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Cognitive behaviour
Cognitive behaviour
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Behavior

  1. 1. Behavior FACTORIAL BASIS
  2. 2. Objectives The role of the following on behavior,  Perception and factors affecting it  Sensation, sense organs/special organs  Attention and concentration  Memory and its stages, types and methods to improve it  Types and theories of thinking  Cognition and levels of cognition
  3. 3. What is behavior?  Human behavior refers to the array of every physical action and observable emotion associated with individuals, as well as the human race as a whole.  Factors influencing behavior are personality, temperament, age and genetics, driven in part by thoughts and feelings, insight into individual psyche, knowledge, experience, attitudes and values.  Social behavior, a subset of human behavior, study the considerable influence of social interaction and culture. Additional influences include ethics, encircling, authority, rapport, hypnosis, persuasion and coercion.
  4. 4. Behavior
  5. 5. Theories of behavioral psychology Classical conditioning  A theorist that contributed a theory to behavioral science is Ivan P. Pavlov.  Classical conditioning is accompanying a specific stimuli with a certain response which is learned over a period of time. Operant conditioning  B. F. Skinner, who created the theory of operant conditioning.  It is composed of the idea that if behavior is reciprocated with a certain consequence, whether it is a positive or a negative reinforcement, the behavior is more likely to be repeated and become constant. A consequence is a reaction to a behavior which serves as a reinforcement.
  6. 6. Perception Perception (from the Latin perceptio, percipio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the environment. All perception involves signals in the nervous system, which in turn result from physical or chemical stimulation of the sense organ.
  7. 7. Perception  Perception is not the passive receipt of these signals, but is shaped by learning, memory, expectation, and attention.  Perception can be split into two processes. 1. Firstly, processing sensory input, which transforms these low-level information to higher-level information (e.g., extracts shapes for object recognition). 2. Secondly, processing which is connected with a person's concepts and expectations (knowledge) and selective mechanisms (attention) that influence perception.
  8. 8. Perception
  9. 9. Components of perception According to Alan Saks and Gary Johns, there are three components to perception.  The Perceiver, the person who becomes aware about something and comes to a final understanding. There are 3 factors that can influence his or her perceptions: experience, motivational state and finally emotional state. In different motivational or emotional states, the perceiver will react to or perceive something in different ways. Also in different situations he or she might employ a "perceptual defence" where they tend to "see what they want to see".  The Target. This is the person who is being perceived or judged. "Ambiguity or lack of information about a target leads to a greater need for interpretation and addition."  The Situation also greatly influences perceptions because different situations may call for additional information about the target.
  10. 10. Features  Constancy Perceptual constancy is the ability of perceptual systems to recognize the same object from widely varying sensory inputs. The perceptual systems of the brain achieve perceptual constancy in a variety of ways, each specialized for the kind of information being processed. Other constancies include melody, odor, brightness and words.
  11. 11. Features  Grouping The principles of grouping are a set of principles in psychology, first proposed by Gestalt psychologists to explain how humans naturally perceive objects as organized patterns and objects. Gestalt psychologists argued that these principles exist because the mind has an innate disposition to perceive patterns in the stimulus based on certain rules. These principles are organized into six categories, namely proximity, similarity, closure, good continuation, common fate and good form.
  12. 12. Features  Contrast effects A common finding across many different kinds of perception is that the perceived qualities of an object can be affected by the qualities of context. If one object is extreme on some dimension, then neighboring objects are perceived as further away from that extreme.
  13. 13. Effect of experience  With experience, organisms can learn to make finer perceptual distinctions, and learn new kinds of categorization.  Empirical research show that specific practices (such as Yoga, Mindfulness, Tai-chi, Meditation, and other mind-body disciplines) can modify human perceptual modality.
  14. 14. Effect of motivation and expectation  A perceptual set, also called perceptual expectancy or just set is a predisposition to perceive things in a certain way. It is an example of how perception can be shaped by "top-down" processes such as drives and expectations.  Perceptual set has been demonstrated in many social contexts. People who are primed to think of someone as "warm" are more likely to perceive a variety of positive characteristics in them, than if the word "warm" is replaced by "cold". When someone has a reputation for being funny, an audience is more likely to find them amusing. Individual's perceptual sets reflect their own personality traits.  Philosopher Andy Clark explains that perception, although it occurs quickly, is not simply a bottom-up process (where minute details are put together to form larger wholes). Instead, our brains use what he calls 'predictive coding'. It starts with very broad constraints and expectations for the state of the world, and as expectations are met, it makes more detailed predictions (errors lead to new predictions, or learning processes).
  15. 15.  Hearing Hearing (or audition) is the ability to perceive sound by detecting vibrations. Frequencies capable of being heard by humans are called audio or sonic. The range is typically considered to be between 20 Hz and 20,000 Hz The auditory system includes the outer ears which collect and filter sound waves, the middle ear for transforming the sound pressure (impedance matching), and the inner ear which produces neural signals in response to the sound. By the ascending auditory pathway these are led to the primary auditory cortex within the temporal lobe of the human brain, which is where the auditory information arrives in the cerebral cortex and is further processed there. Sensation
  16. 16.  Speech Speech perception is the process by which the sounds of language are heard, interpreted and understood. Research in speech perception seeks to understand how human listeners recognize speech sounds and use this information to understand spoken language. The sound of a word can vary widely according to words around it and the tempo of the speech, as well as the physical characteristics, accent and mood of the speaker. Other variations are that reverberation, morphology & semantics that involve higher level language processes.
  17. 17. Sensation  Touch Haptic perception is the process of recognizing objects through touch. It involves a combination of somatosensory perception of patterns on the skin surface (e.g., edges, curvature, and texture) and proprioception of hand position and conformation. People can rapidly and accurately identify three-dimensional objects by touch. This involves exploratory procedures, such as moving the fingers over the outer surface of the object or holding the entire object in the hand. Haptic perception relies on the forces experienced during touch.
  18. 18. Sensation  Taste Taste (or, the more formal term, gustation) is the ability to perceive the flavor of substances including, but not limited to, food. Humans receive tastes through sensory organs called taste buds, or gustatory calyculi, concentrated on the upper surface of the tongue. The human tongue has 100 to 150 taste receptor cells on each of its roughly ten thousand taste buds. There are five primary tastes: sweetness, bitterness, sourness, saltiness, and umami. The basic tastes contribute only partially to the sensation and flavor of food in the mouth — other factors include smell, detected by the olfactory epithelium of the nose; texture, detected through a variety of mechanoreceptors, muscle nerves, etc.; and temperature, detected by thermoreceptors.
  19. 19. Sensation Other senses  Other senses enable perception of body balance, acceleration, gravity, position of body parts, temperature, pain, time, and perception of internal senses such as suffocation.  Social perception is the part of perception that allows people to understand the individuals and groups of their social world, and thus an element of social cognition.
  20. 20. Attention  Attention is the behavioral and cognitive process of selectively concentrating on a discrete aspect of information, whether deemed subjective or objective, while ignoring other perceivable information.  Detecting the source of the sensory cues and signals that generate attention, the effects of these sensory cues and signals on the tuning properties of sensory neurons, and the relationship between attention and other behavioral and cognitive processes like working memory and vigilance.
  21. 21. Selective attention and visual attention  In cognitive psychology there are at least two models which describe how visual attention operates. 1. Spot-light model 2. Zoom-lens model  Generally speaking, visual attention is thought to operate as a two- stage process. 1. In the first stage, attention is distributed uniformly over the external visual scene and processing of information is performed in parallel. 2. In the second stage, attention is concentrated to a specific area of the visual scene (i.e., it is focused), and processing is performed in a serial fashion.
  22. 22. Attention types  Spatial attention: A region of space within the visual field is selected for attention and the information within this region then receives further processing.  Multi-tasking: Multitasking can be defined as the attempt to perform two or more tasks simultaneously; however, research shows that when multitasking, people make more mistakes or perform their tasks more slowly.  Focused attention: The ability to respond discretely to specific visual, auditory or tactile stimuli.  Sustained attention (vigilance and concentration): The ability to maintain a consistent behavioral response during continuous and repetitive activity.  Selective attention: The ability to maintain a behavioral or cognitive set in the face of distracting or competing stimuli. Therefore, it incorporates the notion of "freedom from distractibility."  Alternating attention: The ability of mental flexibility that allows individuals to shift their focus of attention and move between tasks having different cognitive requirements.  Divided attention: This is the highest level of attention and it refers to the ability to respond simultaneously to multiple tasks or multiple task demands.
  23. 23. Brain Game
  24. 24. Do you remember which door was the exit?
  25. 25. Result
  26. 26. Memory Game
  27. 27. Memory  Memory is the process in which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved.  Encoding or registration: receiving, processing and combining of received information.  Storage: creation of a permanent record of the encoded information in short term or long term memory.  Retrieval, recall or recollection: calling back the stored information in response to some cue for use in a process or activity.
  28. 28. Types of memory  Sensory- ability to retain impressions of sensory information after the original stimuli have ended. Iconic memory- is fast decaying visual information. Echoic memory is fast decaying auditory information. Haptic memory is fast decaying tactile information. The sensory memory cannot be prolonged via rehearsal. Information is passed from the sensory memory into short-term memory via the process of attention.
  29. 29. Short-term memory  Short-term- Working memory-or temporary recall of the information which is being processed at any point in time. 5-7 items up to 1 minute.  The central executive part of the prefrontal cortex at the front of the brain appears to play a fundamental role in short-term and working memory.  The central executive controls two neural loops, one for visual data (which activates areas near the visual cortex of the brain and acts as a visual scratch pad), and one for language (the "phonological loop", which uses Broca's area as a kind of "inner voice" that repeats word sounds to keep them in mind). These two scratch pads temporarily hold data until it is erased by the next job
  30. 30. Short-term memory  In 1974 Baddeley and Hitch proposed a "working memory model" that replaced the general concept of short-term memory with an active maintenance of information in the short-term storage.  The central executive essentially acts as an attention sensory store. It channels information to the three component processes: the phonological loop, the visuo-spatial sketchpad, and the episodic buffer.  The phonological loop stores auditory information by silently rehearsing sounds or words in a continuous loop.  The visuospatial sketchpad stores visual and spatial information.  The episodic buffer is dedicated to linking information across domains to form integrated units of visual, spatial, and verbal information and chronological ordering (e.g., the memory of a story or a movie scene). The episodic buffer is also assumed to have links to long-term memory and semantical meaning.
  31. 31. Long term memory  Richard Schiffrin, is well known for his work in the 1960s suggesting that ALL memories automatically pass from a short-term to a long-term store after a short time (known as the modal or multi-store or Atkinson-Schiffrin model).  Long-term memory, on the other hand, is maintained by more stable and permanent changes in neural connections widely spread throughout the brain. The hippocampus is essential (for learning new information) to the consolidation of information from short-term to long-term memory, although it does not seem to store information itself.
  32. 32. Mechanism
  33. 33. Mechanism  Physiologically, the establishment of long-term memory involves a process of physical changes in the structure of neurons (or nerve cells) in the brain, a process known as long-term potentiation.  At its simplest, whenever something is learned, circuits of neurons in the brain, known as neural networks, are created, altered or strengthened. These neural circuits are composed of a number of neurons that communicate with one another through special junctions called synapses.  Through a process involving the creation of new proteins within the body of neurons, and the electrochemical transfer of neurotransmitters across synapse gaps to receptors, the communicative strength of certain circuits of neurons in the brain is reinforced.  With repeated use, the efficiency of these synapse connections increases, facilitating the passage of nerve impulses along particular neural circuits, which may involve many connections to the visual cortex, the auditory cortex, the associative regions of the cortex, etc
  34. 34. Mechanism  Visual, elaborative, organizational, acoustic, and semantic encodings are the most intensively used.  These learning experiences have been known to trigger a cascade of molecular events leading to the formation of memories. These changes include the modification of neural synapses, modification of proteins, creation of new synapses, activation of gene expression and new protein synthesis.  These cells also organize themselves into groups specializing in different kinds of information processing. Thus, with new experiences the brain creates more connections and may ‘rewire’. The brain organizes and reorganizes itself in response to one's experiences, creating new memories prompted by experience, education, or training.
  35. 35. TYPES By information type  Topographic memory involves the ability to orient oneself in space, to recognize and follow an itinerary, or to recognize familiar places.  Flashbulb memories are clear episodic memories of unique and highly emotional events. Anderson (1976) divides long-term memory into:  Declarative (explicit) memories  Procedural (implicit) memories
  36. 36. Memory
  37. 37. Types  Declarative memory requires conscious recall, in that some conscious process must call back the information. It is sometimes called explicit memory, since it consists of information that is explicitly stored and retrieved.  Sub-divided into  Semantic memory, concerning principles and facts taken independent of context; Semantic memory allows the encoding of abstract knowledge about the world.  Episodic memory, concerning information specific to a particular context, such as a time and place. It is used for personal memories, such as the sensations, emotions, and personal associations of a particular place or time.  Autobiographical memory - memory for particular events within one's own life - is generally viewed as either equivalent to, or a subset of, episodic memory.  Visual memory is part of memory preserving some characteristics of our senses pertaining to visual experience. One is able to place in memory information that resembles objects, places, animals or people in sort of a mental image.
  38. 38. Types Procedural  In contrast, procedural memory (or implicit memory) is not based on the conscious recall of information, but on implicit learning. It can best be summarized as remember how to do something.  Procedural memory involved in motor learning depends on the cerebellum and basal ganglia.
  39. 39. Types By temporal direction  Another major way to distinguish different memory functions is whether the content to be remembered is in the past, retrospective memory, or in the future, prospective memory.
  40. 40. Memory- Disorders  Forgetfulness  Amnesia  Amnesic patients are described as those who have suffered damage to their medial temporal lobe, resulting in the impairment of explicit recollection of everyday facts and events.  Anterograde  Retrograde  Aging and memory  Emotional memory
  41. 41. Improving memory  Physical exercise  Get your Sleep.  Make time for friends  Keep stress in check  Brain-boosting diet.  Identify and treat health problems.
  42. 42. Tips to improve memory  1. Repeat One of the golden rules of learning and memory is repeat, repeat, repeat. The brain also responds to novelty, so repeating something in a different way or at a different time will make the most of the novelty effect and allow you to build stronger memories.  2. Organize A day planner or smart phone calendar can help you keep track of appointments and activities and can also serve as a journal in which you write anything that you would like to remember. Writing down and organizing information reinforces learning.  3. Visualize Learning faces and names is a particularly hard task for most people. In addition to repeating a person’s name, you can also associate the name with an image. Visualization strengthens the association you are making between the face and the name.  4. Cue When you are having difficulty recalling a particular word or fact, you can cue yourself by giving related details or “talking around” the word, name, or fact. 5. Group  When you’re trying to remember a long list of items, it can help to group the items in sets of three to five, just as you would to remember a phone number.
  43. 43. Thinking  Expanding Dooyeweerd's ideas, Roy Clouser, highlighted three types of thinking that are involved in all our ways of functioning in the aspects:  Everyday thinking (and acting, living) - Practice: Intervening in real-life situations; Doing.  Lower abstraction - Understanding situations; reflecting on situations, problems, etc. Decision support.  Higher abstraction - scientific or theoretical thinking - scientific or theoretical thinking.
  44. 44. Cognition  Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses.  Aristotle focused on cognitive areas pertaining to memory, perception, and mental imagery.  It encompasses processes such as knowledge, attention, memory and working memory, judgment and evaluation, reasoning and "computation", problem solving and decision making, comprehension and production of language, etc. Human cognition is conscious and unconscious, concrete or abstract, as well as intuitive (like knowledge of a language) and conceptual (like a model of a language).
  45. 45. Cognition  Thomas Aquinas, who divided the study of behavior into two broad categories: cognitive (how we know the world), and affective (how we understand the world via feelings and emotions).  Consequently, this description tends to apply to processes such as memory, association, concept formation, pattern recognition, language, attention, perception, action, problem solving and mental imagery.
  46. 46. Jean Piaget’s theory on cognitive development
  47. 47. Cognition  Concept Reasoning  Decision making  Problem solving
  48. 48. Problem solving strategies  Situation or problem  Data collection  Evaluation of causes  Solution & implementation  Evaluation of process  Standardization
  49. 49. Decision Making  Situation  Alternatives/options  Consequences of alternates  Emotional values

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