1. “So a virtual reality is a synthetic sensory
experience which may one day be
indistinguishable from the real physical
- Kalawsky, R.S. (1993)
Virtual Reality (VR) is the illusion of a threedimensional, interactive, computer-generated reality where
sight, sound, and sometimes even touch are simulated to
create pictures, sounds, and objects that actually seem real.
5. History of virtual reality
• The term ‘virtual reality’ was created and popularized.
• Company named ‘VPL Research’ launched and produced goggles and gloves.
• NASA scientist designed virtual reality system to control Mars
rover from Earth.
6. What is VR?
• emulating the real world
• making an electronic world seem real
• not static 3D images
• not movies
• moving within the world
• manipulating objects in the world
7. Inside VR
• scenes projected on walls
• realistic environment
• hydraulic rams!
• real controls
• other people
12. Hardware used in VR
A variety of input devices allow the user to navigate through a
virtual environment and to interact with virtual objects.
Directional sound, tactile and force feedback devices, voice
recognition and other technologies are being employed to
enrich the immersive experience and to create more
13. Input Devices (Motion Trackers)
The Motion Tracking system is based on magnetic sensors which are attached to the
user. Most common are sensors measuring the intensity of a magnetic field generated
at a reference point. The motion of the different segments is tracked using magnetic
sensors . These sensors return raw data (e.g. positions and orientations) expressed in
a single frame system..
14. Other Input Devices
A MIDI keyboard controller has 88 keys, any of which can be struck within a fraction of second.
Each key transmits velocity of keystroke as well as pressure after the key is pressed.
Real-time video input
SIRIUS® Video card from Silicon Graphics. With SIRIUS®, images are digitized at a frequency of 25
Hz (PAL) or 30 Hz (NTSC) and may be analyzed by the VR program.
Real-time audio input
Speech synthesis facilities are of clear utility in a VR environment especially for command
feedback. Although speech synthesis software is available even at the personal computer
level, some improvement is still needed, particularly in the quality of speech.
15. Output Devices
Head-mounted displays (HMDs)
The head-mounted display (HMD) was the first device providing its wearer with an
immersive experience. A typical HMD houses two miniature display screens and an
optical system that channels the images from the screens to the
eyes, thereby, presenting a stereo view of a virtual world. As a result, the viewer can
look around and walk through the surrounding virtual environment.
16. BOOM (Binocular Omni-Orientation
The BOOM (Binocular Omni-Orientation Monitor) from Fake space is a head-coupled
stereoscopic display device. Screens and optical system are housed in a box that is
attached to a multi-link arm. The user looks into the box through two holes, sees the
virtual world, and can guide the box to any position within the operational volume of
18. Architecture of VR System
Input Processor, Simulation
Processor, Rendering Processor and World
24. The Future of Virtual Reality
Virtual Reality is a growing industry
PC and specialized hardware are getting better, faster and cheaper
because of development in VR.
Maybe 3D user interfaces will replace the present computers.
Huge demand for VRML programmers in near future.
Revolution in gaming industries
In the past, computing power has
approximately every 18
months, a trend that is known as
Moore’s Law. If this is the case then we
should have a computer powerful
enough to run immersive VR programs
in our own homes by the year 2037.