The Internet of Things (IoT) is a scenario in which objects, animals or
people are provided with unique identifiers and the ability to transfer
data over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-
In other words the Internet of Things (IoT) is the network of physical
objects or "things" embedded with electronics, software, sensors and
connectivity to enable it to achieve greater value and service by
exchanging data with the manufacturer, operator and/or other
connected devices. Each thing is uniquely identifiable through its
embedded computing system but is able to interoperate within the
existing Internet infrastructure.
3. Typically, IoT is expected to offer advanced connectivity of devices,
systems, and services that goes beyond machine-to-machine
communications (M2M) and covers a variety of protocols, domains,
and applications. The interconnection of these embedded devices
(including smart objects), is expected to usher in automation in
nearly all fields.
5. Edge layer: This hardware layer consists of sensor networks,
embedded systems, RFID tags and readers or other soft sensors
in different forms for collecting and processing information.
Access gateway layer: the first stage of data handling happens at
this layer. It care of message routing, publishing and subscribing
and also performs cross platform communication, if required
Middleware layer: this is one of the most critical layers that
operates in bidirectional mode. It acts as an interface between the
hardware layer at the bottom and the application layer at the top.
Application layer: this layer at the top of the stack is responsible
for delivery of various applications to different users in IoT. The
applications can be from different industry verticals such as:
manufacturing, logistics, retail, environment etc
6. There are numerous application of IoT, it can be
implemented succesfully into every sectors
some of them are-
Smart buildings and homes.
Health care sector.
Smart and connected cities.
8. Several challenges to IoT are-
Network Foundation- limitations of the current Internet
architecture in terms of mobility, availability, manageability
and scalability are some of the major barriers to IoT.
Managing Big data- as large number of devices
communicate which each other ,large data is accumulated
out of which only a little bit is useful ,managing this Big
data is big challenge.
Security and Privacy- security and privacy is another
challenge as each layer IoT system is prone to cyber
Managing heterogeneity-managing heterogeneous
applications, environments and devices constitute a major
9. There are several areas in which further research
is needed for making deployment of the
concept of IoT reliable, robust and efficient.
Some of the areas are-
Advanced Identity management system.
Reduction of unwanted M2M conversion.
Reduced bandwidth requirement.
Advanced security system.