All Christians agree that the Bible is the best way to find out what God wants
them to do in their lives.
Some: Absolute word of God:
The only and final authority for
beliefs Some: Interpreted today for
Christians by Church.
of the Others: Only a guide written by
Bible. humans - allowed to be
interpreted to fit with today’s
CHRUCH: The community of Christians (small c = place of worship).
Church of England: Roman Catholic Church:
Elect an assembly to Have leaders that make
decide on moral issues. moral decisions. (Pope
Most: How Jesus, Son of
God, works in the world, so it has
authority of Jesus.
Why the Most: Believe that God speaks
to the world today through the
Guided by God so able to make
Sure they are doing the right
All humans have a conscience which makes them feel
guilty if they do things which they regard as wrong, e.g..
If you do something your parents disapprove of, you
may feel guilty afterwards.
This feelings of guilt is your conscience.
WHEN. Christians follow their conscience? WHY.
Christians believe the
Catholic Church teach: voice of conscience
Final part of moral seems to be the same as
decision making. the voice of God so it
They should go with their
conscience even if it goes
should be followed.
against the church. The Church says that
Christians should follow
Why do some Christians think they shouldn’t
always follow their conscience?
People have been mistaken about the
voice of God, e.g. The Yorkshire Ripper
claimed that God had told him to kill
If Christians follow the teachings of
the Bible and the Church they know
they are doing the Christian thing, so
don’t need to rely on conscience.
Many Christians who believe that conscience is
more important than the Bible or Church probably
follow situation ethics.
This is a Christian idea from Joseph
Accepting the Bible or Church means things are
either right or wrong whatever the situation.
Fletcher felt this was wrong and that Christians
should base their moral decisions on Jesus‟
commandment to love your neighbour as yourself
and on the situation.
IF WE USED IT?
Should a Christian attend a
Why some Christians
follow situation ethics:
Jesus seemed to follow situation
ethics because He over-ruled what the
Old Testament said when he thought it
was unloving; e.g. He healed on the
Sabbath Why some Christians
They think you should only do what won’t follow situation
will produce good results.
They believe that Jesus‟ statement that
the only laws are to love God and your They think God wouldn‟t have given laws
neighbour means that Christians should in the Bible if they were not to be followed.
always do what will have the most loving
results. They think the Church knows best what
Christians should do.
They claim you never know all the facts
about a situation, so the most loving thing
might not be if you knew more facts or all
the consequences of your actions.
UN HUMAN RIGHTS ACT 1948!
Rights and freedoms that every
human is entitled to!
MADE A PART OF UK LAW IN 1998
CAN GO TO COURT IF BROKEN
EVERYONE ENTITLED TO THEM
“From one human being He
created all races on earth and
made them live throughout the
whole earth”. (Acts 17:26)
THE GOOD SAMARITAN!
Healing a Leper
and Tax collectors
Helping the Roman Soldiers
“Christian worship can never let us be
indifferent to the needs of others…To
speak of God, you must speak to your
neighbour…He does not tolerate a
relationship with himself that
excludes your neighbour”.
Democratic Processes: The ways in which all
citizens can take part in government!
Electoral Processes: The ways in which voting is
organised! No matter who
gets into power
we end of with
the same policies.
ONE VOTE WILL
NOT MAKE A
“Rich people who see a brother
and sister in need, yet close their
hearts against them, cannot claim
that they love God”
1 John 3:11-18
Whenever you helped “one of the
least important members of my
family, you did it for me”
Someone who is sick, in prison, poor, homeless, upset etc
GENETIC ENGINEERING: Removal of DNA from a
plant or animal, altering it and putting it back
CLONING: A form of genetic engineering that
produces a duplicate of the parent
ONLY GOD IS
CATHOLIC MAY AGREE WITH ALL
IF IT IS IN THE LONG
SEEDS, PLANTS and TERM INTEREST OF
ANIMALS for the HUMANITY!
greater good of
HUMANS CELLS???? Jesus healed people. GE is just a
must be trying to
NO WAY!!! modern version of this!
Science comes from God, ergo, WE quality of a
MADE IN GODS ARE MEANT TO USE IT! persons life for it
IMAGE = SPECIAL!!!! to be acceptable!
Could be used for GOOD?
RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES
You must answer one question from this section.
1. (a) What is Situation Ethics? (2)
(b) Do you think pressure groups should be made illegal?
Give two reasons for your point of view. (4)
(c) Explain how the Bible is used by Christians in moral decision making. (8)
(d) ‘No good can come from genetic engineering.’
In your answer you should refer to Christianity.
(i) Do you agree? Give reasons for your opinion. (3)
(ii) Give reasons why some people may disagree with you. (3)
Total for Question 1 = 20 marks
2. (a) What are democratic processes? (2)
(b) Do you think Christians should accept cloning?
Give two reasons for your point of view. (4)
(c) Explain why human rights matter to Christians. (8)
(d) ‘Conscience is the best guide a Christian has when making a moral decision.’
In your answer you should refer to Christianity.
(i) Do you agree? Give reasons for your opinion. (3)
(ii) Give reasons why some people may disagree with you. (3)
Total for Question 2 = 20 marks
Environmental and medical issues
Global Warming, Pollution and the problem this causes.
Infertility Treatment and religious attitudes towards it.
Transplant Surgery and religious attitudes towards it.
Sea levels are Extreme weather is
Glaciers melt! Sea ice rising, seasons becoming more
is disappearing. changing. EXTREME!
More diseases More famine
Destruction of ecosystems
“The good news is that we know exactly
what needs to be done to stop climate
EMISSIONS Reducing use of fossil
New Use energy-saving
technology light bulbs etc
25 million tonnes of rubbish a year are dumped on
streets and along the side of the road.
Every person in the UK throws away four
times their body weight in rubbish a year.
Cars are the biggest cause of air pollution. They emit a
variety of pollutants, including carbon monoxide, nitrogen
oxides and hydrocarbons.
Raw sewage and radioactive waste have
been discharged into the sea.
Natural Resources: Naturally occurring materials – oil and fertile land!
2000 trees, Coal, Oil, Not able to recover, UN, Exploitation , 78%, 60 years
“Do I really need
to buy this?!”
LESS DAMAGE TO THE ENVIRONMENT
Christians, Islam and the Environment
Stewardship: Looking after KHALIFAH: Responsibility that Allah
something so it can be passed on to the has given Muslims to care for the world; the
next generation. person who acts as Allah‟s steward on earth.
“God looked at everything he had “But waste not by excess: for
made , and was very pleased”. God loves not the wasters”.
(Genesis 1.31) (6:141)
OLD TESTAMENT RULES! QUR’AN: Allah created the world and
Working animals must rest one day a everything in it for a purpose; it is part of
week. Allah‟s plan. Everything in existence is
Fruit trees must not be destroyed when interlinked, we are all part of ‟one‟. Damage
attacking a city. upsets a link in the chain and that harms the
Land must be rested on the seventh year. planet.
Jesus taught through the Sermon on the Mount that
it is every Christians duty to share the worlds
resources fairly and with care!
In-vitro Egg and sperm are taken from a couple, fertilized
fertilization in a laboratory and then placed in the womb.
This helps women with medical problems, such as
known as IVF blocked fallopian tubes, to conceive.
Artificial insemination Sperm is taken from the husband and placed in
by husband known as the woman‟s uterus. This can help couples who
AIH have difficulty conceiving for no obvious reason.
insemination by Sperm donated to a clinic is placed in the
donor known as woman‟s uterus. This can help couples where the
AID male is infertile – unable to have children.
Egg A fertilized egg is created in the laboratory using
an egg donated by another woman but using
donation the partner‟s sperm. This is of help when a
woman does not ovulate.
Christianity and IVF
It is an act of great kindness to help a women to conceive a longed for
child and to remove her suffering.
The IVF process involves the creation of several fertilized eggs. Not all
eggs will be implanted in the women the rest will be destroyed. They
believe it is wrong to destroy life.
Medical research must refrain from operations on live embryos. This is
considered a grave sin.
The emotional needs of couples who are eager to have children have
forced us to re-examine traditional beliefs.
Understand that a child is God‟s gift to a couple conceived as a result of
a loving sexual relationship anything else is unnatural and not what
If God gives us the ability to help infertile couples we should use it. The
Bible contains a story of God bringing happiness to a infertile woman
by giving her a child.
Islam and IVF
Decision‟s about fertility treatment in Islam consider whether adultery
AID: Not acceptable – Like IVF: Acceptable as long as the
adultery as man is not
married to the woman. The AIH egg and sperm belong to the
husband. Extra embryos can
Qur’an teaches that everyone be destroyed but only
has the right to Lineage. ACCEPTABLE! BEFORE 120 DAYS!
Surrogacy and Egg Donation
= SAME CHILD HAS THE RIGHT TO IDENTITY!
It would be fantastic if something amazing
came out of my death. Knowing that my
death is going to help others live a good life
makes me happy!
I think giving life is far better than
wasting organs that would otherwise be
buried or cremated.
Operations like transplant surgery cost a
fortune. The money should be spent on curing
the disease or changing the way people live.
Lots more people would benefit from this!
I want to be buried with all my own body
parts. I don‟t think it is right for people to
take parts of me when I am dead.
Transplant Surgery: Organ Donation
Lungs, Heart, Liver, Eyes, Skin etc
One dead donor saves 9 lives and helps
Kidney, Blood, Bone Marrow etc.
This often has little impact on the donor
and is often donated to sick family
Christianity and Transplant Surgery
The Bible states that humans are created by God in his images. People have NO
RIGHT to interfere with God’s creation.
Some Christians believe that God will resurrect people into their bodies at the end
of the world and DO NOT agree with transplanting organs.
Some Christians say: When we have two organs, giving one is okay because it is
following Jesus' teachings of loving your neighbour.
Most Christians believe that the gift of life is precious and it is right to make
every effort to preserve life.
The Golden Rule teaches Christians to treat others as they would like to be
treated themselves. For some, this teaching makes organ donations acceptable.
Islam and Transplant Surgery
The Qur’an teaches that on the Last Day, Allah will resurrect
bodily. It is understood that nothing should be removed from a person’s
body after death.
Allah is the creator of life and he has a plan for everyone. Humans have no
right to alter Allah’s plan about life and death.
Islam teaches that it is every Muslim’s duty to alleviate suffering and
save life. Organ donation and transplant can do this.
In Islam, Organ donation on a living donor may be permitted, so long as it does
not risk the donor’s life. In fact it is considered an act of charity.
Some (very few) Muslims believe that all forms of transplant surgery is
acceptable because Shariah Laws it can save lives and is a God given
Peace and Conflict
The United Nations
Religion and world peace
Religious attitude towards war.
Religious attitude towards bullying.
Conflict in the family.
Religious teachings on forgiveness and
UN basic aims:
1: To maintain international peace and security
2: To develop friendly relations between countries.
3: To help countries develop economically and socially.
Peace = RESPECT for life, human dignity, human rights and the rejection of violence
along with a commitment to freedom, justice and friendship.
UNICEF: Children‟s Fun
Educational, Scientific, Cultural Organisation
PACIFISM AND NON-VIOLENCE
Work with the UN to reconcile warring states.
Campaign against nuclear weapons
Work to tackle the causes of conflict – poverty etc
Try to influence foreign policy
Just War “War may be necessary.
Refusing to fight would allow
evil to win!”
A Just War is one which has to be fought
but is conducted according to certain
conditions. These were developed by
Thomas Aquinas (c1225-74) and Francisco
de Vitoria (c1483-1546) and are still
referred to by Christians today.
The theory is not
intended to justify all wars but to prevent them by
showing that going to war - except in certain limited
circumstances - is wrong. The intention was to motivate states to find
other ways of resolving conflicts, prevent war and to limit its effects.
Some conditions of a Just War are:
it must be fought by a legal recognised authority, eg, a
the war must be fought with the intention to establish good
or correct evil
the war must be the last resort (after all diplomatic negotiations
have been tried and failed)
civilians must not be involved or targeted
Christianity and war
Most Christians believe that war and fighting
Jesus is often described as a pacifist. He are wrong except in the most severe cases and
taught: they base their views on Jesus‟ teaching about
“Blessed are the peacemakers for they love:
will be called the children of God”. “A new command I give you: love one
Matthew 5.9 another. As I have loved you, so you must
love one another”.
Most Christian believe we had a duty Jesus taught about non-violence but
stop the atrocities being committed by never condemned Roman Soldiers.
Nazi Regime during WWII.
POPE BENEDICT XVI –
Duty bound to defend Christian values
– even if that means using
Harb al-Muqadis (Holy War)
Muslims may fight in self-defence but are forbidden to begin a fight.
The aim of fighting is to create a situation where Muslims are
free to worship Allah and live in peace.
One aim of Holy War may be to create a democracy where people
are free to live their lives without beliefs and politics being imposed on
them. There must be no hatred or vengeance in the fighting. As soon
as peace is offered, fighting must stop. Once peace has been restored
the differences between people must be resolved.
“Hate your enemy mildly; he may become your
friend one day”.
Christianity and Bullying
“Love your neighbour as you love yourself.” If you love
someone, you will never do them wrong: to love, the, is to
obey the whole law. (Romans 13:9-10)
Made in the image of
WE ARE ALL EQUAL!
Set up by Christians to help children
who lived on the streets during
Victorian times. Now it helps children
facing discrimination or disadvantage
in their daily lives. Aniti- bullying is one
area they work on.
Islam and bullying
UMMAH= The brotherhood of all Muslims, whether male of female.
It would be wrong to bully a fellow Muslim.
Allah created every human being SHOW COMPASSION TO
and everyone is equal in the eyes THE WEAK AND FIGHT
of Allah. Show respect to ALL of AGAINST INJUSTICE!
THE DAY OF JUDGEMENT
“Allah will not show mercy to the one who does not show mercy to others”. (Hadith)
Beatbullying: CyberMentors who help
people who are victims of cyber bullying.
The Lost Son
Christianity and forgiveness
Truth and Reconciliation
Desmond Tutu promoted
forgiveness in South Africa –
Islam and forgiveness
“Show forgiveness, speak
Teachings of the Qur’an of justice, and avoid the
ignorant”. (Qur;an 7:199)
“Control your anger, then
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) forgive your brother. Do you
not wish to be forgiven?”.
(Prophet Muhammad PBUH)
If a Muslim wrongs someone
DAY OF JUDGEMENT they are taught to:
Ask forgiveness from Allah
Ask forgiveness from the person
Crime and Punishment
Law and Justice
The point of Punishment
Religious teachings about justice
Religious attitudes towards capital punishment
Drugs and alcohol
Drugs and alcohol – The problem for society
Religious attitudes towards drugs and alcohol
Laws tell people how they should
and should not behave. Ensures that people are treated fairly.
Laws set out certain punishments Punishment has to be appropriate for
to be enforced if the law is broken.
the crime committed.
Without rules normal society
would break down and there will be Law must be based on justice for
ANARCHY. society to believe they are fair and follow them.
Laws create a civilised society. If laws are unjust people may decide to act
without the law or „take the law into their
Placing an offender in prison, or taking their life in
order to protect society from the criminal.
Having a harsh punishment that discourages others
Deterrent from breaking the law, or discourage a criminal from
Punishing a person to make them pay for what they
Retribution have done.
Punishment that makes the criminal pay for their
Reparation crime by doing something to help society of the victim.
A punishment that aims to stop a criminal from re-
Reform offending, through a programme or re-education and
training in prison.
Justice and Christianity
BIBLE: Treating people unjustly is a sin, and those who do it can expect to pay the
price on the Day of Judgement.
Vendettas and long-running disputes
Jesus’ teachings about justice were revolutionary for the time
that he lived.
Jesus linked justice with non-violence and forgiveness.
RETRIBUTION IS NOT THE BEST WAY!
Use , and forgive people who hurt you. He said
that this was better than exacting punishment.
Modern Christians believe
there is an unjust division
“Do not judge others, so that God of wealth in the world.
will not judge you, for God will Many Christians campaign
judge you the same way as you against poverty and make a
deliberate effort to buy
judge others, and he will apply to Fairtrade goods.
you the same rules you apply to
others”. (Matthew 7:1-2)
The Death Penalty in Britain
In 1908 the death penalty was abolished for people under 16.
In 1931 the death penalty was abolished for pregnant women.
The last hangings were in 1964.
The death penalty was abolished for all crimes in the UK in 1998.
Innocent people get convicted by
It is an excellent deterrent.
Removes dangerous people.
Life is sacred – even that of a criminal
Cheaper than keeping a person in
Prison is a good deterrent – Many try
prison for a very long time.
to commit suicide
Life for a life – fair retribution.
A belief that is not
acceptable to the
“If anyone takes human life, he will be
punished...Human beings were made like God, so
whoever murders one of them will be killed by someone
else”. (Genesis 9:5-6)
The NEW TESTAMENT teaches that a Christian should follow a countries legal
code. Christians must obey state authorities and if Capital Punishment is okay then it is
Jesus taught about love and forgiveness for sinners.
Only God can give and take life.
Sixth Commandment “Do not kill” means as a punishment
Islam and Capital Punishment
“You shall not kill – for that is forbidden by
God – except for a just cause”
Shari’ah Law THREATENING TO UNDERMINE THE
Alcohol and Drugs
Illegal to drink alcohol 16-17
under the age of 18
Under Ban on
Increase the tax
Stop happy hour
No drink drive limit
for under 21s.
Causes health problems: Liver damage, lung cancer, high blood pressure etc
Relationships fail – Addicts often lie to them.
Work/Education suffers: Addicts are often to worried about their next fix.
Crime occurs: People under the influence commit crime – 50% street crime
related to drinks.
Costs a fortune: Person spends large amount of money on their addiction.
This often leads to debt.
Christians and Drugs/alcohol
“Don’t you know that your body is a temple of
the Holy Spirit, who lives in you and who was
given to you by God?” (1 Corinthians 6:19)
HELP THE ADDICT!
Islam and drugs/alcohol
“Satan stirs up hatred among you by means of wine
and gambling...Will you not abstain from them?”
Destroys a peaceful
Notes de l'éditeur
3 minute min map/bullet point activityWhat is the impact of Global warming on the world? Pupils to discuss and record points made. After 1minute give 30 second warning if needed. As a class – pupils feedback – merit for good understanding etcDisplay specialist/exam grade responses on the board. Explain how all causes or ‘impacts’ link! Exam warning expand answers as done on slide!
Teacher to question about actions of Greenpeace! Pupils to complete a causes Mind Map/Bullet point task:Feedback – Promote good answers. Give three main FACTORSVehiclesin the UK pump out lots of greenhouse gases. Aviation – fastest growing cause of climate change. 2/3rd of energy generated in the UK power stations is lost as waste through chimneys and cooling towers.
3 minute min map/bullet point activityWhat are the solutions to global warming? 1 minute as pairsWhole class feedbackPraise good responses Give main solutionCut Carbon Emissions by;Inventing new technology and ways to generate power. Develop low carbon cars and use less fossil fuels.Use items that are energy efficient. e.g. Light bulbs.
Pupils to complete a causes Mind Map/Bullet point task:Feedback – Promote good answers. Three solutions: RecycleBuy Fairtrade products that promotes small companies and independent farmers and causes less damage to the environment. Think before you buy. Avoid packaging.