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Usability Express: Recipe for Libraries

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Usability Express: Recipe for Libraries

  1. 1. Usability Express : Recipe for Libraries Bohyun Kim ( @bohyunkim ) Digital Access Librarian Medical Library Marissa Ball ( @unlikelylib ) f Emerging Technologies Librarian f Green Library Computers in Libraries, Washington D.C. March 23, 2011
  2. 2. “ Usability is like cooking: everybody needs the outcome, (and) anybody can do it reasonably well with a bit of training. ” - Jakob Nielsen, “Anybody Can Do Usability”
  3. 3. Why Usability?
  4. 4. Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011 http://xkcd.com/773/
  5. 5. Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011
  6. 6. Users don’ t … <ul><li>Read content on a web page. </li></ul><ul><li>Want to learn how to properly use a web site. </li></ul><ul><li>Visit your web site every day. </li></ul><ul><li>Return to a site where they could not achieve what they set out to do. </li></ul><ul><li>Users are always on the move. </li></ul>Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011
  7. 7. <ul><li>From Don't make me think! : a common sense approach to Web usability by St eve Krug. </li></ul>Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011
  8. 8. From Don't make me think! : a common sense approach to Web usability by St eve Krug. Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011
  9. 9. On the average Web page, users have time to read at most 28% of the words during an average visit; 20% is more likely. From Harald Weinreich, Hartmut Obendorf, Eelco Herder, and Matthias Mayer, &quot;Not Quite the Average: An Empirical Study of Web Use,&quot; in the ACM Transactions on the Web, Vol. 2, No. 1 (February 2008). Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011
  10. 10. Users and designers do not think alike. A usable website looks right to users. Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011
  11. 11. Usable = ‘Fit for Use’ <ul><li>Intuitive to use </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to recover from being lost/a mistake </li></ul><ul><li>Conducive to users’ performing tasks </li></ul><ul><li>No need to learn at the first visit </li></ul><ul><li>No need to recall at repeated visits </li></ul><ul><li>No frustration = Happy user-experience </li></ul>Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011
  12. 12. Libraries and Usability Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011
  13. 13. Why is it so hard to make a library website user-friendly?
  14. 14. Libraries offer a lot! <ul><li>Many systems - But almost all are information silos </li></ul><ul><li>Many different services - In terminology often foreign to users </li></ul><ul><li>Many details, forms, and departments - Often confusing rather than informing </li></ul>Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011
  15. 15. Libraries often get these wrong: <ul><li>Pre-conceived notions of importance </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of research on users behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Belief that design can change user behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Design based upon a committee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-> Slow, design lack unity, and represents insiders’ opinions more than users’ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Writing unsuited for the web </li></ul>Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011
  16. 16. Common Usability Problems & Examples
  17. 17. <ul><li>Clutter / Noise </li></ul><ul><li>Dated look </li></ul><ul><li>Too subtle design </li></ul><ul><li>Unclear terms / library jargon </li></ul><ul><li>Redundant or unnecessary content </li></ul><ul><li>Bad writing </li></ul><ul><li>Design against convention </li></ul><ul><li>Unintuitive navigation </li></ul>Usual Suspects Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011
  18. 18. <ul><li>Promote all things -> Nothing stands out. </li></ul><ul><li>Users have no idea where to focus/start. </li></ul><ul><li>Information overload -> Stress </li></ul>1. Clutter / Noise Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011
  19. 19. 1 Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011 You don ’t think libraries do this to users, but…
  20. 20. Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011 ABC Library
  21. 21. Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011 ABC Library ABC Library ABC Library
  22. 22. Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011 ABC Library
  23. 23. 1 Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011 ABC Library ABC Library ABC Library ABC Library ABC ABC Library ABC Library ABC Library ABC Library ABC ABC ABC
  24. 24. Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011 ABC Library
  25. 25. <ul><li>Improve by taking things out rather than adding them. </li></ul><ul><li>Be aware of clutter creeping in. </li></ul><ul><li>Users are happy to click ‘as long as’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>it is mindless & </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>they know that they are getting closer. </li></ul></ul>1. Clutter / Noise Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011
  26. 26. <ul><li>Lowers the credibility of the site. </li></ul><ul><li>Users suspect outdated content . </li></ul>2. Dated Look Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011
  27. 27. 2 Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011 ABC Library
  28. 28. ABC Library 2 Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011
  29. 29. <ul><li>Replace old icons, images, typography. </li></ul><ul><li>Update a CSS file to give a new look. </li></ul><ul><li>As long as the site architecture is sound, serves the same group, and has clear task pathways that work, no need to redesign. </li></ul>2. Dated Look Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011
  30. 30. <ul><li>Users scan web pages like a billboard while driving a car at 60 miles/hr. </li></ul><ul><li>Subtlety in web design often backfires. </li></ul><ul><li>Good web design ≠ Good print design </li></ul>3. Too Subtle Design Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011
  31. 31. 3 Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011 ABC Library ABC Library
  32. 32. 3 Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011 ABC Library
  33. 33. 3 Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011 ABC Library ABC Library ABC Library
  34. 34. <ul><li>Make visually clear what’ s most important, valuable, popular. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a clear visual hierarchy on the page. </li></ul><ul><li>Break pages up into a clearly defined areas . </li></ul>3. Too Subtle Design Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011
  35. 35. <ul><li>Test your site with new users. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Card sorting method </li></ul></ul>4. Unclear Terms/Library Jargon Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011
  36. 36. 4 Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011 ABC Library
  37. 37. Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011 ABC Library
  38. 38. <ul><li>Replace all jargons with plain terms. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not use the product names that the vendors picked on your library website! </li></ul><ul><li>Use a short description if necessary. </li></ul>4. Unclear Terms/Library Jargon Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011
  39. 39. <ul><li>Redundant content creeps in as time goes by. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Welcome, Introduction, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unnecessary content = Small talk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Users have no interest in small talk. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Answer users’ questions, not yours. </li></ul><ul><li>Serve content that users can grab and go. </li></ul>5. Redundant/unnecessary Content Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011
  40. 40. 5/6 Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011 XYZ University ABC Library
  41. 41. <ul><li>Make a content inventory. </li></ul><ul><li>Review content by category & purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>Remove overlapping, redundant, unnecessary content. </li></ul>5. Redundant/unnecessary Content Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011
  42. 42. <ul><li>Rewrite a page to be of the half of its length. </li></ul><ul><li>Then cut more! </li></ul><ul><li>Do: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use clear headings. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make paragraphs short. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Start with the key point. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make content easy to scan (*bullets) </li></ul></ul>6. Bad Writing Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011
  43. 43. Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011
  44. 44. 5/6 Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011 XYZ University ABC Library
  45. 45. 6 Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011
  46. 46. <ul><li>The best ally of usability is convention. </li></ul><ul><li>Anything that prompts a pause and thinking is bad. </li></ul><ul><li>Surprise </li></ul><ul><li>Confusion </li></ul><ul><li>Agony over choice </li></ul><ul><li>Stress </li></ul>7. Design against Convention Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011
  47. 47. Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011 ABC Library 7
  48. 48. 7 Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011 ABC Library
  49. 49. 7 Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011 ABC Library
  50. 50. 7 Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011 ABC Library Where am I?
  51. 51. <ul><li>Don’ t underestimate the value of convention. </li></ul><ul><li>Be creative without sacrificing usability. </li></ul><ul><li>Convention implies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Obvious & predictable = familiarity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No need to learn how to use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No need for explanation/description </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-> User satisfaction </li></ul></ul>7. Design against Convention Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011
  52. 52. <ul><li>Is it an information architecture issue? </li></ul><ul><li>If so, use usability testing methods to find out what navigation structure / organization of content makes sense to users. </li></ul>8. Unintuitive Navigation Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011
  53. 53. Planning & Conducting User Testing: quick, cheap & easy
  54. 54. The User-centered Design Cycle <ul><li>“ Usability is an iterative process of testing /redesign, retesting /redesign, & retesting /redesign.” (Luther) </li></ul>Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011
  55. 55. Classic Testing Cycle <ul><li>Profiling </li></ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Place </li></ul><ul><li>Participants </li></ul><ul><li>Materials & Scripts </li></ul><ul><li>Sessions </li></ul><ul><li>Debriefing </li></ul><ul><li>Analyzing </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendations </li></ul>Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011 testing retesting redesign
  56. 56. Who are they? Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011
  57. 57. Profiling … it’s not just for law enforcement <ul><li>Focus groups, surveys, and analytics data can all help you build your user profiles and determine which users to focus on </li></ul><ul><li>“ Usability studies should be targeted to specific users in order to derive an accurate result” (Nathan) </li></ul>Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011
  58. 58. Who are they? How many users are needed? Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011 Happy Library Users
  59. 59. “ Ideal” sample size? <ul><li>Varying “ideals” across usability literature, however, the quick and dirty camp promotes the following- </li></ul><ul><li>“ The ultimate user experience is improved much more by 3 tests with 5 users than by a single test with 15 users. ” (Nielsen) </li></ul>Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011
  60. 60. Goals of Profiling <ul><li>Inform testing methods </li></ul><ul><li>Inform design </li></ul><ul><li>Tell you what your users really want/need out of your site- how does this align with your goals? </li></ul><ul><li>Tells you who all of your user groups really are </li></ul>Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011 Happy Library Users
  61. 61. Discount & Guerrilla Usability Methods <ul><li>Simplified & informal </li></ul><ul><li>Varied & multiple </li></ul><ul><li>Focus groups & surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Card sorting </li></ul><ul><li>Contextual interviews & intercepts </li></ul><ul><li>Paper prototyping </li></ul>Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011
  62. 62. Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011
  63. 63. 1. Focus Groups & User Surveys <ul><li>Moderated discussions & written feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Will reveal qualitative feedback that will help to inform and compliment the design process </li></ul><ul><li>Works well paired with other methods </li></ul><ul><li>Expect sessions to last 1-2 hours </li></ul>Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011
  64. 64. Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011
  65. 65. 2. Card Sorting <ul><li>Interactive tasks that result in developing optimal Web site organization </li></ul><ul><li>Plan to have users group items into categories and help you label these clusters </li></ul><ul><li>Open vs. closed sorting </li></ul><ul><li>Expect the activity to last 1-2 hours </li></ul>Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011
  66. 67. 3. Contextual Interviews & Intercepts <ul><li>Based on observations of users in their environment </li></ul><ul><li>Casual and informal </li></ul><ul><li>Ask Questions </li></ul><ul><li>“… next to the (formal) usability test itself, the contextual interview is probably the best tool in the box.” (Pace) </li></ul>Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011
  67. 69. 4. Paper Prototyping <ul><li>Easy, disposable, adaptable, affordable </li></ul><ul><li>Allow your users to be creative </li></ul><ul><li>Create “screen shots” of various states/screens of your site for users to interact with </li></ul>Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011
  68. 70. GOAL: Heuristics & User Expectations <ul><li>Visibility of system status </li></ul><ul><li>Match between the system & the real world </li></ul><ul><li>User control & freedom </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency & standards </li></ul><ul><li>Error prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Recogniton , not recall </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility & efficiency of use </li></ul><ul><li>Aesthetic & minimalist design </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize , diagnose & recover from errors </li></ul><ul><li>Help & documentation </li></ul>Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011
  69. 71. “… librarians are ideal professionals to be spearheading the move towards a usable web environment” - Shelag K. Genuis
  70. 72. Usability Resources
  71. 73. <ul><li>Steve Krug, Don ’t Make Me Think, New Riders Press, 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>Steve Krug, Rocket Surgery Made Easy, New Riders Press, 2009. </li></ul><ul><li>Usability testing scripts and forms: http://www.sensible.com/ </li></ul><ul><li>Jakob Nielseon, Ten Usability Heuristics http://www.useit.com/papers/heuristic/heuristic_list.html </li></ul><ul><li>Jakob Nielseon, Anybody can do usability http://www.useit.com/alertbox/anybody-usability.html </li></ul><ul><li>Jakob Nielson, How Little Do Users Read? http://www.useit.com/alertbox/percent-text-read.html </li></ul><ul><li>Jakob Nielson, UseIt.com - http://www.useit.com/ </li></ul><ul><li>14 Heuristics by OCLC http://www.oclc.org/usability/heuristic/set.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Usability.gov - http://usability.gov/ </li></ul><ul><li>COI Usability Toolkit - http://usability.coi.gov.uk/ </li></ul><ul><li>Usability Toolkit by Society for Technical Communications http://www.stcsig.org/usability/resources/toolkit/toolkit.html </li></ul>Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011
  72. 74. <ul><li>Usability Resources at University of Michigan Library http://www.lib.umich.edu/usability-library/usability-library-resources </li></ul><ul><li>Susanna Davidson and Everyl Yankee, Website Design with the Patron in Mind, ALA, 2004. </li></ul><ul><li>LibSuccess Wiki – Web Design: http://www.libsuccess.org/index.php?title=Website_Design   </li></ul><ul><li>Writing for the Web by Gerry McGovern http://www.gerrymcgovern.com/guide_write_01.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Janice Redish, Letting Go of the Words: Writing Web Content that Works, Morgan Kaufmann, 2007. </li></ul><ul><li>How to do a content audit by Hilary Marsh http://www.contentcompany.biz/articles/content_audit.html </li></ul><ul><li>Content Audit and Analysis http://www.faithwarren.com/fwg/category/Content-Audit-and-Analysis.aspx </li></ul><ul><li>Content Inventory http://www.adaptivepath.com/ideas/essays/archives/000040.php </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011
  73. 75. Questions?
  74. 76. Additional References <ul><li>Genuis, S.K. (2004). Website usability testing: a critical tool for libraries. Feliciter, 4, 161-167 </li></ul><ul><li>Nathan, R.J. , Yeow, P.H., & Murugesan, S. (2008). Key usability factors of service oriented web sites for students: an empirical study. Online Information Review, 32, 302-324. </li></ul><ul><li>Pace, A.K. (2003). The usability toolbox. Computers in Libraries, January, 50-52. </li></ul>Bohyun Kim & Marissa Ball - 3/23/2011 Computers in Libraries 2011
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