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  1. 1. GREENING OF THE MARITIME INDUSTRY A short summary of Ph.D. thesis by Roberto Rivas Hermann, Aalborg University in cooperation with MARCOD November 2015
  2. 2. Setting the scene The greening of the marine industry has been investigated in the now finished Ph.D. study. Special attention has been given to the interplay between requirements in the maritime environmental legislation, market demands and development of product and service eco- innovations. “The global market for ship repair and maintenance was estimated at 18,5 billion USD, with 50% covering labour costs and the other 50% the spare parts and subcontracts with suppliers”. Danish marine equipment suppliers and service providers can integrate environmental technologies in different phases of ships’ life: research and design, construction, operation and end-of-life. In these supply chains, there are new demands for environmental products and services from both the market and from legislation. For example, during operation, requirements towards for example energy efficiency and the environment, become a key driver for retrofitting ships with environmental technologies. The International Maritime Organisation (IMO) has approved more than 40 environmental conventions and 800 environmental regulations since 1958. In the period 2010-2020, the type of environmental technologies is diverse both for new ships and for existing ships subject to changes (retrofit) for installing these kinds of technologies (Table 1) 2
  3. 3. Technology Construction Operation End of Life Low sulphur heavy fuel oil SOx scrubber Pure LNG engine Dual-fuel engine Exhaust gas recirculation Selective catalytic reduction Propulsion efficiency devices Waste heat recovery Shaft generators Hull shape optimisation Smaller engine/de-rating (speed reduction) System efficiency improvement Hybrid propulsion system Ballast Water Treatment System Low NOx tuning Lightweight constructions Ship recycling Selection of environmental technology required by environmental regulations 2010-2020. Source: DNV (2012) Table 1 3
  4. 4. Adding value to the services provided In the past 20 years, the once important shipbuilding sector in Northern Jutland has changed from new ship constructions (ship yards) into a more complex network of maritime service and equipment supplier firms. These suppliers are integrated into the value chains of four industrial sectors: shipping, fishing, offshore oil and gas and offshore wind power. With the support of intermediaries (such as MARCOD and local ports), some business networks of suppliers have been established with these main characteristics: Formal networks through a management board, paid fees and a website. Provision of services or services associated with particular products (such as installation of refrigeration equipment in fishing vessels) The offer of new products and services related to environmental protection. The maritime networks acknowledge that the potential market of environmental technologies brings opportunities during the construction of new ships, but also during operation and retrofitting of existing ships. 4
  5. 5. The focus of the PhD thesis is to improve the understanding of how Danish maritime suppliers, in particular those in Northern Jutland, can deliver environmental products and services to the shipping industry. In other words: How can value be added to the services provided by the maritime cluster in Northern Jutland? A multiple case study is made in order to analyse four important conditions for the current maritime clean tech initiatives: 1. Drivers for environmental technologies, 2. Partnerships for cleaner shipping, 3. Business models for environmental products and services 4. The role of intermediaries such as networks and cluster managers, in environmental retrofit projects. 5
  6. 6. question 6
  7. 7. Question 1: Drivers for maritime eco-innovations A case study of sulphur content regulation on marine fuels in Northern Europe The main findings of this case study can be summarized as: The price difference between low sulphur graded fuels and heavy fuel oil opens opportunities for alternative means of compliance with the low sulphur regulation. Two of these means of compliance could be clear opportunities for suppliers from Northern Jutland: a) Sulphur scrubbers can be installed in ships in order to wash out the sulphur content in the smoke emissons. However, the solutions are only slowly accepted by stakeholders due to: A wide perception that the technology is on testing status and is expensive to install Lack of reception facilities at the ports A long time span between company decisions and certification and installation of units. b) Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) is increasingly seen by authorities as a viable technology of compliance. However, some challenges ahead for maritime suppliers in Northern Jutland: Lack of bunkering infrastructure, but partly addressed through EU funds Bunkering regulations need to be created and harmonised for Sulphur Emission Control Areas (SECA) 7
  8. 8. There is no consensus among the interviewed stakeholders about the value of installing environmental technology on board. It is either considered as an extra cost or as a potential element for creating value for customers. From the shipowners’ perspective, voluntary programs as the Clean Shipping Index are instruments that improve the company’s image and in turn attracts customers. Yet, they have not been fully promoted in the industry, because of their fragmentation in several different labelling schemes. “All these regulations come with costs, and therefore we are assessing future risks [associated with these regulations]. It is our strategy to look at very early stages and try to tackle from there on. Further, this implies abatement of future risks and future costs to be ahead of the game” (Shipowner). 8
  9. 9. The role of intermediaries in green retrofit projects: THE HOW (II) Business models for environmental products and services: THE HOW (III) Drivers for environmetal products and services: THE WHY Developing products and services through partnerships: THE HOW 9
  10. 10. question Question 2: Partnerships for eco-innovation: Two Danish case studies The experience from two partnerships, the Partnership for Cleaner Shipping and the Green Ship of the Future is analysed in order to understand, why the actors in the Danish maritime clusters create partnerships for greening of the industry. Several factors can be highlighted: The partnerships are motivated by environmental regulations Developing competences and creating end-user supplier alliances for maritime eco-innovations Creates a niche for collaborative development and testing Matchmaking and creating supply networks among national suppliers 10
  11. 11. In the case study, the processes and outcomes of two partnerships in the Danish shipping industry were analysed. Some of the main contributions can be listed in the following way: Northern Jutland Maritime Cluster Some maritime service firms in Northern Jutland are already part of the studied partnerships. The case provides insights to practitioners (such as MARCOD, regional authorities), of possible replication of these partnerships at a local level in a more systematic way in order to support exchange of knowledge and growth. Pilot projects can be developed in the region, following similar principles used in the partnerships, for example regarding participation, the scope of activities and roles of different actors. Generalization to other contexts Processes and outcomes of partnerships for eco-innovation can be evaluated and developed according to three elements: participation, the scope of activities and roles. Cluster management organizations can consider these aspects, when planning possible partnerships for cleaner technologies. The work provides insights to practitioners on how to overcome the tension between open and innovation-based networking on the one side and closed and development-oriented collaboration on the other side. 11
  12. 12. question 12
  13. 13. Question 3: Business models for product and service eco-innovations: A case study of ballast water treatment systems (BWTS) The purpose of this study is to understand how to generate value for maritime service suppliers. The issue of investigation was: Which business model will lead to a profitable relationship between service supplying SMEs networks, equipment manufacturers and shipyards? In the BWTS market, one can identify a combination of business models in the different phases of the BWTS life cycle (Figure 3). However, the actors have not yet tried out any business models: product service-system, where the shipowners pay per volume of water treated, rather than for the equipment re-think BWTS from a sold product to a service system that could be built around BWTS products complete packages of installation, service and monitoring from a BWTS consortia 13
  14. 14. Research methods in a snapshot An exploratory case study of ballast water treatment systems was made with two hypothesis: A Product Service-System (PSS) can be characterized as payment for a service (for example volume of water treated), rather than for a product. The Danish BWTS manufacturers, service firms, shipyards and shipowners were interviewed. Manufacturing Few BWTS units manufactured Manufacturers with leading role in the supply chain Characteristics of the business model in the different phases of the BWTS life cycle Hypothesis I: “Current business models contain elements of Product Service-Systems in the market niche of ballast water treatment systems” Hypothesis II: “These elements could be basis for increasing value in the offering of integrated services and products to the market” Installation Shipyards as “hubs” of collaboration between service suppliers, manufacturers and shipowners Operation Manufacturers avoid a strong fixed dependency on a single shipyard that may limit the manufacturer’s ability to make extensive contacts worldwide Maritime service firms flexibility as such as flying squads Figure 3 14
  15. 15. The case study contributes to the practice in the maritime cluster of Northern Jutland and beyond, as summarized in the table below. Northern Jutland Maritime Cluster The installation phase is driven by the shipowners’ needs of installation and geographical service. The operation phase provides new opportunities for links between manufacturers and maritime service companies. Generalization to other contexts The proposed functional result PSS, Product-Service-Systems for BWTS can serve as inspiration for Danish suppliers. There is a realistic potential to carry pilot projects given that a partnership for ballast water is already in place, and some stakeholders have already commissioned reports to better understand port-based BWTS. The case presents an eco-efficient value rate model. It provides direction for innovation on a product and PSS level, as well for business strategies and regulation development. The case of BWTS in Denmark extends the literature on PSS through the consideration of the maritime industry, an example of a complex OEM-supplier structure with the business dynamics of a new market that is being created through environmental regulation. (OEM: Original Equipment Manufacturer) 15 Table 2
  16. 16. question Question 4: Functions of intermediaries such as networks and cluster managers in innovation processes: A case study of retrofit of a small island ferry with clean technology The case study of the partnership sheds light on processes and outcomes deriving from cluster- based test projects in the maritime industry. The case study includes a closer look to the role of the organizations that facilitate these collaborative networks and the innovation processes therein. The focus was on small island ferries and demonstration projects In the case study we identified several functions provided by the intermediary MARCOD (Table 3). 16
  17. 17. The main contributions of the case study to the practice are: The research process was carried out as a self-reflexive task by all actors involved. The list of functions of intermediaries provides further ideas to cluster management organizations (such as not only in the maritime industry), to define competences of their employees and further areas of support to local firms. The roles of intermediaries are well described functions in the literature. The function as technological knowledge partners can help the process of selecting the “right” actors Key functions played by the intermediary MARCOD in the retrofit of the Læsø FerryTable 3 Foresight and forecasting Scanning and information processing Brokering (Collector) Broad networking Setting up adhoc groups Knowledge recombination Brokering Increasing connectivity Follow up adhoc groups Foresight about regulatory push in the shipping industry: sulphur regulations on fuels Forecasting new products/ services to respond to the demand rising from this new regulation Filtering technical options for the demonstration project Scoping the project Collecting proposals of ships where the demonstration project could be developed Collecting more specific technical proposals Elaborating a detailed budget Organizing maritime business conference Initial idea of a 1:1 scale demonstration: the green ferry retrofit Inviting to open meetings where several suppliers participate Organizing a in situ visit on board the vessel Preparing a catalogue of technology to be installed in the demonstration projects The consultant from the intermediary organization MARCOD used his previous knowledge tp propose the project SEMS Intermediaries provide potential solutions for a SEMS prototype Intermediaries select the solutions and partners Finding a third party approver for the HVAC system Invite relevant external partners Defining partner role in the development of SEMS Fundraising Orchestrating adhoc group activities Following up initial commitments Initiation Development 17
  18. 18. Conclusions Greening of the maritime industry: What are the insights of this PhD thesis? A key focus on the cleaner shipping “in the making”: the four areas of inquiry paid particular attention to the role of suppliers, end-users and intermediaries in the supply of environmental products and services. The four case studies highlight how suppliers respond to different sets of drivers. One outcome is that maritime service and equipment suppliers are not passive actors. Instead, they actively engage along with end-users in the co-creation of new environmental products and services. Partnerships and pilot projects can be seen as “experimental spaces” or living labs of learning about the relationships taking place in the supply chains. As an example, some big players (equipment manufacturers) get advantages of these partnerships as for example influence the regulation setting through technical norms. Greening of the maritime industry: Implications to business models and cluster performance - a long term perspective Several areas of research and further collaboration in partnerships between the different actors are relevant in the future. 18
  19. 19. New networks and collaborative projects could be formed around cleaner technologies such as: Composite materials Electrical ferries Ship decommissioning Technologies related to the ballast water convention (soon to be approved) Market drivers have also influence on the demand of environmental products and services by shipowners. Business-to-business customers influence the market through eco-labelling standards. The environmental impacts of seaborne transportation are seen as part of the assessment criteria. The “triple helix” relations between industry, universities and governmental institutions in the cluster take importance in the development of new competences to respond to the demands of environmental products and services. Ongoing competence development initiatives in the Northern Jutland maritime cluster are an example of this trend (such as through MARCOD) In terms of business models, the following could be proposed for further research and development: More flexible contracts between service firms and equipment suppliers A closer analysis on the business models in different phases of a product’s life cycle. Here comes into play the role of intermediaries in creating capacities and promoting alternative perspectives among suppliers and end-users. An open perspective on possible new type(s) of ownership structure. My thesis did not attempt to be a broad survey of the different possible cases, but instead an in-depth analysis of a model with BWTS as example. 19
  20. 20. References to published articles: 1. Rivas-Hermann, R. and Remmen, A. (2015) Drivers for eco-innovation in the shipping industry: A case study of the North European emissions control area. Journal of Cleaner Production. In review. Journal of Cleaner Production 2. Rivas-Hermann, R. Smink, C.K. and Kerndrup, S. (in press) Partnerships for environmental technology development in the shipping industry: two Danish case studies. International Journal for Innovation and Sustainable Development. 3. Rivas-Hermann, R. Köhler, J. and Scheepens, A. (2015) Innovation in product and services in the shipping retrofit industry: a case study of ballast water treatment systems. Journal of Cleaner Production. Vol 106, pp. 443-454. http://dx.doi. org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.06.06231T 4. Rivas-Hermann, R. Mosgaard, M. and Kerndrup, S. (In press) Intermediaries functions in collaborative innovation processes: retrofitting a Danish small island ferry with green technology. International Journal for Innovation and Sustainable Development 20
  21. 21. MARCOD MARCOD is an independent maritime center which strengthens and facilitates the maritime companies, network and competences in an international maritime industry. Our goal is to create growth in the Blue Northern Jutland. We communicate knowledge about the maritime industry to the Blue Northern Jutland and are a cluster secretary and development resource for the maritime companies and network in Northern Jutland. We have extensive knowledge of the maritime industry and a comprehensive network to the maritime participants in Denmark and Scandinavia such as: authorities, industry organizations, associations and businesses. The center was established in 2010 and is organized as a foundation with sponsorships from Northern Jutland Growth Forum, Business Region North Denmark, municipalities and ports from Northern Jutland, as well as Lauritzen Fonden, ENV Fonden and The Danish Maritime Fund. Department of Development and Planning, Aalborg University The field of the Department includes development and planning in a broad sense, and thereby it reaches from the social science aspects of development (technological, environmental, international and administrative aspects) to physical planning, sector planning, land management, and to technical subjects such as road engineering, road safety, surveying and mapping. The department is part the Faculty of Engineering and Science. 22
  22. 22. Roberto Rivas Hermann Roberto Rivas Hermann (León, Nicaragua, 1982) graduated as an Environmental Quality Engineer at the University of Central America, Managua, in 2006. After some professional experience in maritime pollution control at the environmental consulting firm EPC S/A, Roberto worked from 2007 until 2009 at the Nitlapan Institute (University of Central America) as a researcher for an international project on local water resource governance funded by the Danish Research Council for Development Research, Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In 2009 he obtained an Erasmus-Mundus scholarship to pursue the Joint European Master in Environmental Studies at the Technical University Hamburg and Aalborg University. His MSc thesis inquired on eco-entrepreneurship with a focus in the maritime industry of Frederikshavn. In October 2011, Roberto began this Ph.D. project in collaboration with the Maritime Centre for Operations and Development (MARCOD) 23
  23. 23. More publications by Roberto Rivas Hermann: www.marcod.dk