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► Familiarize students with the terms, key concepts and basic principles associated with the climate of India.► Provide them idea about the mechanism of Indian monsoon.► Study the climate of India through the understanding and analysis of local climate.► Explore the causative factor of the spatial variations in the climate of the country.► Understand and analyze the variation of climatic phenomenon in the cycle of seasons.► Make students aware of the change in climate (global warming) at local level to understand it at national and global level.
Watch Out Weather News……………. Hot weather season Monsoon season Cold Weather Season Tropical CycloneFour Videos Embedded: Please right click over the dark square to choose Play or Stop one after another.
CONTENTS OF THE LESSON Part-I Climatic Diversity of India Part-II Factors Affecting Climate of India Part-III Rhythm of Seasons Part-IV Distribution of Rainfall Part-V Change of Climate Please click on the box to navigate to the pages
Why does weather changespatially & temporally? Let us examine…
Drass -450C in December night Tawang 190C in550C temperature June in June Thar desert Diurnal range of temperature 300C Jaisalmerreceives 9cm Cherrapunji & rainfall Mawsynram have 1080cm rainTiruvanantapuram & Chennai 200C in Kerala Diurnal December night range of temperature 80C MONSOON REGIME IS THE UNITY OF INDIA
MORE DIVERSITIES…………………..Churu in Rajasthan records a It is 19°C in Tawang temperature of 50°C or more (Arunachal Pradesh) on the on a June day. same day.Snow fall over the Only rainfall over rest of Himalayas. India.Most parts of India receives Tamilnadu coast remains dry rainfall during June to during these months. September.Tura of Meghalaya receives Very low rainfall in North west rainfall in a single day is Himalayas and western equal to the total rainfall of Rajastan which is equal to Ten years in Jaisalmer of 10cm per year. Rajastan. MONSOON REGIME IS THE UNITY OF INDIA
► Lets divide the class into five groups namely A, B, C, D and E.► Collect the data of temperature and rainfall of different cities of India from web site www.allrainfallreports.com .► Collect the rainfall and temperature data of your town and compare it with the data of other cities of India.► Make a comparative study of temperature and rainfall data of different districts of Orissa. (Source- Climatological survey of Orissa 1987-2003 & District statistical handbooks)► Write about the climate of your district and upload it to www.climateofindia.pbwiki.com .► Make a power point presentation of all the activities you have done. CLICK ON ICON TO Download Template DOWNLOAD TEMPLATE
FAQ FACTORS AFFECTING INDIAN CLIMATE RELATED TO LOCATION RELATED TO AIR & RELIEF PRESSURE & WIND•Latitude Surface pressure & wind•Altitude Upper air circulation•Relief Western cyclones •Distance from Sea•The Himalayan Mt.•Distribution of Land & water
LATITUDE FAQ TROP IC OF CANC High range ER of Temp High Temp Low range EQUATORIAL REGION
Cold Wav e Cold Wav e Cold THE HIMALAYAS- CLIMATIC BARRIER Wav e Cold Wav e d Win oonM ons d n Win sooMon d Win on nso Mo d Win on nso Mo
DISTRIBUTION OF LAND & WATER FAQ LO W PR HIGH PRESSURE ES S IN WINTER UR EI NS UM ME R ARABIAN BAY OF SEA BENGAL INDIAN OCEAN
DISTANCE FROM SEA SIMLA DELHI KOLKOTA MUMBAI CHENNAI Coastal areas have equable climate where as Interior parts have extreme climate.
ALTITUDE FAQ Temperature decreased from low to high altitude HIGH ALTITUDE e ur at r pe AGRA m DARJILING Te 160C in Jan n i 40C in January se ea cr De LOW ALTITUDE
RELIEF FAQ W estern Receives high rainfall Ghat M t. d in W d n in Receives low oo W ns n in d M o ns oo W rainfall o o n M so on M
SURFACE WIND POLAR HIGH SUB TROPICAL LOW PRESSURE NORTH-EAST TRADE WIND SUB TROPICAL HIGH PRESSURE INTER TROPICAL CONVERGENCE ZONE SUB TROPICAL HIGH PRESSURE SOUTH-EAST TRADE WIND SUB TROPICAL LOW PRESSURE POLAR HIGH
Prepare a ppt. answering the following:► Collect the data on the effect of El-nino over different parts of world and prepare a presentation and upload it to www.climateofindia.pbwiki.com.► Explain the factors affecting the climate of your region in a word/pdf file and upload it to www.think.com or www.climateofindia.pbwiki.com page.► Invite your friends to your www.think.com or www.epal.com site to explain about the climate of their region.► Explain how jet stream affect the climate of India in word/pdf file and upload it to the suitable web page.► Compare how relief affect the climate of your region. CLICK ON ICON TO Microsoft DOWNLOAD TEMPLATE
RHYTHM OF SEASONS HOT WEATHER HOT WEATHER RETREATING MONSOON RETREATING MONSOONCOLD WEATHER SOUTH WEST MONSOON SOUTH WEST MONSOON Let us discuss each of them individually
COLD WEATHER SEASON► It extends from December to February.► Vertical sun rays shift towards southern hemisphere.► North India experiences intense cold where as this season is not well defined in south India.► Light wind blow makes this season pleasant in Tropical Cyclone south India.► Occasional tropical cyclone visit eastern coast in this season. Rhythm of Seasons
TEMPERATURE- JANUARY 100C` 150C 200C 200C 250C 200C 200C 250C Rhythm of Seasons
PRESSURE- JANUARY 10 18 HIGH PRESSURE 1 10 019 10 18 18 10 17 10 16 10 15 1014 Rhythm of Seasons
WIND DIRECTION- WINTER No r the rn Pl ain Ganga Delta Bay of Bengal Rhythm of Seasons
WINTER RAINFALL RAINFALL DUE TO WESTERN DISTURBANCES RAINFALL DUE TO NORTH EAST WIND Rhythm of Seasons
HOT WEATHER SEASON► It extends from March to May.► Vertical sun rays shift towards Northern hemisphere.► Temperature rises May 480C gradually from south to north. April 380C► Highest Temperature experiences in Karnataka in March, March 300C Madhya Pradesh in April and Rajastan in May. Rhythm of Seasons
TEMPERATURE- JULY 250C 20 0C 300C 25 0 C 20 0 C 30 0 C 30 0C Rhythm of Seasons
STORMS IN HOT WEATHER SEASON FAQ BARDOLI CHHEERHA LOO KALBAISAKHI MANGO SHOWER BLOSSOM SHOWER Rhythm of Seasons
SOUTH WEST MONSOON SEASON ► It extends from June to September. ► Intense heating in north west India creates low pressure HIGH TEMPERATURE LOW PRESSURE region. ► Low pressure attract the wind from the surrounding region. ► After having rains for a few days sometime monsoon fails to occur for one or more weeks is known as break in the monsoon. Rhythm of Seasons
MONSOON WIND Arabian sea Bay of Bengal Branch Branch INTER TROPICAL CONVERGENCE ZONE EQUATOR e ad e e e ad ad ad Tr Rhythm of Seasons Tr Tr Tr SE SE SE SE
ONSET OF SW MONSOON e Jun 15 th y Jul y th Jul 15 1 st e Jun th 10 ne th Ju ne 5 st Ju 1 Rhythm of Seasons
RETREATING MONSOON SEASON ► It extends from October to November ► Vertical sun rays start shifting towards Northern hemisphere. ► Low pressure region LOW PRESSURE shift from northern parts of India towards south. ► Owing to the conditions of high temperature and humidity, the weather becomes rather oppressive. This is commonly known as the ‘October heat’ Rhythm of Seasons
WITHDRAWAL OF MONSOON pt. Se 15 th . pt th Se 7 . pt th Se 30 r b er be to o c ct th O th O 7 15 Rhythm of Seasons
Prepare a ppt. answering the following:► Explain the seasonal difference of climate of your region in a word/pdf file and upload it to www.climateofindia.pbwiki.com.► Search friends from different parts of India and seek their comments and compare the seasonal difference in climate of different parts of India by using www.think.com.► Prepare an analysis of yearly temperature and rainfall data by using different graphs and upload it to www.climateofindia.pbwiki.com.► Collect photographs of monsoon and upload to www.think.com or www.climateofindia.pbwiki.com. CLICK ON ICON TO DOWNLOAD TEMPLATE
DISTRIBUTION OF RAINFALL > 200cm 100-200cm 50-100 cm < 50cm
VARIABILITY OF RAINFALL ► The variability of rainfall is ► The variability of rainfall is computed with the help of computed with the help of the following formula: the following formula: C.V.= Standard Deviation/ C.V.= Standard Deviation/ Mean **100 Mean 100 ► Variability of less than 25% ► Variability of less than 25% exist in Western coasts, exist in Western coasts, Western Western Ghats, Ghats, northeastern northeastern peninsula, peninsula, eastern plain of the Ganga, eastern plain of the Ganga, northern India, Uttaranchal, northern India, Uttaranchal, SW J & K & HP. SW J & K & HP. ► Variability of more then 50% ► Variability of more then 50% found in Western Rajastan, found in Western Rajastan, J & K and interior parts of J & K and interior parts of Deccan. Deccan. ► Region with high rainfall has ► Region with high rainfall has less variability. less variability.
Prepare a power point presentation answering the following:► Why there is variation of rainfall in different parts of India? Explain in a word/pdf file and upload.► Calculate the variability of rainfall of your region.► Compare the variability of rainfall with the total rainfall of your region.► Measure the rainfall in your school and record it in a spread sheet for analysis.► Read out the rainfall and temperature data of your school daily in the morning assembly. CLICK ON ICON TO Download Template DOWNLOAD TEMPLATE
CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACT OF GLOBAL WORMING FOREST FLOOD FIRE SPREAD OF SINKING TROPICAL SEA LEVEL RISE COAST DISEASES MELTING OF ICE INCREASE IN RISE TSUNAMI & GREEN HOUSE IN EARTHQUAKE GASES TEMPERATURE EXCESSIVE SUN STROKE FO SCA OD RCIT Y LOSS OF BIODIVERSITY
SOME INTERESTING FACTS ► Temperature increased by 0.600C in 20th century. ► Temperature increased by 0.6 C in 20th century. FAQ ► Eleven out of twelve hottest years are within ► Eleven out of twelve hottest years are within 1995 to 2006. 1995 to 2006. ► Annual rate of increase of CO22 is 1.9ppm after ► Annual rate of increase of CO is 1.9ppm after 1995. 1995. ► Concentration of methane increased from ► Concentration of methane increased from 700ppb in 1750 to 1745ppb at present and 700ppb in 1750 to 1745ppb at present and Nitrous Oxide from 270ppb to 314ppb where as Nitrous Oxide from 270ppb to 314ppb where as CFC increased from zero to 533ppb. CFC increased from zero to 533ppb. ► Rising of temperature to 300C will lead to melting ► Rising of temperature to 3 C will lead to melting of all ice on earth surface and sea level rise upto of all ice on earth surface and sea level rise upto 15 feet. 15 feet. ► Existence of large cities like Venis, Bankok, ► Existence of large cities like Venis, Bankok, Sanghai, Kolkota and Dhaka will be in danger. Sanghai, Kolkota and Dhaka will be in danger.
CLIMATE CHANGE & INDIA► India has long coast line► India has long coast line and rise of sea level will and rise of sea level will submerge large area. submerge large area.► A population of 7.1► A population of 7.1 million living in coastal million living in coastal areas will be affected. areas will be affected.► Production of crops like► Production of crops like wheat, rice etc will wheat, rice etc will KOLKOTA decrease. decrease. MUMBAI► The natural disasters► The natural disasters like cyclone, floods and like cyclone, floods and CHENNAI drought will increase in drought will increase in frequency as well as frequency as well as intensity. intensity.
WHAT CAN BE DONE??? ►Switch off the light, fan, TV and other energy using gadgets when they are not in use. ►Do not use those equipments that pollute or consume more energy. ►create public awareness. ►use renewable energy resources like solar, wind, biomass etc. ►International conferences like Earth Summit, 1992, Kyoto protocol, Copenhegen summit, 2009 are some steps to bring consensus for crusade against Climate Change.
► Ask elders of your family or village about their perception of change in climate and explain it in a word/pdf file and upload it to www.climateofindia.pbwiki.com .► Give an analysis of change in temperature of your region by collecting data of fifteen years from climatological survey of orissa.► Explain what you can do to reduce the impact of climate change.► Ask your friends through www.think.com about their contribution to reduce the impact of climate change.► Prepare a power point presentation explaining all above. CLICK ON ICON TO DOWNLOAD TEMPLATE
TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE 1. Name the factors affecting climate of Answer India . 2. What is meant by El-nino? Answer 3. Why the south western part of peninsular India receives high rainfall? Answer 4. Name the important green house gases. Answer 5. How altitude affects climate? Answer 6. How distance from sea affect climate? Answer 7. What is meant by mango shower? Answer 8. What is meant by Inter Tropical Answer Convergence Zone?
EVALUATION RUBRICSl EvaluationNo. points Excellent Very Good Good Participation All the members have Some Members have Few members have of all members participated participated. participated.1 of the group (5 Marks) (3 Marks) (2 Marks) Technology used for Efficient use presentation, collection of Technology used for of technology information and presentation and collection Technology used for in self- understanding. of information. presentation only.2 learning (5 Marks) (3 Marks) (2 Marks) Collection of Information collected are new, Information collected are Information collected are new relevant and latest. new and relevant. new only.3 information (5 Marks) (3 Marks) (2 Marks) Presentation of topic was Presentation of topic was Presentation clear, able to clarify doubts clear and able to clarify Presentation of topic was of Topic in the and with proper flow of topic. doubts. clear only.4 classroom (5 Marks) (3 Marks) (2 Marks) Innovation in presentation, Innovation in presentation Development collection of new information and collection of new Innovation in of Innovative and use of technology. information. presentation only.5 Thinking (5 Marks) (3 Marks) (2 Marks) Total 25 15 10 Mark Obtained Evaluate the classroom presentation of other groups and assign marks. Evaluate the classroom presentation of other groups and assign marks.
CITATION► Abraham, K.R.; Dash, S.K. and Mohanty, U.C., 1996: Simulation of monsoon circulation and cyclones with different types of orography; Mausam, 47, 235-248.► Ashok K., S. Lizuka, S.A Rao, N. H. Saji and W. Lee, 2009 : Processes and boreal summer impacts of the 2004 El Nino Modoki: An AGCM study. Geophysical Research Letters, 36, L04703, doi:10.1029/2008GL036313, 1-5.► Bannerji, S. K., 1950 : Methods of forecasting monsoon and winter rainfall in India. Ind. J. Met. and Geophys., 4, 343-346.► Bhalme, H.N. and Jadhav, S.K., 1984: The southern oscillation and its relation to the monsoon rainfall. J.Climatol., 4, 509-520.► Krishnakumar V. and K. ‑M. Lau, 1997 : Symmetric Instability of Monsoon Flows. Tellus 49 A, 228‑245.► Physical Geography of India, NCERT, class-IX► Economic & Commercial Geography of India, C.B. Memoria.► Regional Geography of India, R.L. Singh.► www.imd.gov.in► http://tinyurl.com/q4a6mg► http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/4755025.cms► http://www.nws.noaa.gov/ost/climate/STIP
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Heartiest Thanks to Mr. S. K. Tripathy, Principal JNV, Koraput Mr. R. P. Maharana, TGT- English, JNV, Koraput Project Learning, Microsoft, for providing me training.