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CELL BIOLOGY
1
MITOCHONDRIA
2
3
5
Mitochondria The organelle that
releases energy in the cell. (The
powerhouse of the cell)
Mitochondria produce ATP using...
Structure
6
 Mitochondria have a double membrane
structure
 There is a single outer membrane and a
folded inner membrane...
7
 The outer mitochondrial membrane is
composed of about 50% phospholipids
by weight and contains a variety of
enzymes in...
8
 The inner membrane contains proteins with three
types of functions:
 those that carry out the oxidation reactions of ...
9
Function
10
 Mitochondria are the site of most of the energy
production in eukaryotic cells.
 They use complex molecules...
Unique
11
 Mitochondria are very unique in several
regards
have their own circular DNA
have their own Ribosomes.
(The D...
12
 Fathers only give genes to their children.
 Mothers give genes and cytoplasm to their children
in their egg cells.
...
Molecular basis of oxidative phosphorylation
B. Molecular basis of phosphorylation:
ATP synthase
 The structure of the ATP synthase
F1 particle is the catalytic
subun...
F1 particles have ATP synthase activity
 The ATP synthase is a reversible coupling device
17
 Although the primary function of mitochondria is to convert
organic materials into cellular energy in the form of ATP...
18
 Heat production (enabling the organism to stay
warm).
 Some mitochondrial functions are performed only in
specific t...
Glyoxysomes
 A specialized type of peroxisome found only in
plants
 Contain some of same enzymes (catalase, fatty
acid o...
Glyoxysomes
 A primary metabolic activity in these germinating
seedlings is the conversion of stored fatty acids to
carbo...
Mitochondria
Mitochondria
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Mitochondria

mam asma lecture on mitochondrion awkum

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Mitochondria

  1. 1. CELL BIOLOGY 1 MITOCHONDRIA
  2. 2. 2
  3. 3. 3
  4. 4. 5 Mitochondria The organelle that releases energy in the cell. (The powerhouse of the cell) Mitochondria produce ATP using energy stored in food molecules.
  5. 5. Structure 6  Mitochondria have a double membrane structure  There is a single outer membrane and a folded inner membrane  Sac with two inner compartments which are separated by the inner membrane.  The first compartment is between the outer and inner membranes.  The outer compartment is inside the inner membrane.
  6. 6. 7  The outer mitochondrial membrane is composed of about 50% phospholipids by weight and contains a variety of enzymes involved in such diverse activities as the elongation of fatty acids, oxidation of epinephrine (adrenaline), and the degradation of tryptophan.
  7. 7. 8  The inner membrane contains proteins with three types of functions:  those that carry out the oxidation reactions of the respiratory chain  ATP synthase, which makes ATP in the matrix  specific transport proteins that regulate the passage of metabolites into and out of the matrix. Intermembrane space: Contains several enzymes use ATP to phosphorylate other nucleotides. Matrix: Enzymes; Mit DNA, Ribosomes, etc.
  8. 8. 9
  9. 9. Function 10  Mitochondria are the site of most of the energy production in eukaryotic cells.  They use complex molecules and oxygen to produce a high energy molecule know as ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)  process called aerobic respiration  Energy production the mitochondria has been called the "powerhouse of the cell".  Mitochondria are very abundant in cells that require lots of energy.  E.g. Muscle
  10. 10. Unique 11  Mitochondria are very unique in several regards have their own circular DNA have their own Ribosomes. (The DNA in the cell nucleus does not code for the construction of mitochondria).  All the mitochondria in your body came from your mother.  Mitochondria are not part of the genetic code in the nucleus of your cells.
  11. 11. 12  Fathers only give genes to their children.  Mothers give genes and cytoplasm to their children in their egg cells.  Since mitochondria are in the cytoplasm and reproduce themselves they only are inherited from mothers  Geneticists have used this curious feature of mitochondria to study maternal family lines and rates of evolution
  12. 12. Molecular basis of oxidative phosphorylation
  13. 13. B. Molecular basis of phosphorylation: ATP synthase  The structure of the ATP synthase F1 particle is the catalytic subunit; The F0 particle attaches to F1 F1: 5 subunits in the ratio 3:3:1:1:1 F0: 1a:2b:12c
  14. 14. F1 particles have ATP synthase activity
  15. 15.  The ATP synthase is a reversible coupling device
  16. 16. 17  Although the primary function of mitochondria is to convert organic materials into cellular energy in the form of ATP, mitochondria play an important role in many metabolic tasks, such as:  Apoptosis-cell death  Cellular proliferation  Regulation of the cellular redox state  Heme synthesis  Steroid synthesis
  17. 17. 18  Heat production (enabling the organism to stay warm).  Some mitochondrial functions are performed only in specific types of cells. For example, mitochondria in liver cells contain enzymes that allow them to detoxify ammonia, a waste product of protein metabolism. A mutation in the genes regulating any of these functions can result in a variety of mitochondrial diseases.
  18. 18. Glyoxysomes  A specialized type of peroxisome found only in plants  Contain some of same enzymes (catalase, fatty acid oxidase), but others as well  Plant seedlings rely on stored fatty acids to provide energy & material to form new plant  Glyoxylate cycle
  19. 19. Glyoxysomes  A primary metabolic activity in these germinating seedlings is the conversion of stored fatty acids to carbohydrate  Stored fatty acid disassembly produces acetyl CoA & it condenses with oxaloacetate to form citrate  Citrate is then converted to glucose by a series of glyoxylate cycle enzymes found in glyoxysomes

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