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  1. 1. The Ideal Page: Between Digital Facsimile and Medieval Manuscript Benjamin Albritton, Stanford University Libraries Robert Sanderson, Los Alamos National Laboratory 2012 Medieval Academy of America Meeting Saint Louis, MO
  2. 2. Overview • Background • Framing Questions • Working with Digital Surrogates • Supporting a world of linked medieval knowledge • Initial Experiments and Next Steps
  3. 3. Framing Questions • What do we study, as medievalists? • What is a manuscript? • What purposes does a digital surrogate serve? • What can we do with traditionally tacit information? (transcriptions, annotations, etc.)
  4. 4. Working with Surrogates
  5. 5. Naïve Approach: Transcribe Images Directly
  6. 6. Naïve Approach: Multiple Representations CCC 26 f. iiiR
  7. 7. Naïve Approach: Multiple Representations CCC 26 f. iiiR Fold A Open
  8. 8. Naïve Approach: Multiple Representations CCC 26 f. iiiR Fold A Open Fold A and B Open
  9. 9. Naïve Approach: Multiple Representations CCC 26 f. iiiR Fold A Open Fold A and B Open f. iiiV
  10. 10. Canvas Paradigm • A Canvas is an empty space in which to build up a display • Brings non-collocated information into a single viewing space • Makes explicit that the image is a surrogate
  11. 11. Domain Requirements Working at physical item level provides unique challenges! 1. Only parts of pages may be digitized • Only illuminations digitized • Fragments of pages • Multiple fragments per image Cod. Sang. 1394: 10.5076/e-codices-csg-1394
  12. 12. Domain Requirements 2. Page may not be digitized at all • Not "interesting" enough This page intentionally, but unfortunately, • Digitization destructive left blank • Page no longer exists • Page only hypothetical
  13. 13. Domain Requirements 3. Non-rectangular pages • Fashionable heart shaped manuscripts • Fragments • Pages with foldouts Facsimile of BNF Rothschild 2973 http://www.omifacsimiles.com/brochures/montchen.html
  14. 14. Domain Requirements 4. Alignment of multiple images of same object • Multi-spectral imaging • Multiple resolutions • Image tiling • Microfilm vs photograph • Multiple digitizations Archimedes Palimpsest Multi-Spectral Images http://www.archimedespalimpsest.org/
  15. 15. Domain Requirements 5. Multiple page orders over time • Rebinding • Scholarly disagreement on reconstruction 6. Different pages of the manuscript held by different institutions Cod Sang 730: 10.5706/e-codices-csg-0730a
  16. 16. Domain Requirements 7. Transcription of: • Text • Music • Musical Notation • Performance • Diagrams Reusing existing resources, such as TEI, where possible 8. Transcriptions both created and stored in a distributed way, with competing versions Parker: XXX XXX
  17. 17. Canvas Paradigm A Canvas is an empty space in which to build up a display • HTML5, SVG, PDF, … even Powerpoint! • Can "paint" many different resources, including text, images and audio, on to a Canvas We can use a Canvas to represent a folio of a manuscript. Distributed nature is fundamental in the requirements • Painting resources, commentary and collaboration • Idea: Use Annotations to do all of those • Annotations can target the Canvas instead of individual Images
  18. 18. Canvas to Page Relationship The Canvas's top left and bottom right corners correspond to the corners of a rectangular box around the folio
  19. 19. OAC Annotations to Paint Images
  20. 20. OAC Annotations to Paint Text
  21. 21. Transcription: Morgan 804
  22. 22. Transcription: Morgan 804
  23. 23. Fragments: Cod Sang 1394
  24. 24. Musical Manuscripts: Parker XXX
  25. 25. Missing Pages: Parker CCC 286
  26. 26. Repeated Zones: Frauenfeld Y 112
  27. 27. Rebinding: BNF f.fr. 113-116
  28. 28. Supporting a World of Linked Medieval Knowledge Those Annotations could be anywhere on the web! • Need to be able to discover them! Publish / Subscribe Model for Dissemination. • Annotation creators publish annotations as linked data • Annotation consumers harvest from (trusted?) projects, aggregators or authors • Sync across repositories for sustainability Anticipated Issues: • Unreliable authors (or spam) • Multiple published versions • Humanist trend to not expose working data
  29. 29. Teaching with Distributed Digital Tools and Surrogates (UVa, Spring 2012) • Deborah McGrady, UVa: FREN 5150/8510: Textual Bodies: The Making of Books, Authors and Readers in the Middle Ages • 12-15 graduate students • Use of: • Images from the Bibliothèque nationale de France • Hosted at Stanford University • Transcription tool: T-PEN (Saint Louis University) • Annotation tool: DM (Drew University)
  30. 30. Using DM to create and manage annotations
  31. 31. A Space for Simple Description
  32. 32. Working Across Tools
  33. 33. Transcriptions in T-PEN
  34. 34. DM for discovery and display
  35. 35. Next Steps for Student Materials • Extract annotations and transcriptions from tools for: • New display • “Digital appendices” to traditional publication • Personal note stores • New projects • New questions
  36. 36. Summary Model: Canvas paradigm provides a coherent solution to modeling the layout of medieval manuscripts • Annotations, and Collaboration, at the heart of the model Implementation: • Distribution across repositories for images, text, commentary • Consistent methods to access content from many repositories • Encourages tool development by experts in the field The SharedCanvas model implemented by distributed repositories brings the humanist's primary research objects to their desktop in a powerful, extensible and interoperable fashion
  37. 37. Software, Tools, and Initiatives Mentioned • Project Blacklight (discovery front-end) – http://projectblacklight.org/ • International Image Interoperability Framework (Image API) – http://lib.stanford.edu/iiif • Open Annotation (Annotation Data Model) – http://openannotation.org • SharedCanvas (Aggregated Facsimile Data Model) – http://www.shared-canvas.org • T-PEN (Transcription tool – Saint Louis University) – http://t-pen.org/TPEN • DM (General annotation desktop – Drew University) – http://ada.drew.edu/dmproject/
  38. 38. Thank You Benjamin Albritton blalbrit@stanford.edu @bla222 Robert Sanderson rsanderson@lanl.gov azaroth42@gmail.com @azaroth42 Web: http://lib.stanford.edu/dmm http://www.shared-canvas.org/ Paper: http://arxiv.org/abs/1104.2925 Acknowledgements DMSTech Group: http://dmstech.group.stanford.edu/ Open Annotation Collaboration: http://www.openannotation.org/