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Eco-industrial park and cleaner production

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Eco-industrial park and cleaner production

  1. 1. Eco-Industrial Park and Cleaner production UNIT – V Industrial Ecology and Sustainability Dr. Loveleen Kumar Bhagi Associate Professor School of Mechanical Engineering LPU1 MEC241 ENGINEERING SUSTAINABLE DEVELEOPMENT
  2. 2. Ecology is the study of the relationships between living organisms, including humans, and their physical environment; it seeks to understand the vital connections between plants and animals and the world around them.
  3. 3. The Four Laws of Ecology 1. Everything is connected to everything else. 2. Everything must go somewhere. 3. Nature knows best. 4. There is no such thing as a free lunch.
  4. 4. Industrial Ecology The study of material and energy flow through industrial and consumer activities system.
  5. 5. Industrial Ecology The study of material and energy flow through industrial and consumer activities system. Eco-Industrial Principles and Industrial Ecology 1. Industry is an interrelated system of extraction, production, distribution, consumption and disposal. 2. Industrial production must be subject to "life- cycle analysis" so as to identify materials pathways (Industrial Metabolism). 3. The natural world is a source of models of efficiency and of renewable energy and resources. 4. Finite resources must be returned, recycled, reclaimed and/or reused in order to close materials cycles and minimize energy consumption.
  6. 6. Industrial Ecology The study of material and energy flow through industrial and consumer activities system. Industrial ecologists are often concerned with the impacts that industrial activities have on the environment, with use of the planet's supply of natural resources, and with problems of waste disposal.
  7. 7. Industrial Ecology The study of material and energy flow through industrial and consumer activities system. Industrial ecologists are often concerned with the impacts that industrial activities have on the environment, with use of the planet's supply of natural resources, and with problems of waste disposal. Industrial ecology is a young but growing multidisciplinary field of research which combines aspects of engineering, economics, sociology, toxicology and the natural sciences.
  8. 8. Industrial Ecology The study of material and energy flow through industrial and consumer activities system. Industrial ecologists are often concerned with the impacts that industrial activities have on the environment, with use of the planet's supply of natural resources, and with problems of waste disposal. Industrial ecology is a young but growing multidisciplinary field of research which combines aspects of engineering, economics, sociology, toxicology and the natural sciences. Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
  9. 9. Industrial Ecology The study of material and energy flow through industrial and consumer activities system. Industrial ecologists are often concerned with the impacts that industrial activities have on the environment, with use of the planet's supply of natural resources, and with problems of waste disposal. Industrial ecology is a young but growing multidisciplinary field of research which combines aspects of engineering, economics, sociology, toxicology and the natural sciences. Sociology is a study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction and culture of everyday life.
  10. 10. Industrial Ecology The study of material and energy flow through industrial and consumer activities system. Industrial ecologists are often concerned with the impacts that industrial activities have on the environment, with use of the planet's supply of natural resources, and with problems of waste disposal. Industrial ecology is a young but growing multidisciplinary field of research which combines aspects of engineering, economics, sociology, toxicology and the natural sciences. Toxicology is a branch of science that involves the study of the adverse effects of chemical substances on living organisms
  11. 11. Industrial Ecology The study of material and energy flow through industrial and consumer activities system. Industrial ecologists are often concerned with the impacts that industrial activities have on the environment, with use of the planet's supply of natural resources, and with problems of waste disposal. Industrial ecology is a young but growing multidisciplinary field of research which combines aspects of engineering, economics, sociology, toxicology and the natural sciences. The primary goal of industrial ecology is to promote sustainable development at the local, regional, national, and global levels
  12. 12. The field approaches issues of sustainability by examining problems from multiple perspectives, usually involving aspects of sociology, the environment, economy and technology. The name industrial ecology comes from the idea that the analogy of natural systems should be used as an aid in understanding how to design sustainable industrial systems. Industrial Ecology
  13. 13. Industrial ecology is concerned with the shifting of industrial process from linear (open loop) systems, in which resource and capital investments move through the system to become waste, to a closed loop system where wastes can become inputs for new processes. Industrial Ecology
  14. 14. Industrial ecology is concerned with the shifting of industrial process from linear (open loop) systems, in which resource and capital investments move through the system to become waste, to a closed loop system where wastes can become inputs for new processes. Industrial Ecology
  15. 15. Industrial Ecosystem A community or network of companies and other organizations in a region who chose to interact by exchanging and making use of byproducts or energy in a way that provides one or more of the following benefits: 1. Reduction in the use of virgin materials as resource inputs 2. Reduction in pollution i.e. emission of GHG 3. Increased energy efficiency leading to reduced energy use in the system as a whole 4. Reduction in the volume of waste products requiring disposal 5. Maintaining the economic sustainability of systems for industry Virgin materials are natural resources that are extracted in their raw form that are traditionally used in industrial or manufacturing processes.
  16. 16. Eco – Industrial Park An Eco-industrial Park (EIP) is an industrial park in which businesses cooperate with each other and with the local community in an attempt to reduce waste and pollution, efficiently share resources (such as information, materials, water, energy, infrastructure, and natural resources), and help achieve sustainable development, with the intention of increasing economic gains and improving environmental quality.
  17. 17. Industrial Symbiosis • It was first coined in 1989 to describe the collaboration of businesses in Kalundborg • Involves the physical exchange of materials, energy, water, and byproducts among several organizations
  18. 18. Kalundborg Eco-Industrial Park (Denmark)
  19. 19. Characteristics of an EIP • Material, water, and energy flows • Companies within close proximity • Strong informal ties between plant managers • Minor retrofitting of existing infrastructure
  20. 20. Benefits of EIP • Business derives cost savings and new revenues; shared services; reduced regulatory burden; and increased competitiveness • The community enjoys cleaner, healthier environment; business and job development; an attraction for recruitment; and an end to conflict between the economy and the environment http://www.dartmouth.edu/~cushman/courses/engs171/EIPs-benefits.pdf
  21. 21. Designing Perspectives of an EIP Integration into Natural Systems Designing the EIP in coordination with the characteristics and constraints of local ecosystems; Minimize contributions to global environmental impacts, i.e. greenhouse gas emissions. Energy Systems Maximize energy efficiency through facility design or rehabilitation, co-generation (the capture and use of otherwise wasted heat from the electrical generating process).
  22. 22. Designing Perspectives of an EIP (contd.) Materials Flows and Waste Management Emphasize pollution prevention, especially with toxics; Ensures maximum re-use and recycling of materials among EIP businesses. It promotes Industrial Symbiosis by using waste of one industry as a by-product or raw material into another.
  23. 23. Effective EIP Management 1) Companies makes best use of each others by-products 2) Supports improvement in environmental performance for individual companies and the park as a whole 3) Supports inter-company communications, informs members of local environmental conditions, and provides feedback on EIP performance
  24. 24. Cleaner Production
  25. 25. accepting or allowing what happens or what others do, without active response or resistance.
  26. 26. Definition of Cleaner Production
  27. 27. Definition of Cleaner Production
  28. 28. Cleaner Production
  29. 29. • To increase production and corporate productivity through the more efficient use of raw materials, water and energy in order to reduce wastes and emissions of any kind at source rather than simply to deal with them afterwards, and • To contribute to improved product designs for products which will be more environment-friendly and cost effective over the whole of their life-cycles. Cleaner Production>Aim
  30. 30. Cleaner Production>key Points
  31. 31. Cleaner Production>key Points Environmental Management System
  32. 32. Cleaner Production>key PointsContradict Obstructing
  33. 33. Cleaner Production>key Points
  34. 34. Cleaner Production>key Points Effectiveness
  35. 35. Cleaner Production
  36. 36. Cleaner Production
  37. 37. Cleaner Production • Cleaner production is a preventive, company-specific environmental protection initiative. It is intended to minimize waste and emissions and maximize product output. • Cleaner Production of cleaner products and sustainable production and consumption are key elements of sustainable societies.
  38. 38. Cleaner Production>Options • Option 1: Input material substitution • Option 2 : Technology Change • Option 3: Good Operation Practice • Option 4: product Modification • Option 5: Reuse and Recycling The aim of CP is to carry out more efficient for use of natural resources (raw materials, energy, and water) and to minimizing the production of wastes and emissions at the source. The most common way to do such thing is through five prevention practices:
  39. 39. Cleaner Production> Option 1 Input Material Substitution
  40. 40. Cleaner Production> Option 2 Technology Change
  41. 41. Cleaner Production> Option 3 Good Operation Practice
  42. 42. Cleaner Production> Option 4 Product Modification
  43. 43. Cleaner Production> Option 5 Reuse and Recycling
  44. 44. Cleaner Production>Components • Waste Reduction Like in the case of P2, the term waste refers to all types of waste including both hazardous and solid waste, liquid and gaseous wastes, waste heat, etc.. The goal of CP is to achieve zero waste discharge. • Non-Polluting Production Ideal production processes, within the concept of CP, take place in a closed loop with zero contaminant release.
  45. 45. Cleaner Production>Components • Production Energy Efficiency CP requires the highest levels of energy efficiency and conservation. Energy efficiency is determined by the highest ration of energy consumption to product output. Energy conservation, on the other hand, refers to the reduction of energy usage. • Safe and Healthy Work Environments CP strives to minimize the risks of workers in order to make the workplace a cleaner, safer, and healthier environment.
  46. 46. Cleaner Production>Components • Environmentally Sound Products The final product and all marketable by-products should be as environmentally appropriate as possible. Health and environmental factors must be addressed at the earliest point of product and process design and must be considered over the full product life-cycle, from production through use and disposal. • Environmentally Sound Packaging Product packaging should be minimized wherever possible. Where packaging is necessary to protect the product, to market the product, or to facilitate ease of consumption, it should be as environmentally appropriate as possible.
  47. 47. Basic Principles of Cleaner Production
  48. 48. Basic Principles of Cleaner Production
  49. 49. Basic Principles of Cleaner Production
  50. 50. Basic Principles of Cleaner Production
  51. 51. Basic Principles of Cleaner Production
  52. 52. Basic Principles of Cleaner Production
  53. 53. Cleaner Production>Approaches
  54. 54. a) The precaution & preventative principle • Precaution is not simply a matter of avoiding breaking the law, it is also about ensuring that workers are protected from irreversible ill-health and that the plant is protected from irreversible damage. • The preventative principle is to look to upstream changes in the causal network of the system of production and consumption. The preventative nature of cleaner production calls for the new approach to reconsider product design, consumer demand, patterns of material consumption, and indeed the entire material basis of economic activity.
  55. 55. b) The integration Principle • Integration involves adopting a holistic view of the production cycle. • By reducing the need for emission into the environment of such substances, these measures thereby provide for an integrated protection of all environmental media. c) The comprehensive or democratic principle • The comprehensive or democratic principle involves people, workers and local residents, in the way where production and consumption are organized.
  56. 56. d) The continuity principle • Cleaner production is a no-end process. Its implementation calls for the ever-lasting efforts of governments, industries and consumers.
  57. 57. Cleaner Production>Methodology
  58. 58. 1) Planning and Organization Phase • In this phase a project team are establish, and assessment goal are set. At this phase, the participation and commitment of the owners and workers were confirmed because they determine the success of CP implementation. 2) Preliminary Assessment Phase • The purpose of the preliminary assessment phase is to gain an understanding of the processes at each site, to identify the major inputs and outputs, and to quantify and then to compare the wastes. • This phase is carried out to know basic information about the enterprise. This phase is conducted to acquire qualitative review including a description of the company and identification of all stages of the production process. Cleaner Production>Methodology
  59. 59. 3) Detailed Assessment Phase • During the detailed assessment phase CP ideas were generated to reduce, either directly or indirectly, the quantity and toxicity of the focus waste streams. More detailed knowledge of the processes that generate the focus wastes was required. • it include assessment of various waste and collection of quantitative data. 4) Feasibility Assessment Phases • The identified Cleaner Production options were then subjected to a feasibility analysis in the feasibility assessment phase. Options that were deemed feasible may then be implemented and monitored. Cleaner Production>Methodology
  60. 60. Cleaner Production>Methodology
  61. 61. Barriers to Cleaner Production
  62. 62. Barriers to Cleaner Production • Resistance to change • Lack of information, expertise and adequate training • Lack of communication within enterprises • Competing business priorities – in particular, the pressure for short – term profits • Perception of risk • Difficulty in accessing cleaner technology • Accounting systems which fail to capture environmental costs and benefits • Difficulty in accessing external finance
  63. 63. Cleaner Production vs Pollution Prevention
  64. 64. Cleaner Production vs Pollution Prevention
  65. 65. Benefits of CP
  66. 66. Benefits of CP • CP improves products and services • CP lowers risks (liability) • CP improves company image • CP improves worker’s health and safety conditions • CP reduces waste treatment and disposal costs • CP saves costs on raw material, energy and water • CP makes companies more profitable and competitive
  67. 67. Sectors Concerned Automobile manufacturing / Bakeries / Cement production / Ceramics / Coffee sector / Chemicals / Electroplating / Fertilizers / Foundries / Hospitals / Leather processing / Mechanical manufacturing / Metallurgy / Mining / Municipality / Oil refineries / Plastics / Printing / Pulp and paper / Remanufacturing industries / Rubber processing / Steel manufacturing / Sugar sector / Textile manufacturing and processing
  68. 68. References: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrial_ecology https://www.slideshare.net/farhanahmad5249349/cleaner-production-techniques- 32977890 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/322821101_Cleaner_production_options_for_redu cing_industrial_waste_the_case_of_batik_industry_in_Malang_East_Java- Indonesia_Cleaner_production_options_for_reducing_industrial_waste_the_case_of_batik_in dustry_in https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xracq1NWyQw https://www.slideserve.com/tarika/introduction-to-cleaner-production-cp-concepts-and- practice https://books.google.co.in/books?id=7uXVE3ilk_kC&pg=PP1&source=kp_read_button &redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false https://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/sdissues/technology/cleanerproduction.pdf
  69. 69. ✓ Pollution Prevention Concept andTerminology ✓ Environment Law and Sustainability UNIT – V Industrial Ecology and Sustainability Dr. Loveleen Kumar Bhagi Associate Professor School of Mechanical Engineering LPU80 MEC241 ENGINEERING SUSTAINABLE DEVELEOPMENT

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