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Submitted to: Dr.Razia Noreen
Submitted by: BILAL IRSHAD
Subject title: Advance cell biology
Course code: BCH- 711
Topic: Why mitochondria
is called power house of cell?
Mitochondria
• Small, rod shaped organelles.
• Composed of a double membrane system.
• Outer membrane is smooth and encloses the
contents of mitochondria.
• Inner membrane is folded to form cristae.
• Inner cavity is filled with matrix which
contains many enzymes.
• Contain their own DNA which are
responsible for many enzymatic actions.
Why Mitochondria is called Power
House of Cell?
• Involved in synthesize energy(ATP).
• ATP molecules provide energy for the
activities of living cells.
• So, mitochondria are often referred to
as the Powerhouses of the cell.
Three main stages for production of
ATP:
Stage I: Glycolysis.
Stage 2: The Krebs Cycle.
Stage 3: Electron Transport Chain.
Stage I: Glycolysis:
• The first stage Glycolysis takes place
outside the mitochondria in the
cytoplasm of the cell.
• The word glycolysis means
"splitting/lysis of sugar or glucose."
• The original glucose molecule has been
converted to two molecules of a
substance called pyruvic acid.
Stage 2: The Krebs Cycle:
• Kreb cycle occurs in the matrix of the
mitochondrion.
• Energy-containing compounds from the citric acid
cycle is three NADH, one FADH2, and one ATP.
• Each acetyl CoA molecule joins a four-carbon
acceptor molecule. The reactions in the Krebs cycle
produce two more carbon dioxide molecules and
one ATP molecule per acetyl CoA molecule.
• At the end of the Krebs cycle, the four-carbon
acceptor molecule has been regenerated and the
cycle can continue.
Stage 3: Electron Transport
Chain
The final stage occurs in the inner membranes
of mitochondria.
Components of ETC:
• FMN Flavoprotein.
• Fe.S Iron sulphur protein.
• Ubiquinone Q.
• Cytochrome (c,b,a,a3).
Four Enzymes Complexes:
• Complex 1: NADH dehydrogenase: Complex I
receives electrons from NADH are simultaneously
transported from the mitochondrial matrix to the
intermembrane space.
• Complex 2: Succinate dehydrogenase: Complex II receives
electrons from FADH2. Electrons carried by ubiquinol are
sent to Complex III.
• Complex 3: Cytochrome bc1 complex: Four protons are
pumped into the intermembrane space.
• Complex 4: Cytochrome oxidase: The electrons pass from
Complex III. Cytochrome C carries the electrons to
Complex IV.
ATP synthase:
• ATP Synthase is one of the most important
enzymes found in the mitochondria of cells.
• ATP synthase uses the energy from the flow of
H+ ions to convert ADP to ATP. This process
can generate up to 34 or 36 ATP molecules.
Reference:
• https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4321783/
• https://www.expii.com/t/electron-transport-chain-
summary-diagrams-10139
• https://istudy.pk/electron-transport-chain/
• https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/1839-
mitochondria-cell-
powerhouses#:~:text=Mitochondria%20are%20tiny%20or
ganelles%20inside,the%20powerhouses%20of%20the%20
cell.
• https://bodell.mtchs.org/OnlineBio/BIOCD/text/chapter7/c
oncept7.5.html

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Mitochondria...pptx

  • 1. Submitted to: Dr.Razia Noreen Submitted by: BILAL IRSHAD Subject title: Advance cell biology Course code: BCH- 711 Topic: Why mitochondria is called power house of cell?
  • 3. • Small, rod shaped organelles. • Composed of a double membrane system. • Outer membrane is smooth and encloses the contents of mitochondria. • Inner membrane is folded to form cristae. • Inner cavity is filled with matrix which contains many enzymes. • Contain their own DNA which are responsible for many enzymatic actions.
  • 4.
  • 5. Why Mitochondria is called Power House of Cell? • Involved in synthesize energy(ATP). • ATP molecules provide energy for the activities of living cells. • So, mitochondria are often referred to as the Powerhouses of the cell.
  • 6.
  • 7. Three main stages for production of ATP: Stage I: Glycolysis. Stage 2: The Krebs Cycle. Stage 3: Electron Transport Chain.
  • 8. Stage I: Glycolysis: • The first stage Glycolysis takes place outside the mitochondria in the cytoplasm of the cell. • The word glycolysis means "splitting/lysis of sugar or glucose." • The original glucose molecule has been converted to two molecules of a substance called pyruvic acid.
  • 9.
  • 10. Stage 2: The Krebs Cycle: • Kreb cycle occurs in the matrix of the mitochondrion. • Energy-containing compounds from the citric acid cycle is three NADH, one FADH2, and one ATP. • Each acetyl CoA molecule joins a four-carbon acceptor molecule. The reactions in the Krebs cycle produce two more carbon dioxide molecules and one ATP molecule per acetyl CoA molecule. • At the end of the Krebs cycle, the four-carbon acceptor molecule has been regenerated and the cycle can continue.
  • 11.
  • 12. Stage 3: Electron Transport Chain The final stage occurs in the inner membranes of mitochondria. Components of ETC: • FMN Flavoprotein. • Fe.S Iron sulphur protein. • Ubiquinone Q. • Cytochrome (c,b,a,a3).
  • 13. Four Enzymes Complexes: • Complex 1: NADH dehydrogenase: Complex I receives electrons from NADH are simultaneously transported from the mitochondrial matrix to the intermembrane space. • Complex 2: Succinate dehydrogenase: Complex II receives electrons from FADH2. Electrons carried by ubiquinol are sent to Complex III. • Complex 3: Cytochrome bc1 complex: Four protons are pumped into the intermembrane space. • Complex 4: Cytochrome oxidase: The electrons pass from Complex III. Cytochrome C carries the electrons to Complex IV.
  • 14.
  • 15. ATP synthase: • ATP Synthase is one of the most important enzymes found in the mitochondria of cells. • ATP synthase uses the energy from the flow of H+ ions to convert ADP to ATP. This process can generate up to 34 or 36 ATP molecules.
  • 16. Reference: • https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4321783/ • https://www.expii.com/t/electron-transport-chain- summary-diagrams-10139 • https://istudy.pk/electron-transport-chain/ • https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/1839- mitochondria-cell- powerhouses#:~:text=Mitochondria%20are%20tiny%20or ganelles%20inside,the%20powerhouses%20of%20the%20 cell. • https://bodell.mtchs.org/OnlineBio/BIOCD/text/chapter7/c oncept7.5.html