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During the early years of the 16th century the French were involved in wars in northern Italy, bringing back to France not just the Renaissance art treasures as their war booty, but also stylistic ideas.<br />
The Italian Renaissance began to influence French art when Charles VIII returned (1496) from his conquest of Naples accompanied by several Italian artists.<br />Delete this slide<br />Guide for report. Write on paper.<br />
<ul><li>This was the period under Charles VIII until the death of Henry IV. </li></li></ul><li>Three kings had greatest influence in the French Renaissance art.<br />Francios I Style (1515-1547)<br />Henry II Style (1547-1589<br />Louis XIII Style (1589-1643)<br />
Actively encouraged humanistic learning.<br />Invited da Vinci and Andrea del Sarto to France.<br />He collected paintings by the great Italian masters like Titian, Raphael, and Michelangelo.<br />
<ul><li>Used a transitional technique in furniture construction where Italian Renaissance ornaments and elements laid on Gothic forms.
Known for the variety of its ornaments, fancy motifs and graceful composition.
Use of medallion.</li></li></ul><li>By the time he ascended the throne in 1515, the Renaissance had arrived in France, and Francis became a major patron of the arts. At his accession, the royal palaces of France were ornamented with only a scattering of great paintings, and not a single piece of sculpture, either ancient or modern. It is during Francis' reign that the magnificent art collection of the French kings, which can still be seen at the Louvre, was begun.<br />Delete this slide<br />Guide for report. Write on paper.<br />
The most numerous type of window in the Francis I style was square-headed. An occasional variation was the rounding of the shoulders. <br />They were generally large, and divided vertically by a mullion crossed by a transverse mullion or transome, nearer the top than the bottom, thus forming a cross (fenetrecroisee). (This detail, however, chiefly appeared outside and did not affect the interior aspect.)<br />Besides these, there were also in lesser number round-arched windows and windows with flat elliptical-arched tops. <br />
Door headscorresponded in shapeof windowheadsandabove the door headscarved or sculptureddecoration was oftenadded.<br />Significant for diverse and elegant structure of its embellishments and extravagant design.<br />
He continued the work of his predecessors on the Château d'Amboise.<br />The earliest example is the Chateau d'Amboise (c.1495), where Leonardo da Vinci spent his last years.<br />
Early in his reign, he also began construction of the magnificent Château de Chambord, inspired by the styles of the Italian renaissance.<br />Chateau de Chambord is a more elaborate marriage of Gothic structure and Italianate ornament.<br />
Francios rebuilt the Louvre, transforming it from a medieval fortress into a building of Renaissancesplendor.<br />The Louvre<br />
He financed the building of a new City Hall (Hôtel de Ville) for <br />Paris in order to have control over the building's design.<br />City Hall (Hôtel de Ville)<br />
The largest of Francis' building projects was the reconstruction and expansion of the royal château of Fontainebleau, which quickly became his favorite place of residence.<br />Reconstruction and expansion of the royal “Château of Fontainebleau”<br />
Henry was born in the royal Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, near Paris, the son of Francis I.<br />The Style Henri II marks the very height and flower of the French Renaissance, the climax to which all previous development was only preparatory.<br />The most lasting products of the Henry II style were architectural. <br />
The details borrowed from classic architecture (slender columns, cornices, moldings, friezes)
Had simple forms, superb proportion and balance.
Fully developed French Renaissance.</li></li></ul><li>Windows to a great extent retained their mullioned and transomed divisions<br />Mullions and transomeswere not always present , and square-headed windows without them and with two full-length casements were not uncommon.<br />Round-arched windows also occurred to some extent. <br />Panels inside shutters were used. <br />Door heads were of corresponding shape to window heads and over-door decoration often took the form of a pediment, either rectilinear or arc-shaped, with appropriate accompaniments.<br />
Henry II (1547-1559)<br />First RossoFiorentino and then Francesco Primaticcio and SebastianoSerlio served Henry II as court artisans, constructing the Aile de la Belle Cheminée(1568)<br />
The Château d'Anet, commissioned by Diane de Poitiers, mistress of Henry II, was designed by Philibert Delorme, who studied in Rome.<br />
In 1564 Delorme began work on the Tuileries, the most outstanding Parisian palais of the Henry II style. It too exhibited a mannerist treatment of classical themes, for which Delorm had developed his own "French order" of columns.<br />
Rectilinear in shape and had simple and basic forms.
Carving and turning were the most used technique.
Louis XIII architecture was equally influenced by Italian styles.
Influenced from the north, through Flemish and Dutch Baroque, and from the south, through Italian mannerism and early Baroque. </li></li></ul><li>In this style of decoration Baroque influences, and especially flemish Baroque influences, began to make themselves more and more noticeable. <br />Windows were further increased in size, so that they extended nearly all the way from floor to ceiling.<br />About the same time, also, stone mullions and transomes began to fall into disuse, being replaced by wooden substitutes or by wooden casement frames with broad stiles and rails.<br />
Jacques Lemerciercompleted the most famous work of the Louis XIII period is the chapel of the Sorbonne (1635)<br />
INTERIORS<br />The first French Renaissance interiors were created at Fontainebleau in the 1530s by Italian artists Rosso Fiorentino and Francesco Primaticcio. <br />
INTERIORS<br />Characteristics include slender nymphs with clinging drapery, garlands, scrolls, strapwork, grotesques and stucco figures. There were not heavily followed; interiors continue to feature Gothic and classical elements. <br />
INTERIORS<br />Galeire de Francois I, Palais de Fontainebleau<br />
INTERIORS<br />Galeire de Francois I, Palais de Fontainebleau<br />
INTERIORS<br />Doors, windows, and stairways are important features. <br />Large, prominent chimneypieces are focal points. <br />The projecting hood may be decorated with classic and Gothic details, coats of arms, and/or royal and period motifs. <br />It does not have classical proportions, but entablatures, pilasters, and columns shapes the overall design. <br />Decoration is concentrated on the floors, walls, and ceilings. Room use is flexible and has few furnishings. <br />
INTERIORS<br />Palais des Tuileriesstairway<br />Hotel de Ville stairway<br />
Characteristics of French Renaissance <br />Furniture:<br /><ul><li>Panels were beautifully carved with graceful figures.</li></li></ul><li>Characteristics of French Renaissance <br />Furniture:<br /><ul><li>Grotesque, arabesque, rinceauand classical motifs were usual within the period.</li></li></ul><li>Characteristics of French Renaissance <br />Furniture:<br /><ul><li>Flemish scrolls were conpicuous. </li></li></ul><li>Characteristics of French Renaissance <br />Furniture:<br /><ul><li>Stretchers were set-out as X form with a vase form or turned finial placed at the intersection.</li></li></ul><li>Characteristics of French Renaissance <br />Furniture:<br /><ul><li>Solidly built; with the structure of Gothic period that has been continued to be used with Italian Renaissance ornamentation.</li></li></ul><li>Characteristics of French Renaissance <br />Furniture:<br /><ul><li>Carving, inlay work, turning, gilding and painting were the main methods of decorating.</li></li></ul><li>Furniture:<br />Escabelle Same as sgabello.<br />Caquetoire Mostly used by women, scaled lightly wooden <br /> chair with a tail, narrow paneled back attached to a trapezoid seat.<br />Armoire Wardrobe cabinet that is movable<br />Commode Chest of drawers.<br />