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ANTIBIOTICS
 Antibiotics can be defined as substances capable ofkilling & inhibiting
the growthof micro organisms
 Mecha...
– at serum levels achievable in the patient - limit the spread of infection
while the body's immune system attacks, immobi...
 Chemotherapeutic spectra
 Narrow spectrum
only against a single or a limited group of microorganisms,
e.g. INH is activ...
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Antibiotics in children

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Antibiotics

  1. 1. ANTIBIOTICS  Antibiotics can be defined as substances capable ofkilling & inhibiting the growthof micro organisms  Mechanismof action Inhibition of cellwall synthesis Penicillins Cephalosporins Monobactams Vancomycin Inhibition of DNA gyrase: Quinolones RNA polymerase Rifampicin Inhibition of protein synthesis: Aminoglycosides Tetracyclines Erythromycin Chloramphenicol Inhibition of folic acid metabolism: Trimethoprim Sulfonamides  Bacteriostatic vs. bactericidal drugs • Bacteriostatic – arrest the growth and replication of bacteria
  2. 2. – at serum levels achievable in the patient - limit the spread of infection while the body's immune system attacks, immobilizes, and eliminates the pathogens. – If the drug is removed before the immune system has scavenged the organisms, enough viable organisms may remain to begin a second cycle of infection. • Bactericidal – kill bacteria at drug serum levels achievable in the patient. - often drugs of choice in seriously ill patients. • It is possible for ATB to be bacteriostatic for one organism and bactericidal for another.  Antimicrobial activity • Antimicrobial activity: the ability that a drug kills or suppresses the growth of microorganisms. • Minimum inhibitory concentration(MIC) – the minimum amount of a drug required to inhibit the growth of bacteria in vitro. • Minimum bactericidalconcentration(MBC) – the minimum amount of a drug required to kill bacteria in vitro  Classificationofantibacterialagents: bactericidal bacteriostatic β-lactam agents Erythromycin Aminoglycosides Tetracyclines Co-trimoxazole Chloramphenicol Vancomycin Sulfonamides
  3. 3.  Chemotherapeutic spectra  Narrow spectrum only against a single or a limited group of microorganisms, e.g. INH is active only against mycobacteria.  Broadspectrum e.g. tetracycline and chloramphenicol affect a wide variety of microbial species. !!! alter the normal bacterial flora precipitate a superinfection of an organism, e.g., candida.  Drug resistance growth of bacteria is not halted by the maximal level of that antibiotic that can be tolerated by the host.  Primary Some organisms are inherently resistant to an antibiotic e.g., gram-negative organisms are inherently resistant to vancomycin.  Secondary spontaneous mutation or acquired resistance and selection.  Cross-resistance resistant to more than one antibiotic.
  • r0ben1n1

    Oct. 11, 2015
  • AdamJaleel

    Sep. 14, 2015

Antibiotics in children

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