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Given a popular view, evolution is an incremental process based on an increase of molecular complexity of organisms. However, some organisms have undergo massive genome reduction like the endosymbionts. In this case the reduction can be explained by the Muller’s ratchet due to the endosymbiont lifestyle with small population and lack of recombination. However, in some marine bacteria, like Prochlorococcus et Pelagibacter, lineage have undergo up to 30% of genome reduction. Their lifestyle is almost the opposite to the one of the endosymbionts and reductive genome evolution can not be easily explicable by the Muller’s ratchet. Some other hypothesis has been proposed but none can explain all the observed genomic characteristics. In the thesis, I am interested in the reductive evolution of Prochlorococcus. I used two approaches: a theoretical one using simulation where different scenarios are tested and an analysis of Prochlorococcus genomes in a phylogenetic framework to determine the causes and characteristics of genome reduction. The combination of these two approaches allows to propose an hypothetical evolutive history for the reductive genome evolution of Prochlorococcus.