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Sispeng 2019 1D4

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Pengantar Materi Sistem Pengukuran 1D4 tahun 2019

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Sispeng 2019 1D4

  1. 1. Measurement and Instrumentation (SISTEM PENGUKURAN) 1D4, 2 SKS (T), 2 Jam Teori, 1 SKS (P) 3 Jam Praktek Teori: Muhammad Arman Praktek: EER, NKH, PTK
  2. 2. QUOTE You cannot control what you cannot measure “When you can measure what you are speaking about, and express it in numbers, you know something about it. When you cannot measure it, when you cannot express it in numbers, your knowledge is of a meagre and unsatisfactory kind.” - Lord Kelvin 2
  3. 3. • َ‫ن‬ِ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ۡ‫و‬ُ‫ن‬ ۡ‫و‬ُ‫ك‬َ‫ت‬ َ‫َل‬ َ‫و‬ َ‫ل‬ۡ‫ي‬َ‫ك‬‫ـ‬ۡ‫ال‬ ‫وا‬ُ‫ف‬ ۡ‫و‬َ‫ا‬َۚ‫ن‬ۡ‫ي‬ ِ‫ر‬ِ‫س‬ ۡ‫خ‬ُ‫م‬ۡ‫ال‬﴿۱۸۱﴾ • QS 26: 181. Sempurnakanlah takaran dan janganlah kamu termasuk orang-orang yang merugikan;
  4. 4. • ِ‫اس‬َ‫ط‬ۡ‫س‬ِ‫ق‬ۡ‫ال‬ِ‫ب‬ ‫ا‬ ۡ‫و‬ُ‫ن‬ ِ‫ز‬ َ‫و‬ۡ‫ي‬ِ‫ق‬َ‫ت‬ۡ‫س‬ُ‫م‬ۡ‫ال‬ِۚ‫م‬ • QS 26: 182. dan timbanglah dengan timbangan yang lurus.
  5. 5. Aturan Main • Masuk tepat waktu : Dosen maksimal telat 15 menit tanpa kabar, di WO, mahasiswa maksimal telat 5 menit setelah dosen,  push up = telat x 3 • Pakain bebas, kecuali di lab, pakai sepatu, jas lab • No smoking class, no eat , drink is ok ( di kelas) • Boleh incoming sms, LINE, WA, BA , silent, tapi tidak reply, incoming call jika silent ok jika penting di luar kelas • Official Mobile phone number : 08156223200, sms/LINE/WA time : 05.30 – 21.30, sms dl jika ingin menelpon. • Hadir Jiwa Raga • Aktif Bertanya • Jangan Menyontek, Menyontek = E
  6. 6. Penilaian • Komponen Penilaian – UTS – UAS – Tugas dan atau Presentasi – Quiz – Project Akhir (Kelompok) • Telat mengumpulkan tugas dianggap tidak mengumpulkan tugas • Nilai Akhir A sd E • (Tidak) Ada HER atau Reevaluasi, hanya yang D dan E, akan lebih sulit, dan tidak ada jaminan akan naik, kalaupun Naik, hanya 1 tingkat
  7. 7. Etika Komunikasi • Salam • Memperkenalkan diri • Jika diperlukan pergunakan kata “maaf” • Menjelaskan maksud • Tidak mendikte, ingat posisi mahasiswa • Tutup dengan “terima kasih”
  8. 8. Garis Besar Materi : Teori • Istilah Pengukuran • Besaran dan Satuan • Pengukuran : Instrumen Pengukuran, pengukuran besaran pokok dan turunan, pengolahan data, pengukuran berulang. • Karakteristik Statik dan Dinamik • Metode Pengukuran : fundamental,langsung dan tidak langsung, perbandingan, substitusi, differensial, nol • Alat Ukur • Op Amps : symbol dan karakteristik, inverting dan non inverting • Kalibrasi • Pengukuran Aliran Fluida • Pengukuran Tekanan • Pengukuran Temperatur
  9. 9. Garis Besar Materi : Praktek • Pengggunaan AVO meter, Thermometer, Pengukuran sebaran titik/grid • Statistika pengukuran • Arduino
  10. 10. Project • Alat Ukur (Temperatur) Berbasis Arduino – Integrasi dengan MK Praktek Instrumentasi – Integrasi dengan MK Aplikasi Pemrograman – Untuk digunakan pada pengambilan data Instalasi SISREF – Include data logging system – Sifat hanya mengintegrasikan – Be smart User
  11. 11. Definition • Instrumentation is defined as the art and science of measurement and control of process variables within a production, or manufacturing area. it is also defined as instrumentation is a device or group of device that is measure the process variable and control them as per the requirement for the process. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instrumentation
  12. 12. Definition • The Oxford English Dictionary says (as its last definition of Instrumentation), "The design, construction, and provision of instruments for measurement, control, etc; the state of being equipped with or controlled by such instruments collectively." It notes that this use of the word originated in the U.S.A. in the early 20th century. More traditional uses of the word were associated with musical or surgical instruments. While the word is traditionally a noun, it is also used as an adjective (as instrumentation engineer, instrumentation amplifier and instrumentation system). Other dictionaries note that the word is most common in describing aeronautical, scientific or industrial instruments.
  13. 13. The Use • Measurement instruments have three traditional classes of use:[7] – Monitoring of processes and operations – Control of processes and operations – Experimental engineering analysis
  14. 14. Why Important Measure Analysis Decision
  15. 15. Measurement System Block Diagram Sensor Transducer Input/ Measurand Stage 1 Signal Conditioning Transduced Electrical Signal Stage 2 Indicator Computer Recorder Processor Controller Readout/ Applications Stage 3 Medium
  16. 16. Beberapa istilah • Accuracy = akurat • Precision = presisi • Range = range • Subdivision • Error = kesalahan, galat • Hysteresis • Stability • Repeatability • Sensitivity • Resolution
  17. 17. • Thermocouple • RTD • Pressure Transmitter • Data logging • ADC and DAC
  18. 18. Instrumentation Control
  19. 19. Automation Technology Instrumentation plays an important role in almost every aspect of Automation Technology. • Industrial Automation • Manufacturing Automation • Process Automation • Building Automation Everyone needs to measure and/or control something – and that’s what instrumentation is all about.
  20. 20. 20 Process Control & Instrumentation – EEE4093F R. Verrinder (2008) Simple Instrumentation Chemical Electrical PROCESS SENSORS ACTUATORS CONTROLLER Mechanical Interface InterfaceInterface Primary Measurand
  21. 21. 21Process Control & Instrumentation – EEE4093F R. Verrinder (2008) Primary Measurands • Examples of some primary measurands are: • Position • Velocity • Acceleration • Force • Sound Amplitude • Sound Frequency • Electrical Potential • Electrical Current Flow • Electrical Charge • Electrical Frequency • Magnetic Flux Density • Magnetic Flux Intensity • Strain • Light (EM Radiation) Amplitude • Light (EM Radiation) Frequency • Temperature • Heat Radiation • Heat Flux • Flow Rate • Viscosity • Density • Altitude • Altitude Rate • Specific Gravity • Torque • Stress
  22. 22. Main Process Measurand Temperature Flow Pressure
  23. 23. Measurement Things that are measured include: • Pressure, temperature, level, flow, humidity, speed, motion, position, weight, density, conductivity, pH, light, quality, quantity, and more. Devices that process or do the measuring are called: • Sensors, transducers, transmitters, indicators, displays, recorders, data loggers, and data acquisition systems.
  24. 24. Pressure
  25. 25. Temperature
  26. 26. Pengukuran Debit Tidak Langsung (Indirect) Magnetik Ultrasonic Vortex Coriolis Pressure Difference Turbine (Woltman) Thermal
  27. 27. Sensor Consideration • Objectives • Accuracy • Power Supply • Type of Signal to be transmitted • Environment • Reliability • Other Dynamics and statics characteristics
  28. 28. Controllers These are the devices that do the controlling: • Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) • Programmable Automation Controllers (PAC) • Distributed Control Systems (DCS) • Proportional, Integral, Derivative (PID) Controllers • Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) • Building Automation Controllers (BAC) • Energy Management Systems (EMS)
  29. 29. Control Elements These are the devices the controller operates: • Pneumatic valves, solenoid valves, rotary valves, motors, switches, relays, variable frequency drives.
  30. 30. Pictures (Valve and selenoid Valve)
  31. 31. Switch
  32. 32. VFD
  33. 33. Measuring Means Pressure Level Flow Temperature pH Humidity Density Speed Thermocouples RTDs / Thermistors Filled Systems Bi-metallic Strain gauge Piezo-electric Capacitance Bourdon Tube Head meters (orifice, venturi) Coriolis, velocity, Mass, Mechanical Floats Guided Wave Weight (load cell) Ultrasonic Differential Pressure Transmitters Pressure Transmitter Level Transmitter Differential Pressure Cell Flow Transmitter Temperature Transmitter Pneumatic 3-15 PSI Electrical Current 4 – 20 mA 0 – 20 mA 10 – 50 mA Voltage 0 – 5 V 1 – 5 V 0 – 10 V Digital ON/OFF Field Bus ModBus ProfiBus HART
  34. 34. What is a Process • A process is broadly defined as an operation that uses resources to transform inputs into outputs. • It is the resource that provides the energy into the process for the transformation to occur. 34
  35. 35. Open Loop Control Open loop (or manual control) is used when very little change occurs in the Process Variable (PV) Manipulated Variable Desired Result Control Agent PROCESS (Temperature, pressure, level, flow) FINAL CONTROL ELELMENT (valve) Measuring Means (transmitter) Process Variable (PV) Controlled Variable Actuating Input pH, conductivity, humidity, density, consistency, etc. Corrective action is provided by manual feedback
  36. 36. Closed Loop Control Closed loop or feedback control provides a corrective action based on the deviation between the PV and the SP Automatic Controller Output (3-15 psi, 4-20mA etc) CONTROLLING MEANS Manipulated Variable Desired Result Control Agent PROCESS (Temperature, pressure, level, flow) FINAL CONTROL ELELMENT (valve) Measuring Means (transmitter) Controller Input (PV) (3-15psi, 4-20mA etc) Controlled Variable pH, conductivity, humidity, density, consistency, etc. Manual SP
  37. 37. DIGITAL AND ANALOG • Analog Input • Digital Input • Analog Output • Digital Ouput
  38. 38. What are Standard Instrumentation Signals Standard instrument signals for controllers to accept as inputs from instrumentation and outputs to final control elements are: – pneumatic – current loop – 0 to 10 volt 38
  39. 39. What are Standard Instrumentation Signals Pneumatic • 3 to 15 psig – Before 1960, pneumatic signals were used almost exclusively to transmit measurement and control information. – Today, it is still common to find 3 to 15 psig used as the final signal to a modulating valve. – Most often an I/P (I to P) transducer is used. • This converts a 4-20 mA signal (I) into a pressure signal (P). 39
  40. 40. What are Standard Instrumentation Signals Current Loop • 4-20 milliamp – Current loops are the signal workhorses in our processes. – A DC milliamp current is transmitted through a pair of wires from a sensor to a controller or from a controller to its final control element. – Current loops are used because of their immunity to noise and the distances that the signal can be transmitted. 40
  41. 41. What are Standard Instrumentation Signals Current Loop Scaling • Output Scaling – Scale outputs for a one-to-one correspondence. – Controller output is configured for 0% to correspond to a 4mA signal and 100% to correspond to a 20mA signal. – The final control element is calibrated so that 4mA corresponds to its 0% position or speed and 20mA corresponds to its 100% position or speed. 41
  42. 42. What are Standard Instrumentation Signals Current Loop Scaling • Input Scaling – Scale inputs for a one-to-one correspondence as well. – Example: • If we were using a pressure transducer with a required operating range of 0 psig to 100 psig we would calibrate the instrument such that 0 psig would correspond to 4mA output and 100 psig would correspond to a 20mA output. • At the controller we would configure the input such that 4mA would correspond to an internal value of 0 psig and 10mA would correspond to an internal value of 100 psig. 42
  43. 43. What are Standard Instrumentation Signals 0 to 10 Volt • 0 to 10 volt is not commonly used in control systems because this signal is susceptible to induced noise and the distance of the instrument or final control element is limited due to voltage drop. • You may find 0-10 volt signals used in control systems providing the speed reference to variable speed drives. 43
  44. 44. What are Smart Transmitters • A smart transmitter is a digital device that converts the analog information from a sensor into digital information, allowing the device to simultaneously send and receive information and transmit more than a single value. • Smart transmitters, in general, have the following common features: – Digital Communications – Configuration – Re-Ranging – Signal Conditioning – Self-Diagnosis 44
  45. 45. What are Smart Transmitters Digital Communications • Smart transmitters are capable of digital communications with both a configuration device and a process controller. • Digital communications have the advantage of being free of bit errors, the ability to multiple process values and diagnostic information, and the ability to receive commands. • Some smart transmitters use a shared channel for analog and digital data (Hart, Honeywell or Modbus over 4-20mA). Others use a dedicated communication bus (Profibus, Foundation Fieldbus, DeviceNet, Ethernet). 45
  46. 46. Actuator Consideration • Objectives • Power • Duty cycles • Robustness • Type of output
  47. 47. The selection of an instrument for a specific application is an iterative process. Following points should be considered while their selection:  Identify all operating cases  Collecting all relevant process data  Environmental conditions  The extent to which the measured system will be disturbed  Durability  Maintainability  Consistency of performance Selection of Instruments
  48. 48.  Selection of pressure sensors  Selection of temperature sensors  Selection of flow sensors  Selection of level sensors Selection of Instruments
  49. 49. • Pressure-sensing devices are chosen on the basis of following requirements:  Pressure range  Accuracy  Temperature operating range  Line-of-sight reading or electrical signal  Response time • In some applications there are other special requirements. Parameters, such as hystersis and stability, should be obtained from the manufacturers’ specifications. Selection of Pressure Sensors
  50. 50. • Manometers are used when just a visual indication of pressure level is required. • Dead weight gauges, because of their superior accuracy, are used in calibration of other pressure measuring devices. • When an electrical form of output is required, the choice is electric pressure transducer. • Resonant wires are used for higher accuracy. Selection of Pressure Sensors
  51. 51. • In process control a wide selection of temperature sensors are available. However, the required range, linearity, and accuracy can limit the selection. • In the final selection of a sensor, other factors may have to be taken into consideration, such as calibration, vibration sensitivity, response time, maintenance requirements, and cost. • The choice of sensor devices in instrumentation should not be degraded from a cost standpoint. Process control is only as good as the monitoring elements. Selection of Temperature Sensors
  52. 52. • The most commonly used device for temperature measurement is thermocouple. • RTD are also used frequently but they are very sensitive and gives fast response. • Pyrometers are non contact and used for high temperature applications. • Quartz thermometers provides very high resolution but they are very expensive. • Fiber optic devices are used in very inaccessible locations and they are very accurate. Selection of Temperature Sensors
  53. 53. • The selection of a flow meter for a specific application to a large extent will depend on the required accuracy and the presence of particulates, although the required accuracy is sometimes down graded because of cost. • One of the most accurate meters is the magnetic flow meter. The meter is good for low flow rates, with high vis- cosities and has low energy loss, but is expensive and requires a conductive fluid. • The Venturi tube has the highest accuracy and least energy loss followed by the flow nozzle and the orifice plate. • Gas flow can be best measured with an anemometer. Selection of Flow Sensors
  54. 54. • A number of factors affect the choice of sensor for level measurement, such as pressure on the liquid, liquid temperature, turbulence, volatility, corrosiveness, accuracy needed, single-point or continuous measurement, direct or indirect, particulates in a liquid, free flowing solids, etc. • Floats are often used to sense fluid levels because they are unaffected by particulates, can be used for slurries. • Bubbler devices require certain precautions when being used. To ensure a continuous air or gas supply, the gas used must not react with the liquid. • Radiation devices are used for point measurement of hazardous materials. Selection of Level Sensors
  55. 55. This section defines the detailed installation requirements for specific types of instruments such as:  Pressure Instruments  Flow Instruments  Temperature Instruments  Level Instruments Installation requirements
  56. 56. All instruments shall be installed so that they are  Accessible  Capable of removal  Replacement and repair  In-line instruments shall be mounted and secured in place under the mechanical subcontract.  Remainder of the installation shall be completed in accordance with the installation detail(s) specified for each instrument in the instrument index provided by suppliers. Installation requirements
  57. 57. Pressure Instruments: • Distance between sensor and source should be kept to a minimum. • Sensors should be connected via valves for ease of replacement. • To eliminate errors due to trapped gas in sensing liquid pressures, the sensor should be located below the source. Installation requirements
  58. 58. Pressure Instruments (Contd.) : • When measuring pressures in corrosive fluids and gases, an inert medium is necessary between the sensor and the source or the sensor must be corrosion resistant. • Resistance and capacitance can be added to electronic circuits to reduce pressure fluctuations and unstable readings. Installation requirements
  59. 59. Flow Instruments : • The meter must be installed according to the manufactures instructions . • The meter must not be installed in a section of pipe where there may be air pockets or the pipe does not run full of water. If it is likely that air will become entrapped near the meter, an air valve must be installed upstream of the meter. • A meter approved for operation in full flowing pipes shall be installed so that it is completely filled with fluid under all conditions during operation. Installation requirements
  60. 60. Flow Instruments (Contd.): • Flow nozzles may require a vertical installation if gases or particulates are present. To allow gases to pass through the nozzle, it should be facing upwards and for particulates, downwards. • Any backflow preventer must be installed on the discharge side of the meter and >5 pipe diameters downstream of the flow meter. • The meter must be installed in the correct direction to flow. • The meter must be mounted in such a way that it allows for both easy access and reading of display unit. Installation requirements
  61. 61. Temperature Instruments : • Care must be taken in locating the sensing portion of the temperature sensor, it should be fully encompassed by the medium whose temperature is being measured, and not be in contact with the walls of the container. • The sensor should also be placed downstream from the fluids being mixed, to ensure that the temperature has stabilized, but as close as possible to the point of mixing, to give as fast as possible temperature measurement for good control. • Place the sensor in a location where it will not be in direct sunlight. Installation requirements
  62. 62. Temperature Instruments (Contd.): • Place the sensor in a location at least 10 feet away from lights or lamps. • Place the sensor at least 5 feet from man-made sources of heat. • Keep the sensor away from AC power lines. • Limit the exposure of the sensor to the open night sky. • If you are unsure about a location's exposure to the night sky, check for dew at that location on a light dewy morning. If the area is dry, the location should work well. Installation requirements
  63. 63. Level Instruments: • Displacer Level Transmitters/Switches and Level Gauges, which must be removed/repaired without shutting down the process are capable of being isolated from the process. • All instruments should be installed so that they are accessible. • In-line instruments shall be mounted and secured under the mechanical subcontract. 2/12/2010 Chemical Engineering Department, U.E.T Lahore 63 Installation requirements
  64. 64. • Cost is very strongly correlated with the performance of an instrument, as measured by its static characteristics. Increasing the accuracy or resolution of an instrument, for example, can only be done at the penalty of increasing its manufacturing cost. • Instruments choice therefore proceeds by specifying the minimum characteristics required by a measurement situation and then searching manufactures’ catalogue to find an instrument whose characteristics match those required Cost
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