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Patterns of Development In Writing Across Disciplines.pptx

  2. In order for you to become proficient and fluent in using English language, it is essential that you should develop the four then, now five macro skills namely, Reading, Writing, Listening, Speaking, and Viewing. In this course, we will be focusing on the first two macro skills mentioned hereof- Reading and Writing.
  4. Writing is a form of human communication by means of a set of visible marks that are related, by convention, to some particular structural level of language.
  6. It’s the fuel that drives communication, and communication serves as a framework for society. Clear communication—and hence, good writing—is critical because it facilitates coworker collaborations, business transactions and interpersonal interactions.
  7. In short, no matter what you plan on doing with your life or which academic fields interest you, you will need to know how to write effectively. It’s one reason why you can expect many college courses to have a writing- and reading-intensive curriculum. The more you practice your writing skills, the more they will improve.
  8. Written communication skills are essential for allowing employees to coordinate their work, collaborate with coworkers and respond to clients. However, there are some hidden attributes of a good writer.
  9. Employers generally recognize that someone who demonstrates good writing skills is more likely to be someone who thinks clearly, knows how to organize information and understands how to put themselves in someone else’s shoes. As a result, good writers may be more likely to work well with other people. Plus, their ability to organize information in logical ways can support their problem-solving and decision-making abilities.
  10. When an employer sees employees or job candidates who possess good writing skills, they tend to form the following opinions about these people: • They are intelligent. Grammatical errors, poorly formed sentences and improper word choices can make a person seem less intelligent than they might actually be. • They are credible. Solid writing implies that the writer is competent, and this leads to credibility and authoritativeness. • They understand professionalism. A good writer is able to convey professionalism in written communication. • They are organized. The act of writing requires the careful organization of information before it can be presented in a
  11. NARRATION Narration is pattern of writing that tells a story of an event or an experience. You relate a sequence of events which reveals something of importance (your main point), and all other important events of your story (your supporting details) to bring it to life with a detailed account of what happened- Who was involved in the event? When did the event happen? Where did the event occur? What is the focus of your narrative? A concluding statement that emphasizes the main point of your narrative is very important to make sure that your readers understand the purpose of telling the story. A
  12. Example: When I was 11, my cousin and I discovered how much fun it was to play in the mud. We would pretend to be making mud pies. Sometimes we would splatter each other in a game of war. One day we imagined that we were pigs and flopped down on our backs in a mud puddle. Then we had a contest to see who could make the most convincing oink. My mother came home, caught wallowing, and threw a it. She said that we had gotten our clothes filthy and would have to wash
  13. DESCRIPTION Description is writing by painting a word picture of person, place, animal or thing through sensory details to create a clear and vivid impression of the topic. Let your readers see what you see, hear what you hear, smell what you smell, taste what you taste and feel what you
  14. A vivid description highlights the one feature that most stands out about the topic which is the so called dominant impression. This becomes the topic of the paragraph and will guide you in choosing your supporting details which can be 'objective' or ‘subjective'. Objective details are your factual observation (what you see, hear and touch) on the subject
  15. Subjective details are your feelings or opinions about what you are observing. Details in a descriptive paragraph are normally arranged in spatial order. To end a descriptive paragraph, the concluding statement must reinforce the the focus of your description and the general impression you want your
  16. Example: My favorite possession is a hand carved wooden fox given to by one of my closest friends. His ears stand straight up as if on the alert for guests. He holds his head high, proud of his position in life. In his two front paws, he carries a little round crystal candle holder containing a burgundy candle. The fox is painted a dark burgundy, and he stands on his hind legs as if offering to light my way through the darkness. His tail trails along the ground, and he looks as if, any minute, he could set down the candle and start dancing a waltz. He's an elegant fox, and I never get tired
  17. COMPARISON AND CONTRAST Comparison shows the similarities and contrast tells differences among subjects- people, objects, places, animals, situations or ideas. Both subjects to be compared and contrasted have to be identified clearly as you write the topic sentence, and need to have enough in common as basis of comparison. In other words, the same points are used to compare and contrast your two subjects. Supporting details of each point will show your knowledge of both subjects which are in the same general class like two pets, two movies or two friends.
  18. A comparison-contrast paragraph can either just point out the similarities or differences, or it can tackle either using subject-by-subject comparison (block pattern) or point-by-point comparison. In a subject-by-subject comparison, all points about one subject are discussed and then all points about the other subject. While in point-by-point comparison, each point for both subjects and then to the next point are discussed. In concluding the comparison-contrast paragraph, a reinforcement the main idea, restatement of the main idea or writer's preference on what should be done are
  19. CAUSE AND EFFECT Cause and effect paragraphs are written to help your readers understand why something happened or is happening, and how one thing affects something else. A cause is what made an event or particular thing happen. An effect is what happens as a result of the event. In a cause and effect paragraph, a causal relationship must exist which means one event actually caused another event and did not just come before it in time.
  20. The importance of the causes and effects to be discussed must be considered. A cause and effect paragraph explains either the causes of a situation or event, or the effects of it, but does both in the same piece of writing. Details are usually arranged in climactic order- for example, from least to most important.
  21. Example: (The example paragraph below examines the causes as the topic sentence identifies the problem (effect) that is to be discussed.) Newspapers are folding. Paper costs are high but loss of literate readers is much higher. Forty-five percent of adult citizens do not read newspapers. Only 10 percent abstain by choice. The rest have been excluded by their inability to read. Even the most distinguished daily papers are now written at an estimated tenth-grade level. Magazines such as the Nation, New Republic, Time, Newsweek, and the National Review are written at a minimum of twelfth-grade level. Circulation battles represent a competition for the largest piece of a diminished pie. Enlargement of that pie does not yet seem to have occurred to those who enter these increasingly unhappy competitions. The only successful major paper to be launched in the last decade, USA Today, relies on a simplistic lexicon, large headlines, color photographs, and fanciful
  22. DEFINITION Definition tells what a word means to have a clear understanding of any word especially technical words, slang and specialized words used in the paragraph. A definition paragraph includes the three components of a formal definition which are term to be defined, the general class to which the term belongs, and the characteristics that make the term different from all other terms in that class.
  23. Its topic sentence identifies the term to be defined, and the rest of the paragraph develops the definition by examples, by outlining a process, or by using one or more of the patterns of development. Defining by negation, that is telling what the term is not, can also be used.
  24. CLASSIFICATION Classification is another type of paragraph development that involves sorting of items(people, things, ideas) into categories. The topic sentence of a classification paragraph states the topic being classified and how it is being classified. Each of the categories must differ from each other with distinct information which will be sorted accordingly. Supporting details are examples of the categories into which the topic has been sorted. Chronological, Spatial and Climactic orders may be used for this type of paragraph.
  25. PROBLEM-SOLUTION Problem-solution is a type of writing that identifies a problem and proposes solutions, and persuades your readers that the problem has to be addressed. Your problem-solution essay begins by identifying the problem to your reader and by conveying to them the importance of solving the problem. Inform them about the problem.
  26. Evidences must be presented in the body part of the essay to show the existence of the problem. Then persuade them that a possible solution must be done. In the concluding part, your readers must be reminded of the problem and the solution, thus, a forceful question to reinforce the urgency of addressing the problem must be stated. A climactic order is normally used for developing the essay.
  27. PERSUASION Persuasion is writing that takes a stand on an issue and also examines opposing viewpoints. Evidences to support your position about an idea or issue must be presented to convince your readers. Your evidences must include the following: statement of facts, statement of opinion, statistics, and first-hand experience
  28. A forceful statement that briefly acknowledges your opposition, restates your position, reinforces your reason for your position, calls to action or states a prediction can conclude your persuasive paragraph.
  29. TOPIC SUMMARY: Narration is the act of telling a story, usually in some kind of chronological order. The purpose of persuasion in writing is to convince or move readers toward a certain point of view, or opinion. Cause and effect is a method of paragraph or essay development in which a writer analyzes the reasons for—and/or the consequences of—an action, event, or decision.
  30. TOPIC SUMMARY: The primary purpose of descriptive writing is to describe a person, place or thing in such a way that a picture is formed in the reader's mind. Problem-solution is pattern in writing that divides information into two main sections, one that describes a problem and one that describes a solution. Compare and contrast is a rhetorical style that discusses the similarities and differences of two or more things: ideas, concepts, items, places, etc.
  31. TOPIC SUMMARY: Definition explains what something is in comparison to other members of its class, along with any limitations. Classification is a method of paragraph or essay development in which a writer arranges people, objects, or ideas with shared characteristics into classes or groups