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Middle-Out Design
Audrey Crane
Dubberly Design Office (DDO)
 
 
 
 
 
new design method
middle-out design
issues =
HandScript
Top Secret HandScript
product
medical order-entry system
physicians
hospital
writing
problems
hand-held device with WiFi
“discontinue TUMS”
“    IVF to 100cc/hr ”
“ Reglan 10mg po 30 min qac TID”
client   team
Kevin, engineering manager
Kevin, engineering manager Eliot, voice interaction designer
Kevin, engineering manager Eliot, voice interaction designer Claire, “front end” engineer
Kevin, engineering manager Eliot, voice interaction designer Claire, “front end” engineer Howard, local doctor
Kevin, engineering manager Eliot, voice interaction designer Claire, “front end” engineer Howard, local doctor Dr. Famous,...
us him
David CTO  Kevin, engineering manager Eliot, voice interaction designer Claire, “front end” engineer Howard, local doctor ...
5 + 3  Kevin, engineering manager Eliot, voice interaction designer Claire, “front end” engineer Howard, local doctor Dr. ...
Kevin, engineering manager Eliot, voice interaction designer Claire, “front end” engineer Howard, local doctor Dr. Famous,...
Kevin, engineering manager Eliot, voice interaction designer Claire, “front end” engineer Howard, local doctor Dr. Famous,...
Kevin, engineering manager Eliot, voice interaction designer Claire, “front end” engineer Howard, local doctor Dr. Famous,...
project background
company = engineers
(so that has some implications)
privately funded
$ $ $ $ $ $
alpha (1 year old, some content)
1 year to go
(1 year late)
ex- Gino, designer
“just a little help”
(background background)
Gino, designer ex-
Claire, “front end” engineer Gino, designer ex-
frustrated
content entry tool ~ product UI
Dr. Famous content expert information architect Dr. Famous, content expert information architect
(designer) Dr. Famous, content expert information architect
Dr. Famous doesn’t need  any stinkin’ designers
Dr. Famous, content expert information architect
(serious chronic illness)
getting started
first meeting
Santa Cruz
 
mostly Working At Home “WAH”
(so that has some implications)
no receptionist
barefoot engineer
lights off
 
?
 
“What is an order?”
“NPO until procedure, then…
“…ice chips for 1 hour, then…”
“… full liquid diet until  patient requests food, then…”
“…regular diet.”
“…regular diet. Low sodium.”
1? 2? 5?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
domain =
 
competition =
 
work =
 
product =
finite
DDO engagement =
 
DDO process
1. Research  2. Model  3. Prototype  4. Test  5. Specify
1. Research  2. Model  3. Prototype  4. Test  5. Specify - studies
1. Research  2. Model  3. Prototype  4. Test  5. Specify - studies - reviews
1. Research  2. Model  3. Prototype  4. Test  5. Specify - studies - reviews - analysis
1. Research  2. Model  3. Prototype  4. Test  5. Specify - studies - reviews - analysis - synthesis
1. Research  2. Model  3. Prototype  4. Test  5. Specify - studies - reviews - analysis - synthesis <ul><li>maps </li></ul>
1. Research  2. Model  3. Prototype  4. Test  5. Specify - studies - reviews - analysis - synthesis <ul><li>maps </li></ul...
1. Research  2. Model  3. Prototype  4. Test  5. Specify - studies - reviews - analysis - synthesis <ul><li>maps </li></ul...
1. Research  2. Model  3. Prototype  4. Test  5. Specify - studies - reviews - analysis - synthesis <ul><li>maps </li></ul...
1. Research  2. Model  3. Prototype  4. Test  5. Specify - studies - reviews - analysis - synthesis <ul><li>maps </li></ul...
1. Research  2. Model  3. Prototype  4. Test  5. Specify - studies - reviews - analysis - synthesis <ul><li>maps </li></ul...
1. Research  2. Model  3. Prototype  4. Test  5. Specify 1. Analyze  2. Define  3. Ideate  4. Select  5. Implement 1. Defi...
(whole other talk)
<ul><li>research or analysis </li></ul>
Work already!
9 engineers sitting
 
…or worse!
What to do?
1. Research    2. Model    3. Prototype     4. Test   5. Specify - studies - reviews - analysis - synthesis <ul><li>maps <...
3 participant user testing?
1 week for modeling?
 
  ?
1. Research    2. Model    3. Prototype     4. Test   5. Specify - studies - reviews - analysis - synthesis <ul><li>maps <...
 
OR
1. Research  2. Model  3. Prototype  4. Test  5. Specify
 
 
“Um…sure.”
 
<ul><li>Admit/Xfr/Dschg </li></ul><ul><li>Diet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regular diet as tol. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soft ...
“What if the handheld is lost?”
“ Er…Log out after 30 seconds.”
lacks coherence, consistency
 
  ?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ...
1. Research  2. Model  3. Prototype  4. Test  5. Specify
1. Research  2. Model  3. Prototype  4. Test  5. Specify
1. Research  2. Model  3. Prototype  4. Test  5. Specify
what we did
wrote down questions questions
? ?
? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
wrote down questions ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
prioritized ?
SQA tangent
Software Quality Assurance
 
Bug:
Bug: 1.  Summary
Bug: 1.  Summary 2.  Description
Bug: 1.  Summary 2.  Description 3.  Owner
Bug: 1.  Summary 2.  Description 3.  Owner 4.  Status (open, working, closed)
Bug: 1.  Summary 2.  Description 3.  Owner 4.  Status (open, working,  )
Bug: 1.  Summary 2.  Description 3.  Owner 4.  Status (open, working,  )  5.  (Severity)
Bug: 1.  Summary 2.  Description 3.  Owner 4.  Status (open, working,  )  5.  (Severity) 6.  Priority
P1 P2 P3 P4 P5
P1 P2 P3 P4 P5   
(or whatever)
P3?? P4!!
P1 (p e wun)  adj.
P1 - crash, data loss
(or whatever)
= issues
 
Design Issue Priority Definitions
Design Issue Priority Definitions P1:   Global or core issue that prevents a significant number of other issues from being...
Design Issue Priority Definitions P1:   P2:   Global or core issue that prevents a significant number of other issues from...
Design Issue Priority Definitions P1:   P2:   P3:   Global or core issue that prevents a significant number of other issue...
Design Issue Priority Definitions P1:   P2:   P3:   P4:   Global or core issue that prevents a significant number of other...
Design Issue Priority Definitions P1:   P2:   P3:   P4:   P5:   Global or core issue that prevents a significant number of...
An issue is resolved when…
?
When are agreed that we have a good fix.
good?
?
my good = your good?
Ha.
good (g ü d) adj. bet·ter, best    1. Being positive or desirable in nature; not bad or poor
(whole other talk)
team “good”= team “good”
Good :
Good: 1.  Efficient, meaning… a.  intuitive b.  fast (application) c.  quick access to information
Good: 1.  Efficient, meaning… a.  intuitive b.  fast (application) c.  quick access to information 2.  Meets expectations;...
Good: 1.  Efficient, meaning… a.  intuitive b.  fast (application) c.  quick access to information 2.  Meets expectations;...
Good: 1.  Efficient, meaning… a.  intuitive b.  fast (application) c.  quick access to information 2.  Meets expectations;...
consistency class
ANYWAY
Go!
tools
 
Design Issue Priority Definitions P1:   P2:   P3:   P4:   P5:   Global or core issue that prevents a significant number of...
Good: 1.  Efficient, meaning… a.  intuitive b.  fast (application) c.  quick access to information 2.  Meets expectations;...
document decisions
Log out when inactive. Let inactivity period be set by user in preferences.
 
systems?
Page Type and Widget Libraries
 
Widget Library: 1.  default appearance 2.  appropriate use case 3.  behavior
5 purposes
1. Documentation
2. Good work
3. Surface issues
4. Basic toolkit
5. Final deliverable
ongoing process
met weekly
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?   
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?    ?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?    ?
(closing = documenting)
 
72 issues
48 closed
P1s and P2s closed
15 P5s
10 open P3 or P4 issues
tangible deliverables
intangible deliverables
 
 
what this means
interesting (?)
not unique
“clean slates” are rare
$
never enough time
all projects have “design bugs”
middle
or beginning
the main points
bugs : software development :: issues : design process
Middle-Out Design: 1.  priority definitions 2.  “good” definition  3.  tracking issues  4.  assigning priorities 5.  impor...
<boss’ slides>
design methods movement
design rationale
Horst Rittel
IBIS
design = argument
</ boss’ slides>
Try it!
Thank You. Audrey Crane [email_address] Dubberly Design Office Thumb twiddling images from artwork by Naomi Roberston.
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Middle Out Design

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An approach to design from the middle out. Rather than starting at the beginning, what if you need to hit the ground running with a product that's already midway through development? Can you still address conceptual issues effectively? Can you still develop consistent standards? Developed while at Dubberly Design Office.

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Middle Out Design

  1. 1. Middle-Out Design
  2. 2. Audrey Crane
  3. 3. Dubberly Design Office (DDO)
  4. 9. new design method
  5. 10. middle-out design
  6. 11. issues =
  7. 12. HandScript
  8. 13. Top Secret HandScript
  9. 14. product
  10. 15. medical order-entry system
  11. 16. physicians
  12. 17. hospital
  13. 18. writing
  14. 19. problems
  15. 20. hand-held device with WiFi
  16. 21. “discontinue TUMS”
  17. 22. “  IVF to 100cc/hr ”
  18. 23. “ Reglan 10mg po 30 min qac TID”
  19. 24. client team
  20. 25. Kevin, engineering manager
  21. 26. Kevin, engineering manager Eliot, voice interaction designer
  22. 27. Kevin, engineering manager Eliot, voice interaction designer Claire, “front end” engineer
  23. 28. Kevin, engineering manager Eliot, voice interaction designer Claire, “front end” engineer Howard, local doctor
  24. 29. Kevin, engineering manager Eliot, voice interaction designer Claire, “front end” engineer Howard, local doctor Dr. Famous, content expert
  25. 30. us him
  26. 31. David CTO Kevin, engineering manager Eliot, voice interaction designer Claire, “front end” engineer Howard, local doctor Dr. Famous, content expert David, CTO
  27. 32. 5 + 3 Kevin, engineering manager Eliot, voice interaction designer Claire, “front end” engineer Howard, local doctor Dr. Famous, content expert David, CTO
  28. 33. Kevin, engineering manager Eliot, voice interaction designer Claire, “front end” engineer Howard, local doctor Dr. Famous, content expert Audrey, design & project manager
  29. 34. Kevin, engineering manager Eliot, voice interaction designer Claire, “front end” engineer Howard, local doctor Dr. Famous, content expert Audrey, design & project manager Greg, interaction designer
  30. 35. Kevin, engineering manager Eliot, voice interaction designer Claire, “front end” engineer Howard, local doctor Dr. Famous, content expert Audrey, design & project manager Greg, interaction designer Hugh, principal
  31. 36. project background
  32. 37. company = engineers
  33. 38. (so that has some implications)
  34. 39. privately funded
  35. 40. $ $ $ $ $ $
  36. 41. alpha (1 year old, some content)
  37. 42. 1 year to go
  38. 43. (1 year late)
  39. 44. ex- Gino, designer
  40. 45. “just a little help”
  41. 46. (background background)
  42. 47. Gino, designer ex-
  43. 48. Claire, “front end” engineer Gino, designer ex-
  44. 49. frustrated
  45. 50. content entry tool ~ product UI
  46. 51. Dr. Famous content expert information architect Dr. Famous, content expert information architect
  47. 52. (designer) Dr. Famous, content expert information architect
  48. 53. Dr. Famous doesn’t need any stinkin’ designers
  49. 54. Dr. Famous, content expert information architect
  50. 55. (serious chronic illness)
  51. 56. getting started
  52. 57. first meeting
  53. 58. Santa Cruz
  54. 60. mostly Working At Home “WAH”
  55. 61. (so that has some implications)
  56. 62. no receptionist
  57. 63. barefoot engineer
  58. 64. lights off
  59. 66. ?
  60. 68. “What is an order?”
  61. 69. “NPO until procedure, then…
  62. 70. “…ice chips for 1 hour, then…”
  63. 71. “… full liquid diet until patient requests food, then…”
  64. 72. “…regular diet.”
  65. 73. “…regular diet. Low sodium.”
  66. 74. 1? 2? 5?
  67. 75. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
  68. 76. domain =
  69. 78. competition =
  70. 80. work =
  71. 82. product =
  72. 83. finite
  73. 84. DDO engagement =
  74. 86. DDO process
  75. 87. 1. Research 2. Model 3. Prototype 4. Test 5. Specify
  76. 88. 1. Research 2. Model 3. Prototype 4. Test 5. Specify - studies
  77. 89. 1. Research 2. Model 3. Prototype 4. Test 5. Specify - studies - reviews
  78. 90. 1. Research 2. Model 3. Prototype 4. Test 5. Specify - studies - reviews - analysis
  79. 91. 1. Research 2. Model 3. Prototype 4. Test 5. Specify - studies - reviews - analysis - synthesis
  80. 92. 1. Research 2. Model 3. Prototype 4. Test 5. Specify - studies - reviews - analysis - synthesis <ul><li>maps </li></ul>
  81. 93. 1. Research 2. Model 3. Prototype 4. Test 5. Specify - studies - reviews - analysis - synthesis <ul><li>maps </li></ul><ul><li>wireframes </li></ul>
  82. 94. 1. Research 2. Model 3. Prototype 4. Test 5. Specify - studies - reviews - analysis - synthesis <ul><li>maps </li></ul><ul><li>wireframes </li></ul><ul><li>- comps </li></ul>
  83. 95. 1. Research 2. Model 3. Prototype 4. Test 5. Specify - studies - reviews - analysis - synthesis <ul><li>maps </li></ul><ul><li>wireframes </li></ul><ul><li>- comps </li></ul>- studies
  84. 96. 1. Research 2. Model 3. Prototype 4. Test 5. Specify - studies - reviews - analysis - synthesis <ul><li>maps </li></ul><ul><li>wireframes </li></ul><ul><li>- comps </li></ul>- studies - detail
  85. 97. 1. Research 2. Model 3. Prototype 4. Test 5. Specify - studies - reviews - analysis - synthesis <ul><li>maps </li></ul><ul><li>wireframes </li></ul><ul><li>- comps </li></ul>- studies - detail - document
  86. 98. 1. Research 2. Model 3. Prototype 4. Test 5. Specify 1. Analyze 2. Define 3. Ideate 4. Select 5. Implement 1. Define 2. Measure 3. Analyze 4. Design 5. Verify 1. Plan 2. Learn 3. Specify 4. Produce 5. Evaluate - studies - reviews - analysis - synthesis <ul><li>maps </li></ul><ul><li>wireframes </li></ul><ul><li>- comps </li></ul>- studies - detail - document
  87. 99. (whole other talk)
  88. 100. <ul><li>research or analysis </li></ul>
  89. 101. Work already!
  90. 102. 9 engineers sitting
  91. 104. …or worse!
  92. 105. What to do?
  93. 106. 1. Research 2. Model 3. Prototype 4. Test 5. Specify - studies - reviews - analysis - synthesis <ul><li>maps </li></ul><ul><li>wireframes </li></ul><ul><li>- comps </li></ul>- studies - detail - document
  94. 107. 3 participant user testing?
  95. 108. 1 week for modeling?
  96. 110. ?
  97. 111. 1. Research 2. Model 3. Prototype 4. Test 5. Specify - studies - reviews - analysis - synthesis <ul><li>maps </li></ul><ul><li>wireframes </li></ul><ul><li>- comps </li></ul>- studies - detail - document
  98. 113. OR
  99. 114. 1. Research 2. Model 3. Prototype 4. Test 5. Specify
  100. 117. “Um…sure.”
  101. 119. <ul><li>Admit/Xfr/Dschg </li></ul><ul><li>Diet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regular diet as tol. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soft diet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Full liquid diet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear liquid diet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NPO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More Consistencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical Soft Diet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pureed Diet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sips of Water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ice chps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common / Diabetic Diets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More Modified Diets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low / High / Amount Per Day </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Food Allergy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Restricted </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fluid Restriction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disease / Condition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Special </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advance as tol. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advance as tol. to… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Regular diet as tol. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Soft diet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical soft diet </li></ul></ul></ul>
  102. 120. “What if the handheld is lost?”
  103. 121. “ Er…Log out after 30 seconds.”
  104. 122. lacks coherence, consistency
  105. 124. ?
  106. 125. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?             
  107. 126. 1. Research 2. Model 3. Prototype 4. Test 5. Specify
  108. 127. 1. Research 2. Model 3. Prototype 4. Test 5. Specify
  109. 128. 1. Research 2. Model 3. Prototype 4. Test 5. Specify
  110. 129. what we did
  111. 130. wrote down questions questions
  112. 131. ? ?
  113. 132. ? ? ? ?
  114. 133. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
  115. 134. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
  116. 135. wrote down questions ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
  117. 136. prioritized ?
  118. 137. SQA tangent
  119. 138. Software Quality Assurance
  120. 140. Bug:
  121. 141. Bug: 1. Summary
  122. 142. Bug: 1. Summary 2. Description
  123. 143. Bug: 1. Summary 2. Description 3. Owner
  124. 144. Bug: 1. Summary 2. Description 3. Owner 4. Status (open, working, closed)
  125. 145. Bug: 1. Summary 2. Description 3. Owner 4. Status (open, working, )
  126. 146. Bug: 1. Summary 2. Description 3. Owner 4. Status (open, working, ) 5. (Severity)
  127. 147. Bug: 1. Summary 2. Description 3. Owner 4. Status (open, working, ) 5. (Severity) 6. Priority
  128. 148. P1 P2 P3 P4 P5
  129. 149. P1 P2 P3 P4 P5   
  130. 150. (or whatever)
  131. 151. P3?? P4!!
  132. 152. P1 (p e wun) adj.
  133. 153. P1 - crash, data loss
  134. 154. (or whatever)
  135. 155. = issues
  136. 157. Design Issue Priority Definitions
  137. 158. Design Issue Priority Definitions P1: Global or core issue that prevents a significant number of other issues from being resolved.
  138. 159. Design Issue Priority Definitions P1: P2: Global or core issue that prevents a significant number of other issues from being resolved. Prevents some issues from being resolved, but not a large number.
  139. 160. Design Issue Priority Definitions P1: P2: P3: Global or core issue that prevents a significant number of other issues from being resolved. Prevents some issues from being resolved, but not a large number. Isolated issue, must be resolved but does not prevent other work.
  140. 161. Design Issue Priority Definitions P1: P2: P3: P4: Global or core issue that prevents a significant number of other issues from being resolved. Prevents some issues from being resolved, but not a large number. Isolated issue, must be resolved but does not prevent other work. Detail, does not prevent other work.
  141. 162. Design Issue Priority Definitions P1: P2: P3: P4: P5: Global or core issue that prevents a significant number of other issues from being resolved. Prevents some issues from being resolved, but not a large number. Isolated issue, must be resolved but does not prevent other work. Detail, does not prevent other work. Detail, resolution not required for beta.
  142. 163. An issue is resolved when…
  143. 164. ?
  144. 165. When are agreed that we have a good fix.
  145. 166. good?
  146. 167. ?
  147. 168. my good = your good?
  148. 169. Ha.
  149. 170. good (g ü d) adj. bet·ter, best 1. Being positive or desirable in nature; not bad or poor
  150. 171. (whole other talk)
  151. 172. team “good”= team “good”
  152. 173. Good :
  153. 174. Good: 1. Efficient, meaning… a. intuitive b. fast (application) c. quick access to information
  154. 175. Good: 1. Efficient, meaning… a. intuitive b. fast (application) c. quick access to information 2. Meets expectations; consistent, no surprises.
  155. 176. Good: 1. Efficient, meaning… a. intuitive b. fast (application) c. quick access to information 2. Meets expectations; consistent, no surprises. 3. Keeps users from getting lost.
  156. 177. Good: 1. Efficient, meaning… a. intuitive b. fast (application) c. quick access to information 2. Meets expectations; consistent, no surprises. 3. Keeps users from getting lost. 4. Minimal barriers and constraints.
  157. 178. consistency class
  158. 179. ANYWAY
  159. 180. Go!
  160. 181. tools
  161. 183. Design Issue Priority Definitions P1: P2: P3: P4: P5: Global or core issue that prevents a significant number of other issues from being resolved. Prevents some issues from being resolved, but not a large number. Isolated issue, must be resolved but does not prevent other work. Detail, does not prevent other work. Detail, resolution not required for beta.
  162. 184. Good: 1. Efficient, meaning… a. intuitive b. fast (application) c. quick access to information 2. Meets expectations; consistent, no surprises. 3. Keeps users from getting lost. 4. Minimal barriers and constraints.
  163. 185. document decisions
  164. 186. Log out when inactive. Let inactivity period be set by user in preferences.
  165. 188. systems?
  166. 189. Page Type and Widget Libraries
  167. 191. Widget Library: 1. default appearance 2. appropriate use case 3. behavior
  168. 192. 5 purposes
  169. 193. 1. Documentation
  170. 194. 2. Good work
  171. 195. 3. Surface issues
  172. 196. 4. Basic toolkit
  173. 197. 5. Final deliverable
  174. 198. ongoing process
  175. 199. met weekly
  176. 200. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
  177. 201. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?   
  178. 202. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?    ?
  179. 203. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?    ?
  180. 204. (closing = documenting)
  181. 206. 72 issues
  182. 207. 48 closed
  183. 208. P1s and P2s closed
  184. 209. 15 P5s
  185. 210. 10 open P3 or P4 issues
  186. 211. tangible deliverables
  187. 212. intangible deliverables
  188. 215. what this means
  189. 216. interesting (?)
  190. 217. not unique
  191. 218. “clean slates” are rare
  192. 219. $
  193. 220. never enough time
  194. 221. all projects have “design bugs”
  195. 222. middle
  196. 223. or beginning
  197. 224. the main points
  198. 225. bugs : software development :: issues : design process
  199. 226. Middle-Out Design: 1. priority definitions 2. “good” definition 3. tracking issues 4. assigning priorities 5. important things first 6. document solutions
  200. 227. <boss’ slides>
  201. 228. design methods movement
  202. 229. design rationale
  203. 230. Horst Rittel
  204. 231. IBIS
  205. 232. design = argument
  206. 233. </ boss’ slides>
  207. 234. Try it!
  208. 235. Thank You. Audrey Crane [email_address] Dubberly Design Office Thumb twiddling images from artwork by Naomi Roberston.

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