1. Jaipur National University
(Established By Government Of Rajasthan ,Approved By The UGC Act 1956)
A venture of
SEEDLING GROUP OF INSTITUTIONS
2. Generation of wireless communication
o Refers to the first-generation of wireless telephone technology,
o analog signals are used and introduced in the early 1980s.
o Average rate between 4800 to 9600 bps
o Based on FDMA.
o 1G Poor voice quality
o Poor battery life
o Large phone size
o No security
o Frequent call drops
o Limited capacity
o Poor handoff reliability.
3. 2G Technology
o Was launched in Finland in the year 1991.
o 2g networks use digital signals.
o Enabled services such as text messages, picture
messages and MMS
o Is based on GSM or in other words global system
for mobile communication .
o Requires strong digital signals to help mobile phones work. If
there is no network coverage in any specific area, digital signals
would be weak.
o 2G The GSM is a circuit switched, connection oriented
technology, where the end systems are dedicated for the entire call
session. This causes inefficiency in usage of bandwidth and
o The GSM-enabled systems do not support high data rates.
o They are unable to handle complex data such as video.
4. 3G Technology
o The 3G technology adds multimedia facilities to 2G phones by allowing
video, audio, and graphics applications. Over 3G phones, you can watch
streaming video or have video telephony.
o The idea behind 3G is to have a single network standard .
o 3G promises increased bandwidth, up to 384 kbps when the device
holder is walking, 128 kbps in a car, and 2 Mbps in fixed applications.
o High bandwidth requirement
o High spectrum licensing fees
o Huge capital
5. Motivation for 4G Research Before 3G Has Not Been
Needs of future high-performance applications like
multi-media, full-motion video, wireless
Need global mobility and service portability.
Difficulty in continuously increasing bandwidth and
high data rate to meet multimedia services
Need wider bandwidth.
Need all digital packet network that utilizes IP in its
fullest form with converged voice and data capability.
6. 4G Technology
o Characterised by high-speed data rates.
o In 4G the download speed is up to 100 Mbps for moving
users and 1 Gbps for stationary users
o Will allow users to download a full-length feature film
within five minutes
o Will also be able to stream high-definition television and
radio to hand-held devices
o 4G is adoption of packet switching instead of circuit
switching in voice and video calls
9. Technologies Used in 4G
Smart Antenas for Multiple-input and multiple-
Software Defined Radio (SDR) System
10. Smart Antennas
Transmitting & receiving antennas
Resolve problem of diminishing spectrum availability
Doesn’t require increase power or additional frequency
Fix no. of beams that can be selected to follow devices as it
Less power use for transmission
Reductions in handoff rate
11. IPv6 Technology
In the context of 4G, IPv6 support is essential in order to
support a large number of wireless-enabled devices.
By increasing the number of IP addresses, IPv6 removes the
need for Network Address Translation (NAT).
IPv6 also enables a number of applications with better
multicast, security, and route optimization capabilities.
12. VoIP Technology
“Voice Over Internet Protocol”
• Allows only packets (IP) to be transferred eliminating
complexity of 2 protocols over the same circuit
• All voice data will be wrapped up in a packet
- Lower latency data transmission (faster transmission)
• Samples voice between 8,000 & 64,000 times per second
and creates stream of bits which is then compressed and
put into a packet.
• Increases battery life due to greater data compression
13. OFDM Technology
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
• Allows for transfer of more data than other forms of
multiplexing (time, frequency, code, etc)
• Simplifies the design of the transmitter & receiver
• Allows for use of almost the entire frequency band
-No gaps to prevent interference needed
• Currently used in WiMax(802.16) and WiFi(802.11a/g)
• The frequencies are spaced so that the signals do not
interfere with each other (no cross talk)
• Parallel Data Transmission
-Allows for the sending of multiple signals
simultaneously from the same antenna (or wire) to one
14. Software-Defined Radio(SDR) Technology
o SDR is one form of open wireless architecture (OWA).
o Since 4G is a collection of wireless standards, the final
form of a 4G device will constitute various standards.
o This can be efficiently realized using SDR technology,
which is categorized to the area of the radio
15. Features of 4G
Support for interactive multimedia, voice, streaming video,
Internet, and other broadband services
• Fully IP based mobile system
• High speed, high capacity, and low cost‐per‐bit
• Global access, service portability, and scalable mobile services
• Seamless switching, and a variety of Quality of Service
• Better scheduling and call‐admission‐control techniques
• Ad‐hoc and multi‐hop networks
• Better spectral efficiency
• Interoperability with existing wireless standards
• An all IP, packet switched network
16. Applications of 4G
o Better Usage of Multimedia Applications
o Virtual Presence: 4G system gives mobile users a "virtual
presence" (for example, always-on connections to keep
people on event).Video Conferencing
o Virtual navigation: a remote database contains the graphical
representation of streets, buildings, and physical
characteristics of a large metropolis. Blocks of this database
are transmitted in rapid sequence to a vehicle
o Tele- geoprocessing: Queries dependent on location
information of several users, in addition to temporal aspects
have many applications.e.g:GIS,GPS
o 4G in normal life .
iii)Sensor on public vehicle.
17. Advantages of 4G-
o Affordable communication services.
o High speed,high capacity and low cost per bit.
o Support for interactive multimedia, voice , streaming video, Internet and
other broadband services.
o Global access, Service portability and scalable mobile services and
variety of quality of services provided.
o Better spectral efficiency.
o seamless network of multiple protocol and air interfaces.
Disadvantages of 4G-
o Battery usage is more
o Hard to implement
o Need complicated hardware
o The equipment required to implement a next generation network
is still very expensive.
o Carriers and providers have to plan carefully to make sure that
expenses are kept realistic
18. Future Prospects of 4G
o 4G is coming quicker.
o Fast internet access to both stationery and mobile
o 4G can be efficiently combined with cellular
technologies to make consistent use of smart phones and
also create video blogs.
o This gives the manufactures the opportunity to produce
more affordable user friendly 4G compatible
o 4G is capable of providing new horizon of opportunity
for both existing and startup telephone companies.
o Integrating all the promised services is a challenge.
Challenges in migration to 4G.
High data-rate services and low per bit transmission
Meet the demand of the diverse users.
o Competition with the next forth coming 5G.
5G technology is providing large broadcasting of data
in Gigabit which supports almost 65,000 connections.
5G technology would provide better use of available
o 4G can be best described in one word “ MAGIC”, which
Global mobility support,
Integrated wireless and personalized services.
o Though 4G is facing challenges and problems we believe
that future research will overcome these challenges and
integrate newly developed services to 4G networks making
them available to everyone, anytime and everywhere.