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Emoocs2017 who wants to chat on a mooc v1.2

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Peer recommender systems (PRS) in MOOCs have been shown to help re-ducing attrition and increase performance of those who use them. But who are the students using them and what are their motivations? And why are some students reluctant to use them? To answer these questions, we present a study where we implemented a chat-based PRS that has been used during a MOOC session involving 6,170 students. Our analyses indicate that PRS-users are students unsatisfied by other means of interactions already availa-ble (forums, social networks…), and that they seem to use it more to share emotions than to learn together, or to assess their progression against their peers.

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Emoocs2017 who wants to chat on a mooc v1.2

  1. 1. Who wants to chat on a MOOC? Lessons from a peer recommender system François Bouchet, Hugues Labarthe, Rémi Bachelet & Kalina Yacef Download this slideshow : https://goo.gl/JVoNYnMay 23rd, 2017, Madrid, Spain Read the paper online : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01522736
  2. 2. Previous papers @eMOOCs • eMOOCs 2015 – Does peer grading work? Comparing instructor and peer assessment – Do MOOC students come back for more? Recurring Students • eMOOCs 2016 – Increasing MOOC completion : social interactions • eMOOCs 2017 (tomorrow 12:00) – Who wants to chat on a MOOC? THIS PAPER – Typology of MOOC activity patterns. Learners who never rest? • ongoing (QPES 2017 – french) – Partnering with teachers running your MOOC : paper and workshop 2
  3. 3. Peer Recommendation in a MOOC • Technology and tools: – Recommender systems (RS) help in e-learning to choose classes to follow, resources to read… (Manouselis et al. 2011, Klašnja- Milićević, Ivanović & Nanopoulos 2015) – Peer recommender systems (PRS) help on social networks, dating websites… • Problem: – Attrition plagues MOOC, but students interacting with each other have better odds to get certified (Yang, Wen & Rose, 2014) and collaboration helps (Ferschke et al. 2015) Solution ? A PRS for MOOCs 3
  4. 4. Can a PRS help students in a MOOC? • Yes! (Labarthe et al. 2016) on GdP6 – Increased performance – Dropout rate reduced and happens later (if at all) 4 PRS widget in GdP6 Chat widget in GdP6
  5. 5. Can a PRS help students in a MOOC? • Yes! (Labarthe et al. 2016) on GdP6 • But not many use it… Why? – Who to contact? • Choosing can be overwhelming • Solution: contact a group and not a single person 5
  6. 6. Can a PRS help students in a MOOC? • Yes! (Labarthe et al. 2016) on GdP6 • But not many use it… Why? – Who to contact? – Why are these persons suggested to me? • Hidden algorithm parameters for experimental reasons: random vs. sociodemography vs. progress – small benefit for socio (Bouchet et al. 2017) • Solution: show the recommendation strategy and let the students choose 6
  7. 7. A redesigned PRS on GdP8 & 9 7 Minimized by default, click to expand (bottom right-hand corner)
  8. 8. A redesigned PRS on GdP8 & 9 8 Blinks + sound when a message is received
  9. 9. A redesigned PRS on GdP8 & 9 9 A click expands the PRS & chat 2-in-1 module Show the list of threads one has created or been invited to
  10. 10. A redesigned PRS on GdP8 & 9 10 A click expands the PRS & chat 2-in-1 module Show the list of threads one has created or been invited to Message creator Date of creation Number of messages in the thread First message in the thread
  11. 11. A redesigned PRS on GdP8 & 9 11 A click on a thread opens it, revealing the messages in antichronological order One can read messages and contribute
  12. 12. A redesigned PRS on GdP8 & 9 12 Or add someone as a favorite, in the third tab
  13. 13. A redesigned PRS on GdP8 & 9 13 Where one can contact again someone already known, individually
  14. 14. A redesigned PRS on GdP8 & 9 14 The second and central tab allows to create a new discussion thread with a group of 20 persons, chosen: • Randomly • Based on sociodemographics similarities (4 questions asked the first time) • Based on progress in the MOOC (as shown by quizzes)
  15. 15. A redesigned PRS on GdP8 & 9 15 When clicking on either button, one chooses the topic of the conversation (in a non restrictive list of hashtags) and the initial message to send
  16. 16. Who wants to chat and benefits from the PRS? Can a PRS help students in a MOOC? • Yes! (Labarthe et al. 2016) on GdP6 • But not many use it… Why? – Who to contact? – Why are these persons suggested to me? – Not everyone wants to chat… 16 ?
  17. 17. Research questions 1. How much did students use the provided PRS in GdP8? 2. What were the differences between students using and not using the PRS? 3. Why did some people not want to use the PRS? 17
  18. 18. Methodology: students sample • PRS deployed on the specialization modules (week 4-7) • N = 6,170 students who logged in at least once on this separate platform 18
  19. 19. • PRS log data, 3 levels of involvement: – opening/closing of the PRS – opening of a discussion thread in the PRS – sending of a message in a thread • Research questionnaires, 7 variables considered (Likert scales): – GoalBetterThanOthers – FearOfBeingJudged – WillToShareFeelings – WillToInteractToLearn – PerceivedSocializationUsefulness – PerformedSocialization – LackContactWithOthers Methodology: data collected & treatment 19 For each variable: • Aggregation (when multiple questions) • Dichotomization (removing intermediate value) Multiple Pearson’s Chi-squared tests H0 : « the use of the PRS is independent from each variable »
  20. 20. Result 1: use of the PRS • 3025 (49.03%) students opened the PRS • 570 (9.24%) opened a thread • 206 (3.34%) sent a message A minority of users: – comparable to typical use of forums in MOOCs – lower than in platforms encouraging conversational learning (e.g. FutureLearn) Sample large enough for inferential statistical analyses 20
  21. 21. Result 2: PRS users vs. non-users • Main motivation: sharing feelings, more than learning with others • Fear of being judged: important factor for not using a PRS • Used by students who were already using other socialization tools • Also used by those lacking contact with others (sometimes the same ones) 21 Opened the chat Opened a thread Sent a message GoalBetterThanOthers ** FearOfBeingJudged * ** WillToShareFeelings *** *** *** WillToInteractToLearn * PerceivedSocialization Usefulness *** *** *** PerformedSocialization *** *** *** LackContactWithOthers *** *** *** * p<.05, ** p<.01, *** p<.001
  22. 22. Result 3: reasons of the PRS non-users 1631 students who did not use it: – 718 have not seen it – 406 do not remember whether they had seen it or no – Others: (7 possible reasons) • mostly a lack of question to ask • preference for forums (to reach more? Used to the tool?) • positive result: more ready to contact others in the future 22
  23. 23. Discussion • ¼ of PRS non-users had no relevant question + PRS users want to share feelings PRS is used to reassure oneself and to assess progress of others • Hypothesis consistent with the fact participants who feared judgment of others opened threads as much as those who did not fear judgment, but sent significantly less messages – lurking behavior ? 23
  24. 24. Conclusion • A peer-recommender system: • can help MOOC students • is used by specific type of students • fills a gap (no competition with available means of communication) • seems to be used indirectly to compare oneself to others  should a dedicated tool be developed for that? • Limits & perspectives: • Only during the second half of the MOOC: previous attrition, students most interested might have dropped off before  GdP9 experiment (from day 1) • {{todo}} Final grade not correlated • Content of discussions not analyzed here • Tool currently embedded in MOOC  towards an open source widget? • EdRecSys2017@UMAP2017 Bratislava next July : Comparing peer recommendation strategies • Perspective : implementation on a larger scale  done now 24
  25. 25. Thanks for listening! • Twitter : @R_Bachelet, Googleplus : +Rémi Bachelet Read the paper online : https://hal.archives- ouvertes.fr/hal-01522736