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VI. Community ResourcesA. Field tripsB. Resource persons
VII. Language laboratoryVIII. Programmed Instruction- It consists of self-teachingwith the aid of a textbook or teaching machine that presentsmaterial structured in a logical sequence.
Basic Guidelines in the use of the AVAidsAudiovisual aids cannot teach by themselves , they needskillful teaching to make them effective1.Selecting the materials- appropriateness and effectiveness- regency- availability- appeal- technical quality- costTry it before using
Guidelines2. Preparing the class for the audiovisual experienceMotivationSpend time discussing the purposeSuggesting points that will direct attention to key ideasduring the activityIn working order
Guidelines3. Guiding the pupils through the audiovisual experiences- Ear stops at a certain points during the presentation to askquestions or to explain to the pupils what they areexperiencing
4. Following-up the audiovisual experiences after itscompletionHelps clear out people misunderstanding of certain portionsof the experienceEvaluates worth of the materialBasis for improving
1. Recitation:> permanent fixture of the classroom situation>visible manifestation of the teaching-learning situationRationale:1.Occasion for developing reflective thinking, creativeexpressions, favorable attitudes and ideas of social living2.Matrix for inculcating democratic ideals such as respect forthe human personality, cooperative effort, general welfare,grp resp. and the use of one’s intelligence.
recitationPurpose:1. To develop wholesome attitudesessential to effective social living2. To provide practice indemocratic ideals and processes3. To provide problem solvingactivities that will train pupils inreflective thinking and criticalevaluation4. to encourage freedom ofexpression and respect for theopinion of othersHow to conduct:1. Planning and organizing-ensuresmooth unfolding of activities2. Recitation should beprogressive-clear goal3. Should provide for active pupilparticipation and self-activity-learn by doing4. Should utilize lifelike situations5. Should provide for individualdifferences6. Should provide for evaluation
2. AssignmentIntegral part of any lessonWhat they are to do and what they are to accomplish in thelessonChiefly means of stimulating and directing learningMeans of developing good study habits and independentworkPurposive, meaningful and significant to students
How to conduct:1. set the goal or direction of the learning activity2. Review past lessons in the preparation for a tests ororganization of ideas and concepts3. Motivate the pupil and prepare the job to be done4. Setting up definite learning activities to carried out5. Providing directions for learning activity6. Establishing of habit of studying regularly
3. The Art of QuestioningUses of questions:1.To stimulate pupils to think2.To motivate pupils3.To diagnose pupil’s difficulties4.To discover pupils’ interests5.To help pupils organize and evaluate6.To aid pupils to relate pertinent experiences to the lesson7.To focus pupils attention on the key points od the lesson8.To develop new appreciations and attitudes9.To provide drill or practice10.To show relationships, such as cause and effect
Characteristics of a Good QuestionA good question1. Simple and clear2. definite3. challenging and thought provoking4. adapted to the age, abilities and interests of the students5. requires an extended response
Techniques of Questioning:1. Questions should be asked in a natural and well- modulatedvoice2.A teacher should ask the question first and then wait for theclass to think about it before calling on a student to answer thequestions3. A sufficient number of questions should be asked tostimulate students to activity4. A teacher should refrain from repeating the questions5. Questions should be evenly distributed so that the majorityof the pupils can take part in the discussion6. A teacher avoid resorting to any mechanical system offielding questions to the class7. A teacher should ask questions that are really interesting
Techniques in handling studentresponses to the teachers1. A teacher should make every effort to show an appreciativeattitude toward students answers2. A teacher should never allow wrong answers to slip by3. Correct answers of students should be followed withencouraging remarks by the teacher4. Clarity in every point expressed by the students should beinsisted upon by the teacher5. Answering in concert should be discouraged6. A teacher should encourage students to answer in a loudand clear voice.7. Students should be encouraged to answer in completethought units and grammatically correct statements8. A teacher should refrain from marking the students in his
Techniques in Handling StudentQuestions1. Students questions should be welcomed by a teacher2. A teacher should not answer a student question right away3. Indiscriminate students questions should not be allowed4. A teacher should require students to frame grammaticallycorrect questions5. If a teacher is asked questions he cannot answer, assometimes happens, he should promptly admit his inability
Classroom ManagementMeaning and Importance of Management: > CarterV. Goods Dictionary of Education (1973) definesclassroom management as “ the administration or direction ofactivities with reference to such problems as discipline,democratic techniques, use and care of supplies and referencematerials, the physical features of the classroom, generalhousekeeping and social relationship of the pupils”.
Classroom management includes control of its physicalconditions as well as of the materials of instruction.Classroom management includes operation and control ofactivities.A well-managed class is conducive to mental growth anddevelopment.Pleasant surroundings induce good thoughts and inspire bothteacher and the pupils to do their best.Good classroom management establishes an atmosphere whichpermits activities to be carried on efficiently and economically.
Aspects of Classroom Management:1. Physical preparation - lighting (avoid Glares)- physical appearance of roomThe physical appearance of the room can stimulate pleasantfeelings, attitudes, ideas, and appreciations essential tolearning.
2. Care of RoutineAdvantages:1. Economy in time andeffort2. Prevent confusion3. Promote learning activityDisadvantages:1. If over mechanized, noroom for initiative is left tothe pupils.2. Students may behave likeautomatons, creativity isdestroyed.
3. Directing and controlling LearningDemocratic teachings produce better learning results thanthose who dominate, control or manipulate learning situation.Two-way communication
4. DisciplineThe process or result of directing or subordinating immediatewishes, impulses, desires, or interests for the sake of an ideal,or for the purpose of gaining more effective, dependableaction.- The ultimate function of discipline is to help the childdevelop good moral character.- It must help attain right behavior.- Discipline should provide opportunities for training theintellect, the emotions, and the will.- Discipline should help the child develop desirable habitsleading to self-discipline.
Principles of Effective andConstructive Discipline:1. the teacher should be responsible for his own classdiscipline.2. The teacher should provide a wholesome atmosphere whichresults from orderly and adequate classroom conditions.3. Effective discipline aims for self-direction.4. Discipline, to be effective, should be vital meaningful,sympathetic, and humane.5. Pupils right should be respected.6. Effective discipline should be based in the tenets ofdemocracy.*Restraint without freedom is tyranny;freedom without restraint is anarchy.