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Muscles and skin

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Muscle and skin, structure and function

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Muscles and skin

  1. 1. Alfredo Arias Javier Quiroz Eduardo Sayavedra Luis Felipe Franzoni
  2. 2. <ul><li>Muscle types </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle functions </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle common diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Skin layers </li></ul><ul><li>Skin function </li></ul><ul><li>Skin common diseases </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Are usually short or irregular bones, imbedded in a tendon. Sesamoid bones are usually present in a tendon where it passes over a joint which serves to protect the tendon. </li></ul><ul><li>The sesamoid bones are: the Platella, the Pisiform (smallest of the Carpals) and the two small bones at the base of the 1st Metatarsal. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>A muscle is a contractile tissue of animals and is derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells. Muscle cells contain contractile filaments that move past each other and change the size of the cell. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>The different types of muscles are classified as skeletal, cardiac, or smooth. </li></ul><ul><li>There are approximately 639 skeletal muscles in the human body. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>The Skeletal muscle is a form of striated muscle tissue existing under control of the somatic nervous system it is voluntarily controlled. </li></ul><ul><li>As its name suggests, most skeletal muscles are attached to bones by bundles of collagen fibers known as tendons. </li></ul><ul><li>Skeletal muscle is made up of individual components known as muscle fibers. These fibers are formed from the fusion of developmental myoblasts. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>The Cardiac muscle is a type of involuntary striated muscle found in the walls and histologic foundation of the heart, specifically the myocardium. </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiac muscle cells, like all tissues in the body, rely on an ample blood supply to deliver oxygen and nutrients and to remove waste products such as carbon dioxide. </li></ul><ul><li>The coronary arteries fulfill this function. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>The Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle. </li></ul><ul><li>It is divided into two sub-groups; the single-unit (unitary) and multiunit smooth muscle. </li></ul><ul><li>The single-unit smooth muscle tissues innervates a single cell within a sheet or bundle and the action potential is propagated by gap junctions to neighboring cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Multiunit smooth muscle tissues innervate individual cells. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Muscles provide strength, balance, posture, movement and heat for the body to keep warm. </li></ul><ul><li>The muscle that you can see is composed of subunits called fascicles. Fascicles are bundles of individual muscle fibers. Each fiber is one elongated cell that may extend for the length of the muscle. Within each muscle cell are numerous myofibrils. Sarcomeres are the basic contractile subunit of myofibrils. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>The muscular system is the anatomical system of a species that allows it to move. </li></ul><ul><li>The muscular system divides into ten different areas where muscles can be found: facial, neck, shoulder, arm, forearm, thorax, abdomen, hip, pelvis/thigh, leg. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Muscle growth is a specialized form of protein synthesis. </li></ul><ul><li>A steroid hormone (testosterone) enters the muscle cell by diffusing directly across the cell membrane, combines with a receptor in the cell and then stimulates gene transcription and protein formation via the DNA -> mRNA -> tRNA -> protein pathway. </li></ul><ul><li>Specific receptors and genes are involved. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>The nervous system is closely related because it is an organ system containing a network of specialized cells called neurons that coordinate the actions of a human and transmit signals between different parts of its body. </li></ul><ul><li>The autonomic nervous system is closely related with muscles because it  is the part of the peripheral nervous system that acts as a control system functioning largely below the level of consciousness, and controls visceral functions. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>The syndrome of fatigue is one of the most known diseases that attacks the muscular system with headaches, mind fog, and many other symptoms in muscles. </li></ul><ul><li>Myalgia is the most common symptom of major diseases, but it can come alone with sprains and strains. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>The skin is the largest organ of the integumentary system made up of multiple layers of ectodermal tissue, and guards the underlying muscles, bones, ligaments and internal organs. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>The human skin is composed of two primary layers: </li></ul><ul><li>The epidermis, which provides waterproofing and serves as a barrier to infection. </li></ul><ul><li>The dermis, which serves as location for the appendages of skin. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>The epidermis is the outermost layer of the skin. It forms the waterproof, protective wrap over the body's surface and is made up of stratified squamous epithelium with an underlying basal lamina. </li></ul><ul><li>It is divided in: </li></ul><ul><li>Stratum corneum </li></ul><ul><li>Stratum lucidum </li></ul><ul><li>Stratum granulosum </li></ul><ul><li>Stratum spinosum </li></ul><ul><li>Stratum germinativum </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>The  dermis  is the layer of skin beneath the epidermis that consists of connective tissue and cushions the body from stress and strain. The dermis is tightly connected to the epidermis by a basement membrane. </li></ul><ul><li>It contains the hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, apocrine glands, lymphatic vessels and blood vessels. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Protection: an anatomical barrier from pathogens and damage between the internal and external environment in bodily defense. </li></ul><ul><li>Heat regulation: increase perfusion and heat loss, while constricted vessels greatly reduce cutaneous blood flow. </li></ul><ul><li>Storage and synthesis: acts as a storage center for lipids and water. </li></ul><ul><li>Control of evaporation: the skin provides a relatively dry and semi-impermeable barrier to fluid loss. (among others). </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>The skin is related with the entire body, because it serves as a protective barrier for all the systems in the body; but it also maintains all the systems together. </li></ul><ul><li>The hypodermis is the other system related because  it´s purpose is to attach the skin to underlying bone and muscle as well as supplying it with blood vessels and nerves. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Allergies are of the most common diseases that skin can have, although some doctors say they are only reactions; and some of them can´t be considered as diseases. </li></ul><ul><li>The chicken pox is a highly contagious disease that usually starts with vesicular skin rash mainly on the body. </li></ul>