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  2. 2. THESIS STATEMENT • Abortion is a very controversial topic in the world today. Pro-choice and Pro-life both have convincing arguments. Each side bring up many good points dealing with religion and rights for a women to control her body. Pro-choice is the view that women should have complete control of her fertility and if she wats to terminate the baby, that it should be her choice to do so. Having a child is a personal choice that affects a women's life greatly. Pro-life viewers believes that a fetus is a person and should have the right to live. They also believe that life begins at conception. The destruction of human life is considered ethically and morally wrong. Abortion is debated heavily and these this PowerPoint gives reasons on both.
  3. 3. PRO-LIFE • Pro-Life is supporting the expectant mother to keep her unborn baby • Pro- Life supporters believe that from the point of fertilization the baby is a human
  4. 4. PRO-LIFE (CONT.) • There are other options such as adoption or leaving you’re baby at a safe place like a hospital, fire station, and police station. • Legal abortions can be dangerous • An abortion can also result in a perforated uterus requiring an emergency hysterectomy. • Studies of long-term complications frequently report complication rates between 25-40%
  5. 5. PRO-LIFE (CONT.) • The bible declares that pregnancy is sanctified • We are made by God; "For you created my inmost being. You knit me together in my mother's womb....Your eyes say my unformed body." Psalm 139:13-16 • "Speak up for those who cannot speak for themselves...defend the rights of the poor and needy." Proverbs 31:8-9
  6. 6. WHAT IS AN ABORTION? • Abortion means ending a pregnancy before the fetus ( unborn baby) can live independently outside of the mother. • If an abortion happens spontaneously, before 24 weeks of pregnancy its called a miscarriage. An induced abortion is caused deliberately in order to end the abortion
  7. 7. HISTORY OF ABORTION • In ancient Greece, Plato and Aristotle recommended abortion in order to avoid excess population in small Greek city states. • 1821-America's first statutory abortion regulation is enacted in Connecticut in order to protect women from abortion inducement through poison administered after the fourth month of pregnancy. • The Society for Human Abortion is established in San Francisco in 1963. SHA challenges the law by openly providing information on abortion and contraception
  8. 8. HISTORY OF ABORTION (CAN'T) • 1967-Abortion is classified a felony in 49 states and Washington D.C. Dr. Leon Bullous is convicted for referring a woman to an illegal abortionist -- a case leading to a 1969 California Supreme Court decision in favor of the right to choose abortion. President Kennedy created the Presidential Advisory Council on the Status of Women and calls for the repeal of abortion laws. • 1970-Hawaii becomes the first state to allow abortions performed before 20 weeks of pregnancy, thereby repealing its criminal abortion law. Soon after, New York State repeals its criminal abortion law. • 1971- The Supreme Court, in Roe vs. Wade, grants women the right to terminate pregnancies through abortion. The ruling is based on a woman's right to privacy. In a separate case, Doe vs. Bolton, the Supreme Court votes 7-2 to invalidate Georgia law that required a woman to get approval from three physicians before having an abortion.
  9. 9. HISTORY OF ABORTION (CAN'T) • In Webster vs. Reproductive Health Services, a law in Washington State declaring that "life begins at conception"; and barring the use of public facilities for abortions is found unconstitutional. It marks the first time the Supreme Court does not explicitly reaffirm Roe vs. Wade. • 1996-The abortion debate shifts to state bans on "partial-birth abortions" which generally include late-term abortions performed with the "dilation and evacuation" method. 104th Congress passes HR 1833, a bill to outlaw such procedures; President Clinton vetoes the bill.
  10. 10. STATES AND ABORTION • States have different laws on when a women can get an abortion • Most states allow women to get an abortion in the first trimester (12 weeks ) and for the women to wait 24 hours after a informational appointment. • Few abortions are done after 16 weeks of pregnancy, but some women have to delay the abortion because of trouble with paying for, finding, or traveling to an abortion specialist.
  11. 11. 3 VIEWS OF ABORTION • The Conservative • The Liberal • The moderate or intermediate
  12. 12. THE CONSERVATIVE VIEW • It declares that abortion is never permissible, only required to save the pregnant woman's life, as in the case of a removal of a cancerous uterus or the removal of the fallopian tube, or part of it, because of ectopic pregnancy.
  13. 13. THE LIBERAL VIEW • States the abortion is always permissible, whatever the state of fetal development may be. If women are truly to be liberate, this view contends, they must ultimately have full freedom to control their own reproductive capacities. • A woman has the right to control her own body as her personal property within the context of the right of self- determination
  14. 14. THE MODERATE VIEW • Abortion is morally permissible up to certain stages of fetal development, or for some limited set of reasons sufficient to justify the taking of life in this or that special circumstances. As far as the moderates are concerned, the fetus attains ontological status at quickening or viability. Fetuses have only some rights and have partial status. In this regard, abortion before quickening is morally legitimate.
  15. 15. TYPES OF ABORTIONS • Medication • Surgical • “The Late Term”
  16. 16. MEDICATION • Mifepristone and Misoprostol: a medical abortion procedure used up to the first seven to nine weeks of pregnancy. It can also be referred to as RU-486, the abortion pill, and mifeprex. • Methotrexate & Misoprostol (MTX): a medical abortion procedure used up to the first seven weeks of pregnancy. This medication combination is not as commonly used in the U.S. with the availability of mifepristone, which works more effectively for this use.
  17. 17. SURGICAL • Manual Vacuum Aspiration (MVA): a procedure used as early as 3 -12 weeks since the last period. Considered less invasive with only a local anesthesia being used on the cervix. • Aspiration: a surgical abortion procedure used to terminate pregnancy up to 16 weeks from the last period. It can also be referred to as suction curettage, dilation and curettage (D & C) or vacuum aspiration. • Induction Abortion: a rarely performed surgical procedure where salt water, urea, or potassium chloride is injected into the amniotic sac; prostaglandins are inserted into the vagina, and pitocin is injected intravenously.
  19. 19. THE LATE TERM • Third trimester or late term abortions are not legal in a number of states except in certain medical situations. The time frame referred to as late term is often based on when a baby is considered “viable” (able to survive outside the womb). However, the point of “viability” is a grey area in many medical communities. Most medical communities establish 24 weeks gestation, the later part of the second trimester, as the earliest time of viability. Therefore, the availability of any procedure used in the third trimester is based on the laws of that state.
  20. 20. THE LATE TERM (CON’T) • Dilation & Evacuation (D & E): a surgical abortion procedure used to terminate a pregnancy after 16 weeks gestation. • Induction Abortion: a rarely performed surgical procedure where salt water, urea, or potassium chloride is injected into the amniotic sac; prostaglandins are inserted into the vagina, and pitocin is injected intravenously.
  21. 21. OTHER FORMS OF ABORTION • Miscarriage • Therapeutic
  22. 22. PRO-CHOICE • Pro choice means that the women have the right to choice weather the to have an abortion or not. • Women should have control of their bodies and have the freedom to continue or terminate a pregnancy. • Most abortions take place in the first trimester when the fetus cannot live independently of the mother
  23. 23. WOMEN'S RIGHTS OVER FETUS RIGHTS? • Women should be given more rights than a fetus as denying them an abortion can violate a women’s mental integrity, and physical integrity • A women is a living person and is both physically and mentally developed • A fetus is not considered a human being scientifically and has no mental features that a normal living human being has. A fetus is not an actual human being and does not have any rights under the charter
  24. 24. PHYSICAL INTEGRITY • The importance of yourself as a human being and self-determination over your own body • Women have the right to their own health and how they want to be treated health wise. • There are many health problems associated with pregnancies and how they are carried out some are more serious then others
  25. 25. MENTAL INTEGRITY • The right to mental integrity includes the women's ability and self-knowledge to make the right moral decision • A women’s identity is the most important thing to her and the amount of control she has over her body affects how she will be seen as throughout society • Women's have the right to choose what they want to do with their body and what they choose id right for their lives
  26. 26. POSITIVE REASONS FOR ABORTION • Teen pregnancy • About 30% of pregnant teens have an abortion • Having legal abortions lowers the risk of pregnant women having unsafe, and unauthorized abortions. • Not being able to support the child financially. • rape or incest • Forcing a women to have a child that she conceived through an unfortunate act will only add to her mental stress.
  27. 27. ROE VS WADE • Roe (P), a pregnant single woman, brought a class action suit challenging the constitutionality of the Texas abortion laws. These laws made it a crime to obtain or attempt an abortion except on medical advice to save the life of the mother. • A three-judge District Court panel tried the cases together and held that Roe and Helford had standing to sue and presented justiciable controversies, and that declaratory relief was warranted. The court also ruled however that injunctive relief was not warranted and that the Does’ complaint was not justiciable. • Roe and Helford won their lawsuits at trial. The district court held that the Texas abortion statutes were void as vague and for over broadly infringing the Ninth and Fourteenth Amendment rights of the plaintiffs. The Does lost, however, because the district court ruled that injunctive relief against enforcement of the laws was not warranted.
  28. 28. HOW I WOULD FEEL • As a women in todays society, I feel that my rights are more important than an unborn child. If I felt that I absolutely had to abort my child, I should have the right to choose what to do with my body. Although I do agree that abortion is harsh but if incest, rape, or any other type of abuse happened I should be able to choose if I want to keep the baby.
  29. 29. HOW HAS VIEWS CHANGED? • Legal abortion rates increased significantly following the Roe decision but have declined for the past three decades. In 1973, Roe v. Wade legalized first-trimester, elective abortion and also gave some protections to terminations later in the pregnancy. Abortion rates climbed after the decision, a trend that had started in the late 1960s, as states began liberalizing their abortion laws.
  30. 30. WHAT I LEARNED • In 1993 an abortion protestor Michael Griffin shot Dr. David Gunn outside a clinic in Pensacola, Fla., during a March demonstration. He is later sentenced to life in prison. • In 1997 Two bombs blast outside an Atlanta building containing an abortion clinic; six people injured; the clinic is left in ruins and the blast blows out windows across the street.
  31. 31. CONCLUSION • A Women's Physical integrity means a lot to her, especially in todays society since people are most likely judges on their physical state. If a woman decides that having an abortion is right for her, she should be allowed it di so. Women's rights are more important than a fetus. A women is a fully developed human being and should have the right to do whatever she thinks is morally right for her and her body.
  32. 32. SOURCES • "Abortion Responses." National Right to Life. Web. 09 Feb. 2011. <http://www.nrlc.org/abortion/facts/abortionresponses.html>. • Alcorn, Randy. "PROLIFE: 10 Arguments Against Abortion." Christian Action. Web. 09 Feb. 2011. <http://www.christianaction.org.za/articles/10rguments.htm>. • Bose, Debopriya. "Arguments for Pro Choice Abortions." Buzzle Web Portal: Intelligent Life on the Web. Web. 15 Feb. 2011. <http://www.buzzle.com/articles/arguments-for-pro-choice-abortions.html>. • "Pro-Choice Abortion." Popular Issues - AllAboutPopularIssues.org. Web. 15 Feb. 2011. <http://www.allaboutpopularissues.org/pro-choice-abortion.htm>. • "Pro-life." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 09 Feb. 2011. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pro-life>.