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Akhil Saraswat (20151001)
Dhaivat Acharya (20151012)
Raj Vadukul (20151034)
Ronak Sani (20151039)
A Revolution & Evolution for the Global Industry
used across LNG Value
within our defined scope
across the LNG Value
A Potential Breakthrough - FLNG
FLNG Field Development
FLNG Process and Technology
Risk and Safety
Conventional approach to producing LNG is to pipe the gas from the gas field to an
onshore plant to be processed and liquefied. The gas is then stored on site before
being offloaded to a LNG tanker to be taken to market.
Due to the limited scope of conventional method of natural gas extraction and the
technological advances and economic feasibility made FLNG a commercial reality.
FLNG, describes a method for developing offshore natural gas in which gas will be
extracted from the seabed, then processed, liquefied and stored on a floating
facility that will be permanently moored over the field. The LNG will then be
offloaded to a tanker and taken directly to market.
A Brief Introduction
• To justify why FLNG can bring a revolution in the gas
markets across the world
• To study and analyze the emerging technology of Floating
Liquefied Natural Gas and its water-based operations
• To determine the key challenges involved in implementing
FLNG technology successfully
• To assess the Future scope of FLNG method- can it really
Floating-LNG: The Design
• FLNG design uses the Dual mixed refrigerant (DMR) process for liquefaction
• Process safety is the single most important guiding principle for developing the
layout. It is managed by adherence to the relevant process safety standards and
evaluation of the layout through quantative risk assessments (QRAs), performed at
different design phases of the project.
• Product tanks and the (relatively) non-hazardous equipment like most utilities, the
power generation and marine facilities are installed ’below deck’.
• The process units are located on the ’barge deck’. If space is limited on the deck, the
equipment for Monoethyleneglycol (MEG) regeneration and local equipment rooms
(LER) an also be placed inside the hull.
most process units of the FLNG facility are located as modules on the vessels topside.
Modules containing the process equipment are placed on stools above the barge deck.
The main process deck, some 6 to 8 meters above the barge deck, interconnects the
process deck of all modules. The four main modules are split into smaller sub-5
modules for lifting and constructability purposes.
• The more safety sensitive areas such as the turret, the flare and the process units with a
large liquid hydrocarbon inventory are separated from the accommodation block by
placing the relatively low risk equipment and utilities in between
Gas Processing and LNG
The Major steps involved are:
2) -Flash Vaporization
-Stabilization by fractionation
3) Acid Gas Removal
4) Dehydration and Mercury Removal
5) Removal of LPG
• steel construction designed to support the production facilities, provide storage for the
inventory of LNG and hydrocarbon condensate and refrigerant at ambient pressure.
• The substructure will provide facilities for mooring and offloading to vessels for
export to market.
Turrets & Moorings
The turret supports the mooring system and all risers and umbilicals.
It contains a fluid transfer system to safely and reliably convey well stream products,
gas for exportation, injection chemicals, water for reinjection, CO2 for injection and
signals/power between the vessel and subsea facilities.
3D Seismic Imaging
Generates an 3 dimensional
picture of the Underground
formations and geological
3-D seismic is estimated to
increase the life of the reservoir
Can be used in Conjunction with
4D Seismic Imaging
Extension of 3-D imaging
The 3-D images are taken at various
times and fed into a computer
The hydrocarbon recovery rates
from a reservoir are the highest at
Logging while Drilling/
Measurement while Drilling
Helps to locate target layer during
Satisfies the criteria for safe drilling
and accurate formation evaluation
MWD tools enhance drilling
performance and safety
Reduce RAT hole expenses
Fracturing of rock by a pressurized
Create fractures and conduit's along
which fluids such as gas, petroleum
and groundwater migrate well
fracturing fluid contains 90% of
water, 9.5% sand and chemical
additive about 0.5%
Hydrostatic Testing of Pipelines
Existing flaws in the material,
Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC)
and actual mechanical properties of
Active corrosion cells
Work in real time so has a very little
Status of the equipment every 60 to
SCADA systems play a very
important role in leak detection
• Contaminants in the produced gas are removed
• Liquefaction process designed to purify LNG to almost
100 percent methane
• Natural gas liquefied at approximately -256 Fahrenheit
• Volume is reduced by a factor of 600
• Used for the processing of hydrocarbons and storage of
• The above processes are done at the close proximity of
the gas field
• FPSO’s eliminate the need to lay long pipelines
• Once the field is depleted FPSO’s can be moved to a
• Regasification units form an important part of the
• LNG is pumped first to a double-walled storage
Floating Storage Regasification Units
• An FSRU resembles an oversized LNG carrier
• Storage capacities between 250,000 and 350,000
cubic meters of LNG,
• This is over twice the capacity of most typical
• An FSRU is permanently moored to an offshore
platform or floating buoy
• LNG carriers then berth alongside it to
accomplish of their LNG cargoes.
Capable of handling large slug volume and sand.
Pressure drop of the system is minimal.
The gas phase internals do not come into direct contact with the bulk liquids.
Online cleaning facilities can be provided so that production downtime is
Reduces the size of the three phase separator as it need not make space for the
gas outlet internals and gas handling capacity is reduced with gas bypassed at
the slug handling device.
Smaller Scrubber as it need not have to cater for any liquid hold-up and surge
Compact high efficiency separation resulting in space and weight savings and
with minimal control.
LPPU With Compressor
Self-contained system – no
external utilities required
except for HP gas source for
No pumps and power
Slug handling capabilities
Sand removal capabilities
Reduction of CAPEX
Enables independent and
Self-contained system – no external utilities required except for
HP gas source for motive gas
No pumps and power generation
Slug handling capabilities
Sand removal capabilities
Reduction of CAPEX
Enables independent and unmanned operation