Different Models of Buying
2.Howard and sheth model
The buyer is a rational man and his buying are
governed by the concepts of utility
Intent to maximise the utility/benefit/need
Buyer behaviour can be influenced by
manipulating the drives,Stimuli and responses
of the buyer .
The model rests on the human ability of
learning , forgetting , and discriminating
The individual buying behavior by society –
intimate groups as well as social class
The buying decisions are not totally governed
b Utility, but he has a desire to emulate ,follow,
and fit in with his environment.
A consumer has complex set of deep-seated
motives that drive him towards certain
He has a private world with all his hidden
fears, suppressed desires and totally
The System Model
Human being is analysed as a system,with
stimuli as the input to the system and behviour
as the output of the system.
By: Francesco Nicosia
The model tries to establish the link between a
firm and its consumer.
How the activities of the firm influence the
consumer and result in his decision to buy
Howard – Sheth Model-1969
John Howard and Jagadish sheth
Input – Stimuli
Output - Beginning with attention to the given
stimuli and ending with purchase
B. Social Factors/Reference group
Family, frinds ,peer groups, close collegagues &
close kint organizations
2. Secondary group
Occupation ,profession, place of residence
The others seeks guidance from these people
4.Larger social class
occupation/profession and designation
3.Information reaching from
customer from various sources.
Display in shops
How does a consumer decision come up ?
A large variety of stimulus is involved
All the impulses, desires and consideration
,which induce buyer to purchase a given
1. Product Motives
2. Patronage Motives
Product motives :- The impulses, desires and
considerations that makes people buy a given
Patronage Motive :- The impulse desire and
consideration that makes people buy from
particular firm/shop .
Acc.to the nature of satisfaction sought by the
buyer ,puts them in following two category
1. Emotional product motives
2. Rational product motives
Another classification that takes into account
the utility and prestige dimensions of a product
1. Operational product motives
2. Socio psychological Product motives
Emotional Product motives
Those impulses that appeal to the buyers
pride or ego,his urge to imitate others,or his
desire to be distinctive.(Buying pattern :
without evaluating products plus or minus)
Operational product motives
A buyer can gain satisfaction from the function
or physical utility of a product
Social psychological factor attached to the
Emotional patronage motives: Those that
persuade buyer to buy from specific shops,
without much logical reason behind it.
Rational motives: If a buyer knows that shop
will offer a wide selection , latest model,good
Products for daily consumption ,like tooth
The consumer is not prepared to make a special
shopping trip for buying such product .Switch
to substitute product or brand that is available
in the immediate vicinity.
Clothes, shoes, electrical appliance etc..not
2. Ready to make more than one shopping trip
3. Considerable expenditure
4. Compare price, quality, models etc
Special goods are high priced goods include
products like cars, luxury watches, high priced
1. Substantial investment
2. Periodicity of purchase is less
3. No instant decision
4. Cost angle, utility angle, prestige angle
5. Entire family takes part in the decision
Problem Recognition (Need Recognition)
He recognises a problem and develops a
perception of the problem
Seeks information from the environment for
solving his problem
Awareness (Information search)
Information search will helps him to aware the
existence of the product that would solve his
Comprehension ( Evaluation of
Awareness and comprehension stages
represents the information processing stages.
These two stages constitute the cognitive field of
purchase process.(acquisition of knowledge)
Innovators are the first consumers to buy a
They are venturesome, willing to accept risk,
socially aggressive, communicative, and
This group represents 2.5 per cent of the
Early adopters (13.5)
Early adopters are the next consumers to buy
a new product.
They enjoy the leadership, prestige, and
respect that early purchases bring.
These consumers tend to be opinion leaders.
They adopt new ideas but use discretion.
This group represents 13.5 per cent of the
The early majority(34%)
The early majority is the first part of the mass
market to buy a product.
They have status in their social class and are
outgoing, communicative, and attentive to
This group represents 34 per cent of the target
The late majority(34%)
The late majority is the second part of the
mass market to buy a product.
They are less cosmopolitan and responsive to
The late majority includes people with lower
economic and social status, those past middle
age, and skeptics.
This group represents 34 per cent of the
. Laggards are last to purchase.
They are price conscious, suspicious of
change, low in income and status, tradition
bound, and conservative.
Do not adopt a product until it reaches
maturity. Some firms ignore them because it
can be difficult to market a product to this
However, a market segmenter may do well by
concentrating on products for laggards. This
group represents 16 per cent of the market.
Notes de l'éditeur
Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior
This CTR relates to Figure 5-2 on p.135 and previews the material on pp. 135-150.