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Final exam. ps lecture 15 28

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Final exam. ps lecture 15 28

  1. 1. Lecture 15-28
  2. 2. Topic: Open (Relevant) Members: 3-4 Marks: Group-20, Individual-10 Time: 6-8 Minutes Slides: Not more than 8 Must be present in the class Must take part actively in the group
  3. 3. Learn, compare, collect the facts! Always have the courage to say to yourself - I am ignorant.
  4. 4.  How to set your speech goals? ◦ Organizational Goals from the speech. ◦ Audience Goals from the speech ◦ Speaker’s Goals from the speech  How to read your audience?  How to set up your place?  How to use the A/V Aids? Three major kinds of supporting materials are---Examples, Statistics and Testimony.
  5. 5. An example that describes an imaginary or fictitious situation or even a similar event somewhere.  Brief Examples: Specific Instances.  Extended Examples: Illustrations, Narratives, or anectodes by telling a story vividly or dramatically.  Hypothetical Examples: Factual or Hypothetical relating a general principle.
  6. 6.  Use examples to clarify your ideas.  Use examples to reinforce your ideas.  Use examples to personalize your ideas.  Make your examples vivid and richly textured.  Practice delivery to enhance you extended examples.
  7. 7.  Statistics refers to numerical data with number, table, graph and chart etc. Statistics can be found in reputable books, journals, govt. publications and websites.  Understanding Statistics:  Are the statistics representative?  Are statistical measures used correctly?  Are the sources reliable?  Guidelines for using statistics:  Use statistics to quantify your ideas.  Use statistics carefully  Identify the sources  Explain effectively  Round off the complex data.
  8. 8. Expert Testimony: When we refer to acknowledged experts in particular fields, it makes things more reliable . Peer Testimony: Opinions of people like ourselves are also of good use as they may have relevant experience. Quoting/ Paraphrasing: Direct quotation or explaining the gist of someone’s speech/quote can be very useful.
  9. 9. Accountability: Who is responsible for the site? Accuracy: Is the information correct? Objectivity: Is the site free of bias? Timeliness: Is the site current? Usability: Do the layout and design of the site facilitate its use? Diversity: Is the site inclusive?
  10. 10.  Books  Periodicals  Newspapers  Online Databases  Reference Resources  Government Documents  Special Services
  11. 11.  Organizing ideas topically  Predominance  Recency  Complexity  Ordering ideas chronologically Forward in time How to explain Backward in time Organizing ideas to show cause –effect Organizing ideas to show effect- cause
  12. 12.  Organizing ideas by problem/solution.  Organizing ideas by solution/problem. Subdividing Your Main Ideas
  13. 13.  Prepare your supporting material  Organize your supporting material  Primacy/recency Specificity Complexity Soft/hard evidence  Incorporate your supporting material into your speech
  14. 14. Purposes of Introductions  Get the audience’s attention  Give the audience a reason to listen  Introduce the subject  Establish your credibility  Preview your main ideas
  15. 15. To make sure it does . . .  Use an illustration, a startling fact or statistic, a quotation, humor, a question, a reference to an historical event or to a recent event, a personal reference, a reference to the occasion, or a reference to a preceding speech.
  16. 16. To make sure it does…  Tell your listeners how the topic directly affects them. To make sure it does…  Present your central idea to your audience.
  17. 17. To make sure it does…  Offer your credentials. Tell your listeners about your commitment to your topic. To make sure it does…  Tell your audience what you are going to tell them.
  18. 18.  References to recent events  Personal references  References to the occasion  References to preceding speeches  Illustrations or anecdotes  Startling facts or statistics  Quotations  Humor  Questions  Reference to historical events
  19. 19.  Be Prepared  Take a deep breath  Slow your breathing / pause between sentences  Get the audience engaged  Tell a joke, use a quote, use a poem to begin your speech  Walk around – use your energy  Find your own way to reduce nervousness  Face your fears.
  20. 20.  Highlight the central theme of your speech.  Briefly cover the main points.  Provide the audience with a feeling of satisfaction that you accomplished what you promised.  Closing statement.  Thank the audience for their attention.
  21. 21. The soul never thinks without a picture. ~Aristotle
  22. 22. Presentation aids---  enhance understanding  enhance memory  help listeners to organize ideas  help to gain and maintain attention  help to illustrate a sequence of events or procedures
  23. 23. Benefits of using Overhead Transparencies and PowerPoint Slides :  Easy to prepare  Can include a wide variety of images using different animations  Can include charts and maps  Easy to re-arrange  Organizes information for both audience and speaker  Easy to modify (for slide shows)  Can be used instead of flip charts  Easy to carry around
  24. 24. Figure 14.1 Two-Dimensional Presentation Aid: Map
  25. 25. Figure 14.2 Two-Dimensional Presentation Aid: Bar Graph
  26. 26. Figure 14.3 Two-Dimensional Presentation: Pie Graph
  27. 27. Figure 14.4 Two Dimensional Presentation Aid: Line Graph
  28. 28. Figure 14.5 Two-Dimensional Presentation Aid: Visual Symbols
  29. 29.  Make it simple  Keep your presentation professional  Unify visuals  Choose fonts carefully  Choose colors carefully  Allow plenty of time to create visuals  Control attention with PowerPoint slides
  30. 30.  Very interesting and attracts attention  More dynamic  Useful for persuasion  Can be prepared by the speaker When using videos movies and videos: Dos Don’ts Make sure it doesn’t contain unsuitable scenes Don’t use too much videos/movies Check the sound and picture of the Video Don’t use home made videos State the goal behind the video before watching unless you want to surprise the audience Don’t describe the movie in details before watching Comment / discuss the video after watching Don’t stop in the middle of the video and comment unless it is a big one.
  31. 31.  Make them easy to see  Keep them simple  Select the right presentation aid  Do not use dangerous or illegal presentation aids
  32. 32.  Prepare carefully and practice with aids  Maintain eye contact with audience  Tell about the presentation aid  Don’t pass objects  Be careful with animals  Use handouts and technology effectively  Control your audience’s attention
  33. 33. Characteristics of effective A/V Aids Suitable for the point in concern and the audience Make sure that the Aid is conveniently related to the point. Make sure that the aid is as relevant to the subject as it’s attractive Adequate in content and how much fun it includes Proper for the subject, audience and points discussed Use charts and slides for the specialist audiences. Use simpler aids when speechifying an audience of common people. Use well selected paints/ pictures in occasional/ religious speeches. Attractive and numerous Make sure that the Aid is well prepared, organized and eye-catching one Make it innovative and creative Make numerous to keep the audience attentive Simple Don’t overload one aid with all the points, try to divide them across several aids. Use for every major point a separate aid. Clear and well sized Make sure that it’s well seen by the last row of attendees, otherwise, it will be disturbing for the audience. Don’t use a visual aid, the audience can’t see or read its contents, you would waste time reading and explaining it.
  34. 34.  First Impressions – made in the first 7 seconds ◦ Hair style, accessories, shoes, breath  Who is your audience – dress appropriately  How you dress will reinforce your authority ◦ Clean ◦ Neat
  35. 35.  Use variation in ◦ Loudness: Helps provide emphasis and attention ◦ Pitch : Low and high pitch Creates interest ◦ Quality : Provides emotion and feeling ◦ Rate : Holds the attention of the audience
  36. 36. Posture Shows confidence Not too rigid – locked knees = chance to meet the floor / Relax…… Facial Expressions Smile/ enjoy yourself and your audience will also enjoy themselves Be serious when necessary
  37. 37. Eye Contact Helps establish a relationship with your audience Makes them feel included Too nervous – look directly above their heads Look for signals from your audience – do they look confused? bored? Excited? Keep head up – Don’t talk to the floor Gestures Use your head, hands and arms – helps to emphasize ideas and feelings Should come naturally
  38. 38. 1. The size of the room has to be suitable for the expected number of audience. 1. Big Rooms with a small number of audience, indicates failure. 2. Small Rooms get crowded easily and make you lose part of the audience. 2. Avoid Speaking in open areas, as there will be a lot of distraction and people will lose focus easily. 3. Make sure that you distribute the seats appropriately, in order to match the type of the speech.
  39. 39. 1. Try to get comfortable with the place before the speech’s start ( at least by 2 hours) 2. If you are new to the place, get familiar with the setting before you start. 3. Try sitting on the last seat in the room, to check the screen and the audio’s clarity to everyone.
  40. 40.  Make Sure That: ◦ The Seats are comfortable ◦ The microphone, speakers and the audio tools are working properly. ◦ Restrooms are suitable. ◦ There is enough drinking water for all of the audience. ◦ Direction Sign to the Room. ◦ The Room Temperature is suitable (Air Conditioning) ◦ There are Suitable passages and exits. ◦ Electric plugs are correctly plugged-in. ◦ There are tissues.
  41. 41.  Make sure that your voice reaches everyone.  Make sure that everyone is able to see the visual aids.  Encourage participation and conversations  Make sure that there’s a name label in front of everyone.  Allow interruptions.
  42. 42.  Make sure that there’s no echo in the room.  Ask the audience to be seated in the first rows, and explain the benefit of it.  Make sure that the microphone is working properly.  Use big visual aids (it’s preferable that you do not use big flip charts, instead use presentation screens)  Do not let anyone stand in front of others (photographers, …etc.)
  43. 43.  Positives: ◦ Eye Contact is easy to maintain ◦ Suitable for Individual Exercises ◦ Contains large number of audience  Negatives: ◦ Hazy vision at the back(last rows) ◦ Not Suitable for Group Exercises. ◦ Side Talks at the back.
  44. 44.  Positives: ◦ Suitable for Individual Exercises ◦ Contains large number of audience  Negatives: ◦ Eye Contact is difficult to maintain ◦ Not Suitable for Group Exercises. ◦ Difficulty in focusing at the sides.
  45. 45.  Positives: ◦ Clear Vision ◦ Eye Contact is easy to maintain ◦ Suitable for Individual Exercises  Negatives: ◦ Contains smaller number of audience. ◦ Not suitable for group exercises.
  46. 46. Positives:  Clear Vision  Eye Contact is easy to maintain  Suitable for Individual/Group Exercises Negatives:  Contains small number of audience.  Side Seating for some of the audience  Side Talks are possible
  47. 47.  Positives: ◦ Excellent for Conversations ◦ Easy movement for the speaker. ◦ Eye Contact is easy to maintain ◦ Clear Vision  Negatives: ◦ Contains small number of audience. ◦ Not Suitable for Group Exercises.
  48. 48.  Positives: ◦ Eye Contact is easy to maintain ◦ Suitable for Individual Exercises ◦ Contains large number of audience ◦ Easy movement for the speaker.  Negatives: ◦ Hazy vision at the back (last rows) ◦ Not Suitable for Group Exercises. ◦ Side Talks at the back.
  49. 49. General Tips to adjust your speech time:  Speech timing depends on the subject or type of speech : ◦ Occasion speeches (less than 20min) ◦ Lectures (less than 1 hour) ◦ Training sessions (depends on the time of the course yet try to give out a break every 2 or 2 & half hours)  Finalize your Speech.  Don’t exceed the time dedicated to you.
  50. 50.  Stop when the subject is done and don’t go on just to fill the time gap.  Try to finish before closure and don’t extend it.  Try to sum up all similar points into 1 main point, as the more the points increase the more the understanding decreases.  When people ask for a break, do grant them a break.  Time is a major factor that controls your speech, so you have to put a plan to get the best out of it.
  51. 51.  Do Speak on a topic you have earned the right to talk about Speak on a topic that you are interested in – be enthusiastic Talk from your heart – not from your mouth Be sincere Be honest Be eager to communicate your information Keep it simple Make brief notes of what you want to say Use pictures or examples to support your opinion Know more about your topic than you will use Rehearse the points of your speech through normal conversation with friends  Don’t Memorize your speech Imitate others, be yourself Preach or scold
  52. 52.  Give yourself enough time  Practice before making speaking notes  Time your speech  Prepare your speaking notes  Rehearse your speech standing up  Rehearse with an audience  Record your rehearsals  Rehearse using all of your presentation aids  Be realistic; recreate as much as possible the speaking situation  Practice good delivery skills
  53. 53.  Get plenty of rest before your speech  Review the suggestions for becoming a confident speaker  Arrive early for your speaking engagement  Have a look around  Know the environment  Adjust with the given situation  Stop thinking too much  Have some soothing music  Call mum/dear person/bosom friend  Pray and Relax 
  54. 54.  Prepare  Repeat or rephrase the question  Stay on message  Respond to the audience, not just the person who asked the question  Ask yourself the first question  Listen non-judgmentally  Neutralize hostile questions  When you don’t know, admit it  Be brief  Use organizational signposts  Indicate when the Q&A period is concluding
  55. 55.  Some Types of speeches: ◦ Informative ◦ Persuading/Convincing ◦ Occasion Speeches ◦ Religious Speeches  Based on the speech type, the goals and the details are determined.
  56. 56.  Important Tips: ◦ Design your speech and divide it into main points, each main point should take 15 minutes. ◦ Each point is related to the topic (I determine what I will deliver and I let the audience know what they expect from me) ◦ Don’t give boring stuff (Ex: anything that’s known, old, traditional is boring)
  57. 57.  Use one of the organizing techniques for a better delivery (to be explained in details):  The Chain/Circular Method: Giving a piece of info then relating it with another piece … etc.  The Simple Method: Giving a simple piece of info, then go into details in the same piece.
  58. 58.  Persuading: The process of influencing the audience to change thoughts and behaviors.  Types of Persuading Speeches: ◦ Proving Facts ◦ Proving Preference ◦ Applying New Policy  Ways to Persuade: ◦ Using people’s trust in you (Ex: fathers, teachers) ◦ Emotional/spiritual influence ◦ Logic (The least used one)
  59. 59.  DOs: ◦ Emotion: Focus on something that people react with, you don’t need a lot of evidences or examples, you only need one strong emotional example ◦ Earning Trust: In order to earn the audience’s trust, you should start by clarifying that you are one of them.
  60. 60.  DON’Ts: ◦ The question and the answer are the same; the answer is inside the question (ex: Would you prefer that he leads us despite his weakness?) ◦ Claiming without a proof ◦ False Comparison; (Two topics that are irrelevant to each other but have something in common and don’t generalize) ◦ Using stimulating words ( ex: the government, the upper management) ◦ Changing Facts; using statistics in the wrong timing ◦ Simplifying; decreasing the alternatives to push people in a certain direction ◦ Before & after; ( after he was in charge, everything went well)
  61. 61.  Speechifies knowledgeably  Well-Prepared  Language-skilled  Delivers essential messages  Self-confident  Honest  Empathic Listener  Considers the Audience  Believes in what he says

Notes de l'éditeur

  • NOTES:
    Figure 14.1 A map can be an effective visual aid, especially if the speaker personalizes it by highlighting the relevant information.
  • NOTES:
    Figure 14.2 Bar graphs can help to summarize statistical information clearly so that the information is immediately visible to the audience.
  • NOTES:
    Figure 14.3 A pie graph shows the percentage of a whole contributed by each part.
  • NOTES:
    Figure 14.4 Line graphs show relationships between two or more variables.
  • NOTES:
    Figure 14.5 Adding visual symbols, such as those in this picture graph can help your audience to maintain interest and understand complete information.
  • NOTES: Make the Most of Your Rehearsal Time
    Give yourself enough time. Finish drafting your speech outline at least two days before your speech performance.
    Practice before making speaking notes. Before you prepare the speaking notes to use in front of your audience, rehearse your speech aloud to help determine where you will need notes to prompt yourself.
    Time your speech. Revise your speech as necessary to keep it within the time limits set by your instructor or whoever invited you to speak.
    Prepare your speaking notes. Use whatever system works best for you. Some speakers use pictorial symbols to remind themselves of a story or an idea. Others use complete sentences or just words or phrases in an outline pattern to prompt them. Most teachers advocate using note cards for speaking notes.
    Rehearse your speech standing up. This will help you to get a feel for your use of gestures as well as your vocal delivery. Do not try to memorize your speech or choreograph specific gestures. As you rehearse, you might want to modify your speaking notes to reflect appropriate changes.
    Rehearse with an audience. If you can, present your speech to someone else so that you can practice establishing eye contact. Seek feedback from your captive audience about both your delivery and your speech content.
    Record your rehearsals. A video recording lets you observe your vocal and physical mannerisms and make necessary changes. If you don’t have a video camera, you may find it useful to practice before a mirror so that you can observe your body language—it’s low-tech, but it still works.
    Rehearse using all your presentation aids. Don’t wait until the last minute to plan, prepare, and rehearse with flipcharts, PowerPoint slides, or other aids that you will need to manipulate as you speak.
    Be realistic. Re-create, as much as possible, the speaking situation you will face. If you will be speaking in a large classroom, find a large classroom in which to rehearse your speech. If your audience will be seated informally in a semicircle, then this should be the context in which you rehearse your speech. The more realistic the rehearsal, the more confidence you will gain.
    Practice good delivery skills while rehearsing. Remember this maxim: Practice makes perfect if practice is perfect.
  • NOTES: Suggestions to help you prepare for a successful performance:
    Get plenty of rest before your speech. Last-minute, late-night final preparations can take the edge off your performance. Many professional public speakers also advocate that you watch what you eat before you speak; a heavy meal or too much caffeine can have a negative effect on your performance.
    Review the suggestions in Chapter 2 for becoming a confident speaker. It is normal to have pre-speech jitters. But if you have developed a well-organized, audience-centered message on a topic of genuine interest to you, you’re doing all the right things to make your speech a success.
    Remember some of the other tips for developing confidence: Use deep breathing techniques to help you relax. Also, make sure you are especially familiar with your introduction and conclusion. Act calm to feel calm.
    Arrive early for your speaking engagement. If the room is in an unfamiliar location, give yourself plenty of time to find it. As we suggested in Chapter 5, you may want to rearrange the furniture or make other changes in the speaking environment.
    Visualize success. Picture yourself delivering your speech in an effective way. Also, remind yourself of the effort you have made preparing for your speech. A final mental rehearsal can boost your confidence and help ensure success.
  • NOTES:
  • Each main point: if you have 30 minutes it will take only ONE main point coz every point needs intro and time for questions … etc.