History of AI
Source> Wikipedia & IBM’s developerWorks, June 2017
Golden Age (1965~1974) Dark Age (74-80)
Boom up (80-87) Dark Age (87-93) Challenging (94-10)
AI WinterExpert System
Neural Network ?
Searching to Learning
Limitation of Search, Pattern Matching, …
The reason for failure:
Too Big positive expectation …
Intelligence vs. Expression
How to realize AI ?
RDF(a), GRDDL, POWDER,
Linked Data, …
Make it possible AI again !
Recent revolution & emerging technology :
What's the Diﬀerence between Robotics and Artiﬁcial Intelligence?
A beginner's guide to artiﬁcial intelligence,
machine learning, and cognitive computing
M. Tim Jones
Published on June 01, 2017
Recommend to read:
Ball, a cognitive scientist, began exploring the gap between how our brains
interpret information and how computers work in 1983.
Recommend to read:
Need to be considered seriously
Major Issues on Artiﬁcial Intelligence
Spectators watch a broadcast of the ﬁnal, decisive game in the rematch
between Garry Kasparov and the IBM computer Deep Blue. (1977)
some of the biggest examples
Top 10 AI failures of 2016
1. AI built to predict future crime was racist
2. Non-player characters in a video game crafted weapons beyond creator's plans
3. Robot injured a child
4. Fatality in Tesla Autopilot mode
5. Microsoft's chatbot Tay utters racist, sexist, homophobic slurs
6. AI-judged beauty contest is racist
7. Pokémon Go keeps game-players in white neighborhoods
8. Google's AI, AlphaGo, loses game 4 of Go to Lee Sedol
9. Chinese facial recognition study predicts convicts but shows bias
10.Insurance company uses Facebook data to issue rates, shows bias
*Racist = 人種差別主義者
Microsoft forced to apologize after epic chatbot fail
March 2016, https://blogs.microsoft.com/blog/2016/03/25/learning-tays-introduction/
Although we had prepared for many
types of abuses of the system, we
had made a critical oversight for
this specific attack.
As a result, Tay tweeted wildly
inappropriate and reprehensible
words and images.
As evidenced by these examples, AI systems are deeply prone to bias—and
it is critical that machine learning algorithms train on diverse sets of data in
order to prevent it. As AI increases its capabilities, ensuring proper checks,
diverse data, and ethical standards for research is of utmost importance.
Top 10 AI failures of 2016
some of the biggest examples
Why do we need AI standards?
AIAI in ISO/IEC JTC 1
JTC 1 has a 20 years history with working on standards in AI
• ISO/IEC 2382-28:1995 Information technology – Vocabulary – Part
28: Artificial intelligence – Basic concepts and expert systems
• ISO/IEC 2382-31: Artificial intelligence – Machine learning
• ISO/IEC 2382-34: Artificial intelligence – Neural networks
All those specifications have been consolidated and it have been
• ISO/IEC 2382:2015: Information technology -- Vocabulary
Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence exhibited by machines. In
computer science, the field of AI research defines itself as the study of
Artificial intelligence is technology that appears to emulate human
performance typically by learning, coming to its own conclusions,
appearing to understand complex content, engaging in natural dialogs
The capability of a functional unit to perform functions that are generally
associated with human intelligence such as reasoning and learning. (ISO/
Needs to be re-defined again ?
Why are standards required ?
While AI has been around for many years with active research and development
over the last 10 years, we have seen an increase in the number of products and
services implementing AI effectively, which has led to an increase of interest by
new and/or existing organizations to look into standardization of AI.
Countries and regulators have begun taking an interest in many aspects of AI
with an increase in the application of AI into a wider set of domains and the
possibility of new regulation.
There is a need for standards to facilitate communication about Artificial
Intelligence, to enable acceptance of approaches and concepts that support
future development and to address the interests and concerns of
governments and society.
Standards provide requirements, specifications, guidelines, or
characteristics that can be used consistently to ensure that AI technologies
meet critical objectives for functionality and interoperability, and that they
perform reliably and safely.
The development of standards must be hastened to keep pace with the rapidly
evolving capabilities and expanding domains of AI applications.
Furthermore, how timely development of global standards will be important
to facilitate wider global adoption of AI technologies and in order to truly tap
into AI’s potential.
Adoption of standards brings credibility to technology advancements and
facilitates an expanded interoperable marketplace.
AIRelated Activities – IEEE
• The IEEE Standards Association (IEEE-SA) launched the IEEE
Global Initiative for Ethical Considerations in Artificial
Intelligence and Autonomous Systems (AI/AS). (April 2016)
★ Two primary deliverables - Ethically Aligned Design (EAD),
Versions 1 & 2
• The IEEE also launched the IEEE Symbiotic Autonomous
Systems (SAS) Initiative aims to following goals (July 2017):
1. Take the lead in developing the new field of Symbiotic Systems
2. Foster interdisciplinary technology deployments that take into
account Ethical, Legal, and Societal considerations
3. Promote human-centric economic growth
AIRelated Activities – ITU
• ITU believes that the Artificial Intelligence (AI) innovation will be central to the
achievement of the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and will
help in solving humanity's grand challenges.
• As part of emerging ICT trends programme, ITU made its organize briefings on the
topic of “Artificial Intelligence (AI) for Good”:
• ITU Briefing on "Artificial Intelligence (AI)
• ITU has started the development of AI standards
① ITU-T Y.AI4SC, Artificial Intelligence and IoT
② ITU-T Y.qos-ml, Requirements of machine
learning based QoS assurance for IMT-2020
AIRelated Activities – ISO & IEC
• ISO and IEC have published the standards for vocabulary on Artificial Intelligence (ISO/
IEC 2382:2015, formerly ISO/IEC 2382:1995) which will be basis of AI standards.
• Recent Activities
★ New initiatives in JTC 1/SC 7 (SG Autonomous Systems and Ambient Intelligence
Environment Engineering), SC 34 and SC 36 (under the AI investigation), SC 40
(Governance of AI/AS), and WG 9 (Data analytics).
★ IEC Market Strategy Board (MSB) started to develop a new white paper "Application
of Artificial Intelligence (AI) across Vertical Industries”
★ In JTC 1, NWIP ballot on “AI Concepts and Terminology” (NP 22989) (July 2017)
★ USNB has proposed JTC 1 the establishment of a Systems Integration entity in the
form of a new Subcommittee on the Artificial Intelligence.
ISO/IEC JTC 1 JAG conducted online survey on AI and AS to JTC 1 entities (for JTC
1/SC Chairs and JTC 1/WG Conveners) during 29 July ~ 31 August 2017.
Online Survey: https://www.surveymonkey.com/r/7GD52SP
The purpose of survey is follows:
1. Identify the related activities on AI and AS (include ongoing projects)
2. Identify priority area on AI and AS standards
3. Identify the future work items on AI and AS
4. Other considerations
As a result of survey, there were 13 responds in total (response rate is 59%) from
following JTC 1 entities:
SC 7 Software and systems engineering
SC 17 Cards and personal identification
SC 22 Programming languages, their environments and system software interfaces
SC 24 Computer graphics, image processing and environmental data representation
SC 25 Interconnection of information technology equipment
SC 27 IT Security techniques
SC 28 Office Equipment
SC 29 Coding of audio, picture, multimedia and hypermedia information
SC 36 Information technology for learning, education and training
SC 37 Biometrics
SC 40 IT Service Management and IT Governance
SC 41 Internet of Things and related technologies
WG 9 Big Data
AIRelated Activities – Others
National Strategy on AI:
[China] China to launch national AI strategy
[France] France already has one of the strongest AI
[Japan] Japan’s Role in Establishing Standards for Artificial Intelligence Development
[UK] £17 million boost for the UK's booming artificial intelligence sector
[US] The National Artificial Intelligence Research and Development Strategy
Industry Collaboration: Partnership on AI, MILA, etc.
Open Source on AI:
[OpenAI] Open Source AI API: http://openai.sourceforge.net/docs.html
[H2O.ai] bringing AI to enterprises: https://www.h2o.ai/gartner-magic-quadrant/
The Japanese Society for Artiﬁcial Intelligence Ethical Guidelines
AIRecommendations to JTC 1
According to the investigation work on AI and AS,
it is strongly recommended that
“JTC 1 would urgently start the activity on the
development of its standardization”.
ISO/IEC JTC 1 established a new Subcommittee,
SC 42 for the development of Artiﬁcial Intelligence
(2017 JTC 1 Plenary in Vladivostok, Russia)
• Chair: USA (Vice-chair: China)
• Secretariat - USA
there have been a lot of failures in the meantime,
and it will continue…
We need the right compass
for journeying into future AI world !
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