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Introduction to International Relations

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ႏိုင္ငံတကာဆက္ဆံေရးပညာမိတ္ဆက္ျဖစ္ပါသည္။

Publié dans : Actualités & Politique
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Introduction to International Relations

  1. 1. Presented By Aung Ko Ko Toe Introduction to International Relation
  2. 2. Introduction to International Relation •Political Aspect of IR •Economic Aspect of IR •Diplomatic Aspect of IR
  3. 3. •Political Aspect of IR State, Political Theory •Economic Aspect of IR Approach to IPE (3 Ism) •Diplomatic Aspect of IR Type, Methods &
  4. 4. International Relation • Interactions among and between states and non-state actor across border. • International relation is an branch of political science. • Concept – relations between Nations and primarily with Foreign Policies. 2 Actor 1. States 2. Non-state Actors 2 F 1. Fact 2. Field Fact President, General, Diplomats Field interdisciplinary related to – Politics, Economic, History, Military Psychology, Geography, Philosophy
  5. 5. International Relations • Study of Foreign affairs and Global Issues among states • Actors • States • IGOs • NGOs • MNCs
  6. 6. Field of Studying in IR • Issue areas – Diplomacy, War, Trade Relations, Alliances, Cultural exchanges, Participation in international organization. • Conflict and Cooperation in relationship among states concerning issue areas. • International Security – Question of War and Peace. • International Political Economy
  7. 7. International Relation Subjects 1. Modern International History 2. Political Science 3. International Organizations 4. International Economy 5. International Law 6. International Constitutions 7. Geopolitics
  8. 8. Political Science intersects with other Fields1. Economics ေ ဘာေေဗဒ 2. Law ဥေေဒ 3. Sociology လူမႈေ ဗဒ 4. History သမိုင္ 5. Anthropology မႏ ို ေ ဗဒ 6. Public Administration ေည္သူ႔အိုေ္ခ ်ဳေ္ေ ရ 7. Public Policy ေည္သူေ႔ရ ရာ မူဝါဒ 8. National Politics ေည္ည္ြင္ ႏ ိုငငံေ ရ 9. International Relations ႏ ိုငငံတကာဆကဆ ံေ ရ 10.Comparative Politics ႏ ိုငငံေ ရ ႏ ႈ င္ ယွဥ္ေ လ့လာမႈ 11.Psychology စတပညာ 12.Political Organization & ႏ ိုငငံေ ရ အဖ ြဲ႕အစည္
  9. 9. Significance of International Relation • Increasing interdependence of Global Society. • Improved transnational Communication Network. • Global Economy is more interdependent. (Trade, global financial Market)
  10. 10. Aid of Cooperation among States a. Regulation of international relations primarily through techniques of peaceful settlement of dispute among nation or states. b. Minimization or at the least, control of international conflict and war. c. Promotion of cooperation, developmental activities among nation- state for the social and economic benefit of certain regions or of humankind in general. d. Collective defense of a group of nation-states against external threat.
  11. 11. Interaction among State Conflict & Cooperation International Conflict Type 1. Territorial Disputes နယ္ေ မအ ငင္ ပော မႈ 2. Control of Government အစို ရ၏ထန္ ခခ ်ဳေမႈ 3. Economic Conflict စ ပော ေ ရ ေဋေကၡမခာ 4. Ethnic Conflict လူမခ ်ဳစိုေဋေကၡမခာ 5. Religious Conflict ဘာသာေ ရ ေဋေကၡမခာ 6. Ideological Conflict ဝါေဒရ ေဋေကၡမခာ
  12. 12. Economic Conflicts • Trade • Money • Natural Resources • Drug Trafficking • Human Trafficking • Migration • Economic Transactions Territorial Disputes • Secession • Territorial Waters • Airspaces
  13. 13. နယ္ေ မအ ငင္ ပော မႈ ၏ ဥေမာေ ကာင္ ၾက စပါသည္။
  14. 14. Ideological Conflict
  15. 15. ယဥ္ေ ကခ မႈေ တာ ္လွန္ေ ရ
  16. 16. ႏ ိုငငံေ တာ ္ (State) ႏ ိုငငံေ တာ ္ဆိုသည္မမာ အတအကခသတမမတ္ ာ သည္နယ္ေ ေမဒသတစ္ုတြတင္ အတည္ြကခ ေ နထိုင္ ေ ေငပခခ ်ဳပေကုငမႈကင္ သည္ အစို ရတစရေကု ထူေ ထာင္ာ ေ သာ လူေ ေါင္ စို။ ႏ ိုငငံတစ္ု၏အေၤ ါ ၁။ လူဥ ေ ရ ၂။ နယ္ေ မ (တေကခသာ နယနမတ္) ၃။ အစို ရ ၄။ အခခ ်ဳေအ ခာအာဏာ ၅။ ႏ ိုငငံတကာအသအမွတ္ ေ်ဳမႈ
  17. 17. Quality & Character of the population • Age • Sex Distribution • Trends in birth rates • Standards of living • Health • Literacy • Productive capacity & Skills • Customs & Beliefs • Moral Standards & Morale • National Character
  18. 18. ႏ ိုငငံအမခ ်ဳအစာ မခာ ႏ ွင္ ့အစို ရေံ ိုစံ ကမာၻ႕ႏ ိုငငံမခာ တြတင္ အၾကမ္ ခင္ အာ င္ ့ ႏ ို ္ငငံအမခ ်ဳအစာ (၃) မခ ်ဳသာ ရ ွသည္။ ၁။ သမၼတစနစ္ ကခင့ ္သံ ို သည္ ့ ႏ ိုငငံ ၂။ စည္ မခဥ္ ခံ ဘိုရငစနစကခင္ ့သံ ို သည္ ့ ႏ ိုငငံ ၃။ တြကန္ မဴနစ္ ႏ ိုငငံ ၎ႏ ိုငငံမခာ ကို ထေမံဖခြဲ ခာ စတ္ ာရနမမာ - ၁။ ဒမိုကရကြ စ္ အစို ရ ၂။ အာဏာရွင္ အစို ရ ဟူေ သာ အစို ရ ေံ ိုစံ (၂) မခ ်ဳတြတင္ မည္သည္ ့အစို ရေံ ိုစံ စသနည္ ဆိုသည္ပင္ စသည္။ ဒမိုကရကြ စအစို ရတြတင္ အိုေ္ခ ်ဳေမႈ စနစ္ (၂) မခ ်ဳရွသည္။ ၁။ သမၼတ စနစ္ ၂။ ေါလမန္ စနစ္ ဟူ၍ စသည္။
  19. 19. Legitimate Forms Corrupt Forms Who governs Rule in the interest of all Rule in the interest of Selves One Monarchy Tyranny Few Aristocracy Oligarchy Many Polity Democracy Government• The governing body of a state. • The System by which a state or community is governed.
  20. 20. အစို ရေံ ိုစံ (၆) မခ ်ဳရွသည္။ • Monarchy သက္ဥ ဆံေိုင္ ဘိုရငြစ္ဥ တည္ က အိုေ္ခ ်ဳေ္ ခင္ • Aristocracy သူေ ကာင္ မခ ်ဳ၊ အထကြ န္ လႊ ာတစစုက အိုေ္ခ ်ဳေ္ ခင္ • Polity အသအမွတ္ ေ်ဳ ေ စည္ စနစအရ အိုေ္ခ ်ဳေ္ ခင္ • Tyranny အာဏာရွင္၊ မင္ ဆို မင္ ညစ္ တစ္ဥ တည္ က အိုေ္ခ ်ဳေ္ ခင္ • Oligarchy အကခင္ ့ေခက္ လူနည္ စို အိုေစု ေ သာ စနစ္ • Democracy ေည္သူ႔ကိုယစာ ေ်ဳ အိုေ္ခ ်ဳေ္ေ ရ စနစ္
  21. 21. အစို ရ၏ ခကမၾက သံ ို ာ (သို႔) မ႑ိဳ ်ဳငၾက သံ ို ရေ္ ဒမိုေကရစအစို ရ၏ ေအ ခခံဖ ြဲ႕စည္ ေံ ိုအရ အာဏာဖခြဲေ ဝသံ ို ဖစြဲမႈ မ႑ိဳ ်ဳငၾက (၃) ရေရ ွ…။ ၁။ ဥေေဒ ေ်ဳေ ရ Legislature ၂။ အိုေ္ခ ်ဳေ္ေ ရ Executive ၃။ တရာ စရင္ေ ရ Judiciary
  22. 22. အစို ရတစရေ္၏ အဓကလိုေငန္ တာဝနမခာ • တရာ ေဥေေဒ စို မို ေ ရ ၊ မွခေတရ • ေည္ည္ြင္ ငမ္ ခခမ္ ေ ရ ၊ တည္ ငမ္ေ ရ • ႏ ိုငငံေ တာ ္ ကာတြကယ္ေ ရ • ေအေတြထတြထလူမႈသကသ ာေ ခခာင္ခေ ရ • တြလတလ ေ္ေ ရ ကို ထန္ သမ္ ေ ရ • ေအ ခခံလူ႕အပခင္ ့ေအရ မခာ
  23. 23. အခခ ်ဳေအ ခာအာဏာ(Sovereignty) အခခ ်ဳေအ ခာအာဏာ (၂) မခ ်ဳ - Internal Sovereignty - External Sovereignty • ႏ ိုငငံေ တာ ္သည္ ေည္ည္ြင္ မွာ အ မင္ ့ဆံ ို အတြထဋအထေအာဏာေိုင္ စ္ ေ ၎၏နယ္ေ မအတြတင္ မွာရ ွေ သာ လူေိုေ ်ဳလြ စ္ဥ ခခင္ ႏ ွင့ ္ အသင္ အဖ ြဲ႕မခာ ေအေၚမွာ ေဥေဒ ေ်ဳပခင္ ့ ႏ ွင္ ့ဥေေဒကို လိုကနာေ စ ခင္ ဩဇာအာဏာ။ • ေည္ပထန္ ခခ ်ဳေမႈမခာ မွ ကင္ တြလတ္ ေ အမခ ်ဳသာ ေ ရ ႏ ွင္ ့ ႏ ိုငငံတကာေအရ ကစေတတြတမွာ ကိုယပု ငဆံ ို တ္ခက္ခႏ ိုင္ ေ သာအပခင္ ့အာဏာႏ ွင္ ့အပခင္ ့ေအရ
  24. 24. State Apparatus; 1. Political Executive & Government 2. Parliament 3. Judiciary 4. Bureaucracy 5. Military 6. Police 7. Local & Regional Institution…
  25. 25. အိုေ္ခ ်ဳေ္ေ ရ (Executive) • Government • Bureaucracy The Political Executive The Bureaucratic or Official Executive+ (Civil Servants in Administrations) သမၼတ မွ ဒိုဝနၾက အဆင္ ့ ထ (Politicians in Politics) ညႊနၾကာ ေ ရ မွဴ ခခ ်ဳေ္ မွ ဒိုဥ စ မွဴ အဆင္ ့ထ
  26. 26. Constituti on • အစို ရဌာနၾက (၃) ခိုလိုေငန္ ေ ဆာင္ငရက္ ႏ ိုငရနအတြတက္ ခခမွတ္ ာ ေ သာ တကခသည္ ့စည္ မခဥ္ ၊ စည္ ကမ္ မခာ ။ ၁။ အိုေ္ခ ်ဳပေသူ အစို ရ၏ အာဏာ ၂။ အိုေ္ခ ်ဳေ္ံ ေည္သူမခာ ၏ အပခင္ ့ေအရ ႏ ွင္ ့ ၃။ အိုေ္ခ ်ဳပေသူႏ ွင္ ့အိုေ္ခ ်ဳေ္ံ ေည္သူမခာ အၾကာ ဆကဆ ံေ ရ တို႔ကို ည ွေ ေ သည္ ့ မူမခာ ၏ အစိုေအဝ ။
  27. 27. 1. How Various agencies are organized အဖ ြဲ႕အစည္ အမခ ်ဳမခ ်ဳကို ဖ ြဲ႕စည္ ထာ သည္ ေံ ိုစံ 2. What Power is entrusted to those agencies ထိုအဖ ြဲ႕အစည္ မခာ ကို အေ္ ႏ ွင္ ထာ သည္ ့ အာဏာ 3. In what manner such power is to be exercised. အာဏာကို ကခင္ ့သံ ို ေံ ို ကခင္ ့သံ ို နည္ ဖ ြဲ႕စည္ ေံ ိုေအ ခခံဥေေဒ၏ အေၤ ါရေ္ (၃) ခို
  28. 28. ဖ ြဲ႕စည္ ေံ ိုေအ ခခံဥေေဒကို အမခ ်ဳအစာ ဖခြဲ ခင္ 1. Written or Unwritten, or Codified or Un-codified (ေ ရ ၊ ေမရ ) (အတအကခ၊ မတမကခ) 2. rigid or flexible (ေ ောင္ ရန္က္၊ ေ်ဳတြလယ္ ေင္ငလယ္) 3. Effective, Nominal or Facade Constitution (ထေ ရာက္၊ သာမန္၊ ဟန္ ေ)
  29. 29. • ႏ ိုငငံေ တာ ္ကို အာဏာေ ေ ရန္။ • တူညေ သာတနု ႏ ွင္ ့ ေန္ တိုငမခာ တည္ေ ဆာကရန္။ • အစို ရကို တည္ ငမမႈေ ေ ရန္။ • တြလတလ ေမႈကို အကာအတြကယ္ေ ေ ရန္။ • အစို ရမခာ ကို တရာ ဝင္ စ္ေ စရန္။ ဖ ြဲ႕စည္ ေံ ိုေအ ခခံဥေေဒ၏ တာဝနမခာ
  30. 30. ၁။ ေ ရွ ေ ဟာင္ နည္ လမ္ ကို ေန္၍ လိုလာ ေ သာ လူစို Reactionares ၂။ ယခိုလကရ ွ စ္ေ သာနည္ တို႕ကိုသာ အဖစြဲအ မြဲ ေသဘာေကခသာ လူစို Conservatives ၃။ ယခိုလကရ ွနည္ လမ္ တို႔ကို ေ်ဳ ေင္ေ ောင္ လြဲေ သာ လူစို Liberal ၄။ ယခိုလကရ ွ နည္ လမ္ မခာ အစာ နည္ လမ္ အသစြု႔ကို လို လာ ေ သာ လူစို Radicals လူအမခ ်ဳအစာ (၄) မခ ်ဳ
  31. 31. Types of Political Animals 1. Agitate 2. Deliberate 3. Educate Types of Political Behavior 1. Activist 2. Politician 3. Statesman
  32. 32. Element of National Power• Geography • Size • Location • Topography & Climate • Natural Resources & Availability of Raw Materials • Economic Development • Military Preparedness • National Character & National Morale • Political Structure & Leadership • Ideology • Population • Technology • Human Resources
  33. 33. Geograph y Size of Territory Location relative to sea Landmass es relative to other nations Control of Strategic places Topograph y
  34. 34. HDI & GNP Those countries ranking high in HDI group Also high GNP Per Capital
  35. 35. Human Development Index Three basic components of Human Development Longevity Knowledge Standard of Living
  36. 36. ႏ ိုငငံတကာဆကဆ ံေ ရ က ေအ ခခံေ သာ သအို ရၾက (၃) ရေ္ 1. Realism (base on interest & Security) 2. Liberalism (base on Cooperation & interdependence) 3. Idealism (or) Constructivism
  37. 37. Theory in International Relation Area 1. Game Theory 2. Domino Theory 3. Power Theory 4. Balance of Power 5. Post-modern Theory
  38. 38. Domino Theory
  39. 39. Containment Strategy
  40. 40. Power • Power in the context of World Politics, can be seen as; - A set of attributes or capabilities - An influence process - Ability to control resources, behavior of other states, events, outcomes of interaction (cooperative or conflictual) Powe r Forc e InfluenceAuthorit y
  41. 41. Types of Power • Diplomatic Power • State Power • Personal Power
  42. 42. Diplomatic Power State Power • Hard Power • Soft Power • Smart Power 1. Regional Power 2. Middle Power 3. Grate Power 4. Super Power
  43. 43. Personal Power Political Power ဝငစတန္ခာခခ Charismatic Power မဟတၱမေႏ ၶ Positional Power ဟစြလာ
  44. 44. Smart Power Hard Power refers to coercive tactics; the threat or use of armed forces, economics pressure or sanctions, assassination. Soft Power includes diplomacy, dissemination of information, Propaganda and Cultural Programming to achieve political end. Hard Power Soft Power The ability to obtain what you want through cooperation and attraction rather Hard & Soft.
  45. 45. Super Power ( Great Power + Mobility of Power ) - မဟာအငအာ တြလန္ ႏ ိုငငံ - စစ္ေ အ ေ ခတအ ေ ေအမရကနြစ္ ႏ ိုငငံတည္ သာ ဤအဆင္ ့တြတငရ ွ - ယခင္ သမိုင္ တြတင္ တရိုတအငပါယာ၊ ေါရွင္ အငပါယာ၊ ေ ရာေအငပါယာ၊ ဗတသွခအငပါယာတို႔ ရခြဲ့ ူ သည္။ - ယခင္ ေအမရကန္၊ ဆိုဗယကယ ူနယံ၊ ဗတသွခ တို႔ ေိုငဆုငူ သည္။ - ယခို တရိုတ္ ေည္သူ႕သမၼတႏ ိုငငံသည္ ဤအဆင္ ့သို႔ ေ ရာကရ ွလာသည္။ - ေဤနရာတြတင္ ေအမရကန္ တစဆင္ ့တည္ကသ ာ ေ ကခန္ ႏ ိုငငံမခာ အဆင္ ့ကခတြသာ ၍ တရိုတြ စ္ ႏ ိုငငံတည္ သာ ဤ အဆင္ ့တြတငရ ွေ နသည္။ Hyper Power
  46. 46. Regional Power - သမိုင္ ေ ၾကာင္ အရ ႏ ိုငငံေ ရ အငအာ ေ တာင္ ့တင္ မႈ၊ ယဥ္ေ ကခ မႈႏ ွင္ ့စ ပော ေ ရ ဩဇာၾက ေ သာ ႏ ိုငငံမခာ ကို ဤအဆင္ ့တြတင္ ထည္ ့တြသင္ ၾကသည္။ - ေငသစ္၊ ရိုရွာ ၊ ဗတသွခတို႔ ေါဝငသည္။ Great Power - Greate Power အဆင္ ့ကို ေ ရာကလ ာႏ ိုင္ေ ခရ ွေ သာႏ ိုငငံမခာ စသည္။ - ဩေစတ လခ၊ ဘရာဇ ၊ ေကနဒါ၊ ေခာမန၊ ေခေန္၊ အႏ ၵယ၊ အတလ၊ မကၠဆကို၊ ေ တာငကုရ ယာ ၊ စေန္ စသည္ ့ ႏ ိုငငံမခာ သည္ ဤအဆင္ ့တြတငရ ွေ နၾကသည္။ - ေ ဒသဆိုငရာ အဖ ြဲ႕အစည္ မခာ စ္ေ သာ ေဥရာေသမေ ၊ အိုေက္ ႏ ွင္ ့ အာဆယံတို႔သည္လည္ အဖ ြဲ႕အစည္ အလိုက္ ေ ဒသဆိုငရာေါဝါကိုယစကို ေိုငဆု င္ာ ၾကသည္။
  47. 47. Balance of Power Theory • Unipolar ( Post-cold war - United State of America) • Bipolar ( in Cold War - USA & USSR) • Multipolar ( Now BRIC & US)
  48. 48. Rise of Multi- polarity Latin America Africa Middle East Asia & Ocenia • Argentina • Chile • Mexico • Venezuela • Nigeria • South Africa • Israel • Egypt • Saudi Arabia • Iran • China • Russia • India • Japan • South Korea • Indonesia • Pakistan • Australia
  49. 49. Post- Modern World • To protect sovereignty • Balance of Power ; interest and ambitions of one state • Constrained by the capabilities other state. Pre-modern World • Political instability and Economic Development • Weak States, Failed States or Rouge State Modern World • Beyond power politics and abandon war • Multilateral Agreements international law & global governance (e.g EU)
  50. 50. Social Constructivis m Reflectivis m Post-modernism Feminist Theory Normative Theory Critical Theory Historical Sociology Classification of international relation theory in the Neo- Liberalism Neo-Realism Rationalism
  51. 51. INTERNATIONAL POLITICAL ECONOMY (IPE) IPE is a combination of international relations and political economy. • relationship between political forces and economic interactions. • political economy is a social science that analyzes political and economic processes, their interrelations and their influence.
  52. 52. Approaches to IR 1.Liberalis m 4. Constructivism 2. Realism 3. Marxism
  53. 53. Approaches to IPE 1. Liberalism; Economic Liberalism 2. Realism; Mercantilism, Statism, Developmentalism. 3. Radicalism; Marxist & Dependency
  54. 54. Relation between Individuals, Society, State, Market Economic Liberalism • Markets function best when Free of Government. • Adam Smith, David Ricardo Comparative Advantage • Keynes Middle Way ( Manage, not control to Gov;) - International Wealth is maximized with free exchange of goods and services; on the basis of comparative advantage
  55. 55. Mercantilism/ Statism •To increase State Power, achieved by regulating economic life; economics is subordinate to State interest. •Protectionism - by State to limit their imports. - the primary goals is to protect domestic against competition from Foreign Firms. •Characteristics of Protectionism - Quota (ေအရအတြတက္ ႏ ွင္ ့တြသင္ ကိုနကု ကန္႔သတ္ ခင္ ) - Tariff (တြသင္ ကိုနအပခန္) - Subsides (အေမတာ ္ေ ၾက )
  56. 56. Competition among groups - Owners of Wealth Laborers Confliction and Exploitative - Confliction relationships because of inherent expansion of Capitalism; Seeks radicals change in international economic system. Radicalism/ Maxism
  57. 57. The Management of International Relations by negotiation. The application of intelligence & tact to the conduct of official relations between Govs; of independent State. The brain of State Power (Morgenthau) Diplomacy Definition
  58. 58. Diplomac y • The Process of Conducting Communication among States through officially recognized representatives. • A Major dimension of Foreign Policy with Foreign Ministers and their Diplomats Living abroad • Recent Diplomats Practice by Non-State Actors; IOs, Human Right Groups & MNCs.
  59. 59. International Relations & Diplomacy International Relations State, President, General, Diplomat, Minister, Society, Individual Foreign Minister Offices & Embassy Diplomacy
  60. 60. Diplomat (သံတမန္) • သံတမနဆုသည္မမာ ႏ ိုငငံေ တာ ္အစို ရ၏ မခကစႏ ွင္ ့နာ ။ သံတမနြု႔၏တာဝနမခာ ၁။ ႏ ိုငငံ ခာ ေ ရ မူဝါဒကို ေအကာငအထည္ေ ာ ္ ခင္ ၂။ မမႏ ိုငငံ၏အကခ ်ဳစ ပော ကို ကာတြကယ္ ခင္ / တည္ေ ဆာက္ ခင္ ၃။ မမႏ ိုငငံသို႔ ဆိုငရာႏ ိုငငံအတြတင္ ရ ွ သတင္ အခခကအလကမခာ ေ ေ ေို႔ ခင္ သံတမနြု႔၏ လိုေငန္ စဥမခာ ၁။ ကိုယစာ ေ်ဳ ခင္ ၂။ ေ စ့စေ္ေ တြဆ ေ ႏပ ခင္ ၃။ သတင္ ေ ေ ေို႔ ခင္ ၄။ အမခ ်ဳသာ အကခ ်ဳစ ပော ႏ ွင္ ့ ႏ ိုငငံသာ မခာ ၏အကခ ်ဳစ ပော ကို ကာတြကယ္ ခင္
  61. 61. Functions of Diplomatic Mission 1. Representing State 2. Symbolic Representation 3. Obtaining Information 4. Promoting & Protecting the Interest of National 5. Policy making by Diplomats
  62. 62. သံတမနြု႔ ဗဟို ေ်ဳခခကၾ က (၃) ခခက္ ၁။ ႏ ိုငငံ ခာ ေ ရ မူဝါဒ Foreign Policy ၂။ အမခ ်ဳသာ အကခ ်ဳစ ပော National Interest ၃။ သတင္ အခခကအလက္ Informatiion
  63. 63. 1. Traditional Diplomacy 2. Modern Diplomacy Bilateral Diplomacy Multilateral Diplomacy Diplomatic Rank
  64. 64. သံရံ ို တာဝန္ံမူကကြဲ (၂) မခ ်ဳ Charge d’ affaires en titre သံရံို အ မြဲတမ္ တာဝန္ံမခာ Charge d’ affaires ad interim သံရံို ယာယတာဝန္ံမခာ 1. Ambassador သံအမတၾ က 2. Envoy သံအမတ္ 3. Minister Resident ဌာေ နသံမႈ 4. Charge d’ affaires သံရံ ို တာဝန္ံ Traditional Diplomacy
  65. 65. Modern Diplomacy Bilateral Diplomacy 1. Ambassador (High Commissioner in Commonwealth missions) 2. Minister သံအမတ္ 3. Minister-Counselor သံမွဴ ၾက 4. Counselor ေ ကာငစစ္ဝန္ (သံမွဴ ) 5. First Secretary ေထမ အတြတင္ ဝန္ 6. Second Secretary ဒိုတယအတြတင္ ဝန္ 7. Third Secretary တတယအတြတင္ ဝန္ 8. Attache’ သံမွဴ 9. Assistant Attache’ လက္ေ ထာကသ ံမွဴ
  66. 66. Consular Post 1.Consuls-General ေ ကာငစစ္ဝန္ခ ်ဳေ္ 2.Consuls ေ ကာငစစ္ဝန္ 3.Vice – consuls ဒိုုတယ ေ ကာငစစ္ဝန္ 4.Consular Agents ေ ကာငစစ္ေ ရ ရာကိုယစာ လွယ္ 5.Honorary Consular ေိုဏ္ ူ ေ ဆာင္ေ ကာငစစ္ေ ရ ရာအရာရ ွ Vienna Convention on Consular Relations, 1963 - Article 9
  67. 67. Modern Diplomacy Multilateral Diplomacy • Ambassador at Large သံအမတၾ က (အထူ အာဏာကိုနလႊ ြဲအေ္ ခင္ ခံေရသာသံအမတၾ က ) သံရံ ို အၾက အကြဲ • Permanent Representative အ မြဲတမ္ ကိုယစာ လွယ္ • Resident Representative အ မြဲေ နကိုယစာ လွယ္(ဌာေ နကိုယစာ လွယ္) • Special Ambassador အထူ ေ စလႊတ္ ခင္ ခံေရသာသံအမတၾ က • U.S Trade Representative ေအမရကနကုင္နသယ္ေ ရ ကိုယစာ လွယ္
  68. 68. Type of New Diplomacy 1. Democratic Diplomacy 2. Totalitarian Diplomacy 3. Summit Diplomacy 4. Personal Diplomacy 5. Parliamentary Diplomacy 6. Economic Diplomacy 7. Nuclear Diplomacy 8. Public Diplomacy
  69. 69. သံတမနဆကဆ ံေ ရ နည္ လမ္ တြသယမခာ • Gunboat Diplomacy • Dollar Diplomacy • Smart Power Diplomacy (or) Carrot and Stick Diplomacy • Conference Diplomacy • Summit Diplomacy • Shuttle Diplomacy • Shirt-Sleeve Diplomacy • Pinball Diplomacy • Walk-in-the-wood Diplomacy • Vacation Diplomacy • Quiet Diplomacy
  70. 70. Special Envoys of UN Secretary- General; • United Nations Special Envoy for HIV/ AIDS in Africa • United Nations Special Envoy on Climate Change • United Nations Special Envoy for Kosovo
  71. 71. •Political Aspect of IR State, Political Theory •Economic Aspect of IR Approach to IPE (3 Ism) Conclusion
  72. 72. ေ ကခ ဇူ ကမာၻ …..

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