2. What is Cyber Crime?
• Cyber Crime is a term used to broadly describe criminal activity in
which computers or computer networks are a tool, a target, or a
place of criminal activity and include everything from electronic
cracking to denial of service attacks.
• Crime committed using a computer and the internet to steal a
person’s identity or illegal imports or malicious programs
• Cybercrime is nothing but where the computer used as an object or
subject of crime.
3. Definition of Cyber Crime
• According to Electronic Transaction Act of Nepal
Theft of computer source code,
Unauthorized access to computer system,
Destructing the computer and computer system,
Violation of privacy ,
Providing wrong information,
Compute fraud etc
– are known as computer (cyber) crime.
4. CYBER LAW
Electronic Transaction Act (ETA)
encompasses laws relating to:
I. Electronic and Digital Signatures
II. Computer Crime
III. Intellectual Property
IV. Data Protection and Privacy
V. Telecommunications Laws
5. • The Computer as a Weapon :
– using a computer (ICT resources) to attack other
• Threatening Email,
• Assuming someone's Identity,
• Sexual Harassment,
• Spam and Phishing
• The computer as a Target :
– using a computer to commit real world crimes.
• Worms and Industrial Espionage,
• Software Piracy and
6. – Financial fraud
– Sabotage / disrupt of data/networks
– Theft of proprietary information
– System penetration from the outside
– Denial of service/Making Service Unavailable
– Unauthorized access by insiders
– Employee abuse of internet privileges
– Injection of Viruses
7. • type of activity performed by the intruder
Manipulate data integrity
Installed a sniffer
Stole password files
Denied use of services
9. Hacking in simple terms
means an illegal intrusion
into a computer system
and/or network. It is also
known as CRACKING.
Government websites are
the hot targets of the
hackers due to the press
coverage, it receives.
Hackers enjoy the media
10. The Internet is being highly used by its abusers to reach
and abuse children sexually, worldwide. As more homes
have access to internet, more children would be using
the internet and more are the chances of falling victim to
the aggression of pedophiles.
11. • This is an act by the criminal, who floods the bandwidth
of the victims network or fills his e-mail box with spam
mail depriving him of the services he is entitled to access
12. Malicious software that attaches itself to other software. (virus,
worms, Trojan Horse, web jacking, e-mail bombing etc)
14. Damaging or destroying data rather than stealing or
misusing them is called cyber vandalism.
These are programs that attach themselves to a file and then
15. Terrorist attacks on the Internet is by distributed denial
of service attacks, hate websites and hate emails,
attacks on sensitive computer networks, etc.
16. Theft of software through the illegal copying of genuine
programs or the counterfeiting and distribution of
products intended to pass for the original.
• Phishing is just one of the many frauds on the Internet,
trying to fool people into parting with their money.
• Phishing refers to the receipt of unsolicited emails by
customers of Financial Institutions, requesting them to
enter their Username, Password or other personal
information to access their Account for some reason.
20. Cyber Stalking
Cyber Stalking is use of the Internet or other electronic
means to track someone.
This term is used interchangeably with online harassment
and online abuse.
Stalking generally involves harassing or threatening
behaviour that an individual engages in repeatedly, such as
following a person, appearing at a person's home or place of
business, making harassing phone calls, leaving written
messages or objects, or vandalizing a person's property.
21. Nepali Crime Scene
The major Cyber Crimes reported, in Nepal, are
Defacement of Websites,
Computer Virus and Worms,
VOIP Call Bypass,
Creation/design of Fake /Duplicate documents ,
Fake Social Networking Users ID(fake facebook id in
Bank ATM Fraud
22. • Internet security is a branch
of computer security specifically
related to the Internet.
• It's objective is to establish rules
and measure to use against
attacks over the Internet.
24. • Use antivirus software’s
• insert firewalls
• uninstall unnecessary software
• maintain backup
• check security settings
• Stay anonymous - choose a genderless screen name
• Never give your full name or address to strangers
25. • Don't respond to harassing or
negative messages (flames)
• Save offending messages
• Learn more about Internet
• Treat your laptop/Computer like
• Cryptography and digital
• Cyber Ethics and Laws
• Get out of uncomfortable or
hostile situations quickly
• Remember that any email or instant message you send
could come back to haunt you
• Lock it when you leave it
• If you access the Internet from a shared computer,
make sure you don't leave anything behind
• Don't check the "remember my password" box.
• When you're done, make sure you log off completely by clicking
the "log off" button before you walk away.
• If possible, clear the browser cache and history.
• Trash all documents you used, and empty the recycle bin.
• Don't reply to unsolicited email messages (spam)
• Don't Trust Links Sent in Email Messages
– Stop. Think. Click
• If you suspect malware is on your computer
– Stop, Confirm, Scan
• Backup important files on a regular basis
• Don't click on links in pop-ups or banner
28. The Most Dangerous Things You Can Do
• Opening attachments from unknown
• Installing unauthorized applications
• Disabling security tools.
• Giving/lending passwords
• Wireless networks are a huge risk
• Filling in web forms and registration pages
• Avoid social networking sites
29. Top Password Tips
• Never tell your password to anyone
• Never write down your password
• Make your password hard to guess — do not
use the name of your pet (or your child).
• Avoid using words found in a dictionary.
• Be sure that you don't use personal identifiers
in your password
30. • The cyber security will defend us from critical attacks.
• It helps us to browse the safe website.
• Internet security process all the incoming and outgoing
data on our computer.
• security will defend from hacks and virus.
• The application of cyber security used in our PC needs
update every week.
• The security developers will update their database every
week once. Hence the new virus also deleted
31. Cyber Security Strategies- Nepal
• Legal Framework
– IT Policy 2067
– Electronic Transaction Act 2063
– Telecommunication Act 1997
– Secure Password Practices 2067
• Institutional Development
– Ministry of Science Technology and Environment(MoSTE)
– Department of Information Technology(DOIT)
– Office of Controller of Certification(OCC)
– Cyber Forensics Lab
– National Information Technology Centre (NITC)
– Cyber Cell – Hanuman Dhoka
– ITERT(Information Technology Emergency Response Team) –Under study
• Cyber Law of Nepal is well drafted and are capable of
handling all kinds of challenges as posed by cyber criminals.
• As internet technology advances so does the threat of cyber
• In times like these we must protect ourselves from cyber
crime. Anti-virus software, firewalls and security patches are
just the beginning.
• Never open suspicious e-mails and only navigate to trusted
• If possible Use Digital Signature for every electronic
Notes de l'éditeur
Trojan Horse: secret undocumented routine embedded within a useful program, execution of the program results in execution of the routine
Common motivation is data