towards	
  long-­‐
term	
  public	
  and	
  consumer	
  interest	
  
Public	
  
Engagement	
  	
  
• Net	
   policies,	
   rela-ng	
   net	
   neutrality	
   and	
   other	
   aspects,	
   must	
   be	
  
made	
  through	
  public	
  engagement	
  and	
  consulta-ons	
  
 
Key    Considera/ons  
  
  

•  Internet	
  must	
  not	
  be	
  equated	
  with	
  other	
  u-li-es;	
  it	
  is	
  different	
  from	
  any	
  
other	
  u-lity,	
  unless	
  it	
  is	
  open	
  it	
  can’t	
  be	
  used	
  in	
  real	
  form	
  
Recogni-on	
  of	
  Unique	
  Nature	
  of	
  the	
  Internet	
  
•  Par-al	
   Internet	
   shouldn’t	
   be	
   allowed,	
   it	
   is	
   like	
   content	
   discrimina-on,	
  
while	
   free	
   and	
   subsidized	
   net	
   must	
   be	
   encouraged	
   as	
   a	
   pro-­‐access	
  
strategy	
  
Dis-nguishing	
  Par-al	
  versus	
  Free	
  Internet	
  
•  Any	
  price	
  differen-a-on	
  based	
  on	
  the	
  content	
  being	
  accessed,	
  must	
  be	
  
condemned	
  
Content	
  Neutrality	
  
•  Along	
  with	
  net	
  neutrality	
  and	
  subsidized	
  access,	
  there	
  must	
  be	
  parallel	
  
digital	
  literacy	
  and	
  localisa-on	
  ini-a-ves	
  
Parallel	
  Ini-a-ves	
  
Thanks
	
  

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TRAI Net Neutrality Consultation

  • 1.         Net  Neutrality  –     India  Way  and  the  Lessons  for  the     Asia-­‐Pacific  and  Global  Community       Dr.  Govind   Internet  Consultant    India                             February  23,  2016   CooperaIon  SIG   APNIC  41   Auckland,  New  Zealand                  
  • 2. Sequence  of  the   PresentaIon   [A]   Preliminary  Overview   and  ObservaIons   [B]     Net  Neutrality   Debate  and  Key   Issues         [C]   Net  Neutrality  and   India  Way         [D]   Future  Vision  for  Net   Neutrality      [E]   Key   Takeaways   for  the  Asia-­‐ Pacific  and   Global   Community  
  • 3. [A]     Opening  Remarks    
  • 4.   Net-­‐Neutrality:  Some  Initial  Observations         A  Crucial  Internet  Debate   •  During  last  decade  and  particularly  in  last  year,  the  Net  Neutrality  debate  in  India   and  many  other  countries  like  the  USA  and  the  UK  has  triggered   •  It   has   become   one   of   the   most   complex   and   crucial   debates   of   internet   governance   Emergence  of  Net  Neutrality  Advocates   •  In   recent   time,   many   internet   consumers,   start-­‐ups   and   civil   society   and   academia   people   have   become   net   neutrality   advocates,     and   have   been   demanding  and  participating  in  policy  interventions   Advent  of  at  least  two  Schools  of  Thought   •  Supporters  claim  that  access  to  an  open  and  unhindered  internet  is  a  basic  right   of  every  user   •  Opponents   argue   that   to   those   without   even   minimal   internet   access,   rather   than  no  internet  at  all,  a  subsidized  albeit  some    internet  is  better  
  • 5.     Net-­‐Neutrality:  Connotation       It  is  difficult  to  define,  but  broadly  network  neutrality   is   the   principle   of   non-­‐discrimination,   in   the   transference  of  data  packets,  over  the  internet,  from   content  providers  to  internet  users  
  • 6.   Net-­‐Neutrality  Regulation:  Pros  and  Cons        Regulation   No  Regulation   Open   internet   and   c o m m u n i c a t i o n   guarded   I n n o v a t i o n   E n v i r o n m e n t   Encouraged     S t a r t -­‐ U p s   a n d   Consumers  Protected   I s s u e   o f   L i m i t e d   Internet   Competition  Issues  
  • 7. [B]   Net Neutrality Debate and Key Issues
  • 8. Issue  of  Zero-­‐ Ra-ng   Relying  solely  on  zero-­‐ rating   to   enhance   a c c e s s   c o u l d   b e   challenging     Such   strategy   is   likely   to  have  fairness  issues   relating   terms   of   services   and   in   such   a   s c e n a r i o ,   h e a v y   regulation   could   be   required  
  • 9.     Issue  of  Limited   Access  versus   Subsidized   Access       When  access  is  less  and   public   infrastructure   to   support   internet   weak,   many   service   providers   argue  that  net  neutrality   regulations   could   be   hurdle   in   providing   internet   programs   for   poor   However,   truth   is   that   w h e r e a s   l i m i t e d   internet   could   be   problematic,  subsidized   internet   could   help   better  access,  but  again   due   to   commercial   considerations   this   becomes  difficult  
  • 10. [C]   Net Neutrality and India Way  
  • 11.     Net-­‐Neutrality:  Background  of  the  Policy  Debates  in  India       •  Public   debate   began   when   telecom   carrier   Bharti   Airtel   decided   to   charge  extra,  for  the  use  of  applications  which  can  be  used  for  making   free  voice  calls  over  the  internet   Late  2014   •  Facebook's   internet.org   initiative   to   provide   the   internet   have-­‐nots   with  limited  internet,  further  triggered  the  debate   2015  
  • 12.   Net-­‐Neutrality:  Policy  Interventions  in  India       2015:     Initiation  of  Policy   Interventions   •  The   Telecom   Regulatory   Authority   of   India   (TRAI)   ini-ated   policy   interven-ons  in  2015   •  On   March   27,   2015   it   issued   consulta-on   paper   on   ‘Regulatory   Framework   for   Over-­‐the-­‐top   (OTT)   services  ’   •  Then  on  December  9,  2015,  no-cing   differen-al  tariffs  based  on  content/   websites/  applica-ons/  plaTorms,  it   issued  another  consulta-on  paper   2016:     Policy  Milestone   •  Recently,   in     February   2016,   after   massive   open   public   consultations,   TRAI   introduced   Prohibition   of   Discriminatory   Tariffs   for   Data   Services  Regulations,  2016    
  • 13.       Key  points  of   Regulations,   2016         No  service  provider  shall  offer  or   allow   discriminatory   pricing   for   data  services  based  on  content   There   should   not   be   any   arrangement   or   agreement   between   any   service   provider   or   any   person   that   adheres   to   differential  pricing  for  data  services   There  could  be  special  reduction  of   tariff   for   accessing   or   providing   emergency   services   during   times   of  public  emergency  
  • 14.     Net-­‐Neutrality  and  Vision  Digital  India       Complementary  Set  of   Policies   •  Pro   Net-­‐Neutrality   Policy  introduced  by  the   I n d i a n   T e l e c o m   Regulator   ‘TRAI’,   is   complementary   to   the   vision  Digital  India     Both  Emphasize  on   Digital  Inclusion   •  Both,   the   ‘New   Net   Neutrality   Policy’   and  the  ‘Digital  India   Strategy’   aim   to   mitigate   digital   divide    
  • 15. Digital  India:  The   Internet  Focused   Programme   Programme  to  prepare  India  for  a  knowledge   future   •  Digital  Infrastructure  as  a  U-lity  to  Every  Ci-zen   •  Governance  and  Services  on  Demand   •  Digital  Empowerment  of  Ci-zens   3  Key-­‐ Areas   •       Broadband  Highway     •       Universal  Access  to  Phones   •       Public  Internet  Access  Programme   •         E-­‐Governance  –  Reforming  government    through   Technology   •       eKran-  –  Electronic  delivery  of  services   •         Informa-on  for  All   •         Electronics  Manufacturing   •         IT  for  Jobs   •         Early  Harvest  Programmes   9  Pillars  
  • 16. Net  Neutrality  and   Digital  India:  An   Interlink   Net  Neutrality   Non-Discrimination w.r.t. accessing similar content No Unfounded Paid Prioritisation/ Peering No Unreasonable Blocking No Unreasonable Throttling No Unreasonable Fast Lanes No Unfounded Zero Rating/ Free Lanes No Limited Internet No Limited Content Fair availability of infrastructural utilities Digital  India   Internet Access for all Affordability of Internet Benefits of Connectivity for all Benefits for Local Communities Choices for Consumers Benefits for Makers and Entrepreneurs Infrastructure to Support Access
  • 17. [D]   Future Vision for Net Neutrality and Digital India  
  • 18.     Future  Envisaged        •  Recently,   on   February   8,   2016   Indian   Telecom   Regulator   ‘TRAI’   released   the   Prohibition   of   Discriminatory   Tariffs   for   Data   Services   Regulations,   2016.  In  coming  times,  more  such  policies  within  and   outside  India  can  be  foreseen.     Clear  Net  Neutrality   Policies   •  From   Internationalized   Domain   Names   to   Content   Localization,   to   free   and   subsidized   internet,   and   from   digital   literacy   drives   to   digital   infrastructure   initiatives,     India   and   other   countries   will   emphasis   on   digital   access   and   inclusion,   and   net   neutrality   will   further  aid  to  this.     Digital  Inclusion   Initiatives  
  • 19. [E]   Key Takeaways for the Asia-Pacific and Global Community
  • 20.     Key    Lessons       Public  Interest   • Net  must  be  open  and  prac-ces  must  be  directed  towards  long-­‐ term  public  and  consumer  interest   Public   Engagement     • Net   policies,   rela-ng   net   neutrality   and   other   aspects,   must   be   made  through  public  engagement  and  consulta-ons  
  • 21.   Key    Considera/ons       •  Internet  must  not  be  equated  with  other  u-li-es;  it  is  different  from  any   other  u-lity,  unless  it  is  open  it  can’t  be  used  in  real  form   Recogni-on  of  Unique  Nature  of  the  Internet   •  Par-al   Internet   shouldn’t   be   allowed,   it   is   like   content   discrimina-on,   while   free   and   subsidized   net   must   be   encouraged   as   a   pro-­‐access   strategy   Dis-nguishing  Par-al  versus  Free  Internet   •  Any  price  differen-a-on  based  on  the  content  being  accessed,  must  be   condemned   Content  Neutrality   •  Along  with  net  neutrality  and  subsidized  access,  there  must  be  parallel   digital  literacy  and  localisa-on  ini-a-ves   Parallel  Ini-a-ves