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Teaching Students with Special NeedsUsing Assistive technology<br />
Outline<br />Teaching Students with Disabilities<br />Referral and Evaluation for services<br />Individualized Education Plan<br />Assistive Technology<br />Overview<br />Assistive Technologies for specific disabilities<br />
Referral and Evaluation<br />Referral: When a teacher, parent, or doctor is concerned that a child may be having trouble in the classroom, they should notify the school counselor or psychologist. <br />Evaluation:<br />First step: gather specific data regarding the student's progress<br />Second step: try specific strategies to help the child become more successful in school<br />Third step: child will be tested for a specific learning disability or other impairment to help determine qualification for special services<br />
Individualized Education Plan (IEP)<br />Developed through cooperation with parents, classroom teachers, counselors, special education teachers, and other personnel<br />Based on the idea of Inclusion: <br />The belief or philosophy that students with disabilities should be fully integrated into their school learning communities and that their instruction should be based on their abilities, not their disabilities<br />Includes physical integration, social integration & instructional integration<br />Promotes idea of Least Restrictive Environment<br />
Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)<br />Provision of the 1975 Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EHCA) and the 1990 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)<br />Guarantees a student’s right to be educated in the setting most like that for peers without disabilities in which the student can be successful with appropriate supports<br />Such supports include Assistive Technology<br />
Assistive Technology<br />Also known as Adaptive Technology (AT)<br />Refers to assistive, adaptive, and rehabilitative devices for people with disabilities<br />AT promotes greater independence by enabling people to perform tasks they formerly could not accomplish<br />
AT for Specific Disabilities: ADHD <br />Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder<br />Characterized by impulsivity, trouble focusing, inability to sit still, problems paying attention<br />Assistive Technology for ADHD<br />Invisible Clock: a small pager looking device that is worn in the belt loop. It can remind the individual to stay concentrated by sending a vibration or beep at a specific time.<br />Computer-Assisted Instruction: provides the following:<br />Personalization: increases student interest and improves mental organization, by helping the student relate new information to what he/she already knows.<br />Animation: when concepts are animated on the screen, a learner has an opportunity to apply visual learning skills and see a process in motion.<br />Challenge: software is used to accurately identify a student’s acquired knowledge/skill and present materials at the appropriate level to challenge and not discourage learning. Instruction is targeted to specific learning needs.<br />Choice: student-controlled features of a CAI program are expected to enhance the sense of competence through self-determination and control<br />Interest: content can be presented in a context similar to fantasy games to engage the student’s interest.<br />Other classroom strategies<br />Seat student near the teacher, to reduce distractions<br />Keep a homework folder for parent-teacher communication<br />Break down assignments with brief & clear instructions<br />
AT for Specific Disabilities: Auditory disabilities<br />Auditory disabilities<br />Includes various degrees of hearing loss<br />Conductive hearing loss: interference in transmission of sound to inner ear<br />Sensorineural hearing loss: malformation, dysfunction or damage to the inner ear<br />Assistive Technology for auditory disabilities<br />Personal frequency modulation (FM) systems: consists of a transmitter microphone used by the teacher and a receiver used by the student. The receiver transmits the sound to the student’s hearing aid either through direct audio input or through a looped cord worn around the teacher’s neck<br />Sound field systems: using FM technology, the teacher speaks into a microphone transmitter. The teacher's voice is projected through speakers mounted around the classroom. This arrangement assists in overcoming the problems of distance, background noise, and poor room acoustics that affect listening for all children.<br />Other classroom strategies<br />Note taking: have another student or a teaching assistant to record notes so that the hearing-impaired student can focus on the lecture and watching the teacher<br />Closed-captioning TV: allows text display of spoken dialogue on classroom TVs<br />
AT for Specific Disabilities: Mild Learning Disabilities<br />Mild Learning Disabilities<br />Includes difficulties processing, organizing, and applying academic information<br />Have some difficulty meeting the academic and social demands of general education classrooms<br />Generally have below-average intellectual functioning<br />Assistive Technology for learning disabilities<br />Abbreviation Expanders: used with word processing, these software programs allows students to create, store, and re-use abbreviations for frequently-used words or phrases. This can save the student keystrokes and ensure proper spelling of words and phrases they have coded as abbreviations. This benefits students who struggle with writing.<br />Audio books: recorded books allow students to listen to text and are available in a variety of formats, such as audiocassettes, CDs, and MP3 downloads. Special playback units allow users to and search and bookmark pages and chapters. This benefits students who struggle with reading.<br />Electronic math worksheets: software programs that can help students organize, align, and work through math problems on a computer screen. Numbers that appear onscreen can also be read aloud via a speech synthesizer. This benefits students who struggle with reading.<br />Personal FM listening system: transmits a speaker's voice directly to the students'sear. This may help the student focus on what the teacher is saying. The unit consists of a wireless transmitter (with microphone) worn by the teacher and a receiver (with earphone) worn by the student. This benefits students who struggle with listening and attention.<br />Other classroom strategies<br />Have student sit so facing the teacher<br />Extended time for completion of assignments or tests<br />Additional time for reading assignments<br />Frequent breaks<br />