The role of the following on behavior,
Perception and factors affecting it
Sensation, sense organs/special organs
Attention and concentration
Memory and its stages, types and methods to improve it
Types and theories of thinking
Cognition and levels of cognition
What is behavior?
Human behavior refers to the array of every physical action and observable
emotion associated with individuals, as well as the human race as a whole.
Factors influencing behavior are personality, temperament, age and genetics,
driven in part by thoughts and feelings, insight into individual psyche, knowledge,
experience, attitudes and values.
Social behavior, a subset of human behavior, study the considerable influence of
social interaction and culture. Additional influences include ethics, encircling,
authority, rapport, hypnosis, persuasion and coercion.
Theories of behavioral psychology
A theorist that contributed a theory to
behavioral science is Ivan P. Pavlov.
Classical conditioning is accompanying a
specific stimuli with a certain response
which is learned over a period of time.
B. F. Skinner, who created the theory of
It is composed of the idea that if behavior is
reciprocated with a certain consequence,
whether it is a positive or a negative
reinforcement, the behavior is more likely to
be repeated and become constant. A
consequence is a reaction to a behavior
which serves as a reinforcement.
Perception (from the Latin perceptio,
percipio) is the organization,
identification, and interpretation
of sensory information in order to
represent and understand the
All perception involves signals in
the nervous system, which in turn result
from physical or chemical stimulation of
the sense organ.
Perception is not the passive receipt of these signals,
but is shaped by learning, memory, expectation, and
Perception can be split into two processes.
1. Firstly, processing sensory input, which transforms
these low-level information to higher-level information
(e.g., extracts shapes for object recognition).
2. Secondly, processing which is connected with a
person's concepts and expectations (knowledge) and
selective mechanisms (attention) that influence
Components of perception
According to Alan Saks and Gary Johns, there are three components to perception.
The Perceiver, the person who becomes aware about something and comes to a final
understanding. There are 3 factors that can influence his or her perceptions:
experience, motivational state and finally emotional state. In different motivational
or emotional states, the perceiver will react to or perceive something in different ways.
Also in different situations he or she might employ a "perceptual defence" where they
tend to "see what they want to see".
The Target. This is the person who is being perceived or judged. "Ambiguity or lack of
information about a target leads to a greater need for interpretation and addition."
The Situation also greatly influences perceptions because different situations may call
for additional information about the target.
Perceptual constancy is the ability of
perceptual systems to recognize the same
object from widely varying sensory inputs.
The perceptual systems of the brain achieve
perceptual constancy in a variety of ways,
each specialized for the kind of information
being processed. Other constancies include
melody, odor, brightness and words.
The principles of grouping are a set of principles
in psychology, first proposed by Gestalt
psychologists to explain how humans naturally
perceive objects as organized patterns and
objects. Gestalt psychologists argued that these
principles exist because the mind has an innate
disposition to perceive patterns in the stimulus
based on certain rules. These principles are
organized into six categories, namely proximity,
similarity, closure, good continuation, common
fate and good form.
A common finding across many different
kinds of perception is that the perceived
qualities of an object can be affected by the
qualities of context. If one object is extreme
on some dimension, then neighboring objects
are perceived as further away from that
Effect of experience
With experience, organisms can learn to make finer perceptual distinctions, and
learn new kinds of categorization.
Empirical research show that specific practices (such as Yoga, Mindfulness, Tai-chi,
Meditation, and other mind-body disciplines) can modify human perceptual
Effect of motivation and expectation
A perceptual set, also called perceptual expectancy or just set is a predisposition to perceive
things in a certain way. It is an example of how perception can be shaped by "top-down"
processes such as drives and expectations.
Perceptual set has been demonstrated in many social contexts. People who are primed to think
of someone as "warm" are more likely to perceive a variety of positive characteristics in them,
than if the word "warm" is replaced by "cold". When someone has a reputation for being funny,
an audience is more likely to find them amusing. Individual's perceptual sets reflect their own
Philosopher Andy Clark explains that perception, although it occurs quickly, is not simply a
bottom-up process (where minute details are put together to form larger wholes). Instead, our
brains use what he calls 'predictive coding'. It starts with very broad constraints and expectations
for the state of the world, and as expectations are met, it makes more detailed predictions (errors
lead to new predictions, or learning processes).
Hearing (or audition) is the ability to perceive sound by
detecting vibrations. Frequencies capable of being heard
by humans are called audio or sonic. The range is
typically considered to be between 20 Hz and 20,000 Hz
The auditory system includes the outer ears which collect
and filter sound waves, the middle ear for transforming
the sound pressure (impedance matching), and the inner
ear which produces neural signals in response to the
sound. By the ascending auditory pathway these are led
to the primary auditory cortex within the temporal lobe of
the human brain, which is where the auditory information
arrives in the cerebral cortex and is further processed
Speech perception is the process by which the
sounds of language are heard, interpreted and
understood. Research in speech perception
seeks to understand how human listeners
recognize speech sounds and use this
information to understand spoken language.
The sound of a word can vary widely according
to words around it and the tempo of the speech,
as well as the physical characteristics, accent and
mood of the speaker. Other variations are that
reverberation, morphology & semantics that
involve higher level language processes.
Haptic perception is the process of recognizing objects
through touch. It involves a combination
of somatosensory perception of patterns on the skin surface
(e.g., edges, curvature, and texture) and proprioception of
hand position and conformation. People can rapidly and
accurately identify three-dimensional objects by touch. This
involves exploratory procedures, such as moving the fingers
over the outer surface of the object or holding the entire
object in the hand. Haptic perception relies on the forces
experienced during touch.
Taste (or, the more formal term, gustation) is the ability to perceive the
flavor of substances including, but not limited to, food. Humans receive
tastes through sensory organs called taste buds, or gustatory calyculi,
concentrated on the upper surface of the tongue.
The human tongue has 100 to 150 taste receptor cells on each of its
roughly ten thousand taste buds. There are five primary tastes:
sweetness, bitterness, sourness, saltiness, and umami.
The basic tastes contribute only partially to the sensation and flavor of
food in the mouth — other factors include smell, detected by the
olfactory epithelium of the nose; texture, detected through a variety of
mechanoreceptors, muscle nerves, etc.; and temperature, detected by
Other senses enable perception of body
balance, acceleration, gravity, position of
body parts, temperature, pain, time, and
perception of internal senses such as
Social perception is the part of perception
that allows people to understand the
individuals and groups of their social world,
and thus an element of social cognition.
Attention is the behavioral and cognitive process
of selectively concentrating on a discrete aspect of
information, whether deemed subjective or
objective, while ignoring other perceivable
Detecting the source of the sensory cues and
signals that generate attention, the effects of
these sensory cues and signals on the tuning
properties of sensory neurons, and the
relationship between attention and other
behavioral and cognitive processes like working
memory and vigilance.
Selective attention and visual attention
In cognitive psychology there are at least two models which describe
how visual attention operates.
1. Spot-light model
2. Zoom-lens model
Generally speaking, visual attention is thought to operate as a two-
1. In the first stage, attention is distributed uniformly over the external
visual scene and processing of information is performed in parallel.
2. In the second stage, attention is concentrated to a specific area of the
visual scene (i.e., it is focused), and processing is performed in a serial
Spatial attention: A region of space within the visual field is selected for attention and the information
within this region then receives further processing.
Multi-tasking: Multitasking can be defined as the attempt to perform two or more tasks simultaneously;
however, research shows that when multitasking, people make more mistakes or perform their tasks more
Focused attention: The ability to respond discretely to specific visual, auditory or tactile stimuli.
Sustained attention (vigilance and concentration): The ability to maintain a consistent behavioral
response during continuous and repetitive activity.
Selective attention: The ability to maintain a behavioral or cognitive set in the face of distracting or
competing stimuli. Therefore, it incorporates the notion of "freedom from distractibility."
Alternating attention: The ability of mental flexibility that allows individuals to shift their focus of
attention and move between tasks having different cognitive requirements.
Divided attention: This is the highest level of attention and it refers to the ability to respond
simultaneously to multiple tasks or multiple task demands.
Memory is the process in which information is encoded,
stored, and retrieved.
Encoding or registration: receiving, processing and
combining of received information.
Storage: creation of a permanent record of the encoded
information in short term or long term memory.
Retrieval, recall or recollection: calling back the stored
information in response to some cue for use in a process or
Types of memory
Sensory- ability to retain impressions of sensory
information after the original stimuli have ended.
Iconic memory- is fast decaying visual information.
Echoic memory is fast decaying auditory information.
Haptic memory is fast decaying tactile information.
The sensory memory cannot be prolonged
Information is passed from the sensory memory into
short-term memory via the process of attention.
Working memory-or temporary recall of the information
which is being processed at any point in time. 5-7 items up
to 1 minute.
The central executive part of the prefrontal cortex at
the front of the brain appears to play a fundamental role
in short-term and working memory.
The central executive controls two neural loops, one for
visual data (which activates areas near the visual
cortex of the brain and acts as a visual scratch pad), and
one for language (the "phonological loop", which
uses Broca's area as a kind of "inner voice" that repeats
word sounds to keep them in mind). These two scratch
pads temporarily hold data until it is erased by the next
In 1974 Baddeley and Hitch proposed a "working memory
model" that replaced the general concept of short-term
memory with an active maintenance of information in the
The central executive essentially acts as an attention sensory
store. It channels information to the three component
processes: the phonological loop, the visuo-spatial
sketchpad, and the episodic buffer.
The phonological loop stores auditory information by
silently rehearsing sounds or words in a continuous loop.
The visuospatial sketchpad stores visual and spatial
The episodic buffer is dedicated to linking information
across domains to form integrated units of visual, spatial,
and verbal information and chronological ordering (e.g., the
memory of a story or a movie scene). The episodic buffer is
also assumed to have links to long-term memory and
Long term memory
Richard Schiffrin, is well known for his work in the 1960s
suggesting that ALL memories automatically pass from a
short-term to a long-term store after a short time (known
as the modal or multi-store or Atkinson-Schiffrin model).
Long-term memory, on the other hand, is maintained by
more stable and permanent changes in neural
connections widely spread throughout the brain.
The hippocampus is essential (for learning new
information) to the consolidation of information from
short-term to long-term memory, although it does not
seem to store information itself.
Physiologically, the establishment of long-term memory involves a
process of physical changes in the structure of neurons (or nerve cells) in
the brain, a process known as long-term potentiation.
At its simplest, whenever something is learned, circuits of neurons in
the brain, known as neural networks, are created, altered or
strengthened. These neural circuits are composed of a number of
neurons that communicate with one another through special junctions
Through a process involving the creation of new proteins within the
body of neurons, and the electrochemical transfer
of neurotransmitters across synapse gaps to receptors, the
communicative strength of certain circuits of neurons in the brain is
With repeated use, the efficiency of these synapse connections increases,
facilitating the passage of nerve impulses along particular neural circuits,
which may involve many connections to the visual cortex, the auditory
cortex, the associative regions of the cortex, etc
Visual, elaborative, organizational, acoustic, and semantic encodings are the most intensively
These learning experiences have been known to trigger a cascade of molecular events leading
to the formation of memories. These changes include the modification of neural synapses,
modification of proteins, creation of new synapses, activation of gene expression and new
These cells also organize themselves into groups specializing in different kinds of information
processing. Thus, with new experiences the brain creates more connections and may ‘rewire’.
The brain organizes and reorganizes itself in response to one's experiences, creating new
memories prompted by experience, education, or training.
By information type
Topographic memory involves the ability to orient oneself in space, to recognize
and follow an itinerary, or to recognize familiar places.
Flashbulb memories are clear episodic memories of unique and highly emotional
Anderson (1976) divides long-term memory into:
Declarative (explicit) memories
Procedural (implicit) memories
Declarative memory requires conscious recall, in that some conscious process must
call back the information. It is sometimes called explicit memory, since it consists of
information that is explicitly stored and retrieved.
Semantic memory, concerning principles and facts taken independent of context;
Semantic memory allows the encoding of abstract knowledge about the world.
Episodic memory, concerning information specific to a particular context, such as a
time and place. It is used for personal memories, such as the sensations, emotions, and
personal associations of a particular place or time.
Autobiographical memory - memory for particular events within one's own life - is
generally viewed as either equivalent to, or a subset of, episodic memory.
Visual memory is part of memory preserving some characteristics of our senses
pertaining to visual experience. One is able to place in memory information that
resembles objects, places, animals or people in sort of a mental image.
In contrast, procedural memory (or implicit memory) is not based on the
conscious recall of information, but on implicit learning. It can best be summarized
as remember how to do something.
Procedural memory involved in motor learning depends on
the cerebellum and basal ganglia.
By temporal direction
Another major way to distinguish different memory functions is whether the
content to be remembered is in the past, retrospective memory, or in the
future, prospective memory.
Amnesic patients are described as those who have suffered damage to their medial
temporal lobe, resulting in the impairment of explicit recollection of everyday facts and
Aging and memory
Get your Sleep.
Make time for friends
Keep stress in check
Identify and treat health problems.
Tips to improve memory
One of the golden rules of learning and memory is repeat, repeat, repeat. The brain also responds to novelty, so repeating something in a
different way or at a different time will make the most of the novelty effect and allow you to build stronger memories.
A day planner or smart phone calendar can help you keep track of appointments and activities and can also serve as a journal in which you
write anything that you would like to remember. Writing down and organizing information reinforces learning.
Learning faces and names is a particularly hard task for most people. In addition to repeating a person’s name, you can also associate the
name with an image. Visualization strengthens the association you are making between the face and the name.
When you are having difficulty recalling a particular word or fact, you can cue yourself by giving related details or “talking around” the
word, name, or fact.
When you’re trying to remember a long list of items, it can help to group the items in sets of three to five, just as you would to
remember a phone number.
Expanding Dooyeweerd's ideas, Roy Clouser, highlighted three types of thinking
that are involved in all our ways of functioning in the aspects:
Everyday thinking (and acting, living) - Practice: Intervening in real-life situations;
Lower abstraction - Understanding situations; reflecting on situations, problems,
etc. Decision support.
Higher abstraction - scientific or theoretical thinking - scientific or theoretical
Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding
through thought, experience, and the senses.
Aristotle focused on cognitive areas pertaining to memory, perception, and mental imagery.
It encompasses processes such as knowledge, attention, memory and working memory,
judgment and evaluation, reasoning and "computation", problem solving and decision
making, comprehension and production of language, etc. Human cognition is conscious
and unconscious, concrete or abstract, as well as intuitive (like knowledge of a language)
and conceptual (like a model of a language).
Thomas Aquinas, who divided the study of behavior
into two broad categories: cognitive (how we know
the world), and affective (how we understand the
world via feelings and emotions).
Consequently, this description tends to apply to
processes such as memory, association, concept
formation, pattern recognition, language, attention,
perception, action, problem solving and mental
Apparemment, vous utilisez un bloqueur de publicités qui est en cours d'exécution. En ajoutant SlideShare à la liste blanche de votre bloqueur de publicités, vous soutenez notre communauté de créateurs de contenu.
Vous détestez les publicités?
Nous avons mis à jour notre politique de confidentialité.
Nous avons mis à jour notre politique de confidentialité pour nous conformer à l'évolution des réglementations mondiales en matière de confidentialité et pour vous informer de la manière dont nous utilisons vos données de façon limitée.
Vous pouvez consulter les détails ci-dessous. En cliquant sur Accepter, vous acceptez la politique de confidentialité mise à jour.