# Fundamentals of Computer

26 Jul 2012
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### Fundamentals of Computer

• 1. History of the Computer Computer Generation Classification of Computer Elements of the Computer Computer Networks Internet Exam
• 4. devices powered by hand and requires physical effort from the user
• 5. the first manual data processing device mechanical calculating device first used around 2200 B.C. to add and subtract developed in China in 12th century
• 7. invented by John Napier in 1617 a set of rods, made of bone or other material, each divided into nine spaces contains the numbers of a column of the multiplication table contrivance of Baron Napier, the inventor of logarithms, for facilitating the operations of multiplication and division
• 10. invented by William Oughtred in 17th century a rule upon which are marked several graduated scales that may be moved relative to one another, so that certain calculations may be carried out Depending on the scales so marked, these calculations may include multiplication, division, logarithmic and trigonometric functions
• 12. invented by Blaise Pascal in 1642 a mechanism to calculate with 8 figures and carrying of 10's , 100's, and 1000's
• 14. invented by Baron Gottfried Wilhelm Von Leibniz in 1674 utilizes the same techniques for addition and subtraction as Pascal’s device but could also perform multiplication and division & extract square roots
• 16. invented by Charles Babbage in 1822 designed to use two types of cards: 1. operation cards to indicate the specific functions to be performed 2. variable cards to specify the actual data
• 18. devices powered by an electric motor and uses relays and switches
• 19. invented by Herman Hollerith in 1880 a machine to tabulate census data more efficiently than by traditional hand methods
• 21. invented by Joseph Marie Jacquard in 1804 used punched cards to create patterns on fabric woven on a loom the hole punches directed the threads up or down, thus producing the patterns forerunner of the keypunch machine
• 23. invented by Howard Aiken in 1943 Mark I could perform the four basic arithmetic operations could locate information stored in tabular form also known as the Mark I digital computer official name of the Mark I was Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator 51 feet long, 8 feet high, and 2 feet thick had 750,000 parts and 500 miles wire weighed 5 tons
• 25. these are devices which use only electrical switches and circuitry instead of mechanical relays consists of circuit boards, transistors or silicon chips
• 26. invented by John Atanasoff in 1942 the first digital computer that used binary logic circuitry and had regenerative memory
• 28. invented by Presper Eckert Jr. and John Mauchly in 1943 to 1946 the first large-scale vacuum-tube computer consisted of over 18,000 vacuum tubes and required the manual setting of switches to achieve desired results could perform 300 multiplications per second
• 30. a vast improvement upon ENIAC Mauchly and Eckert started working on it two years before ENIAC even went into operation Their idea was to have the program for the computer stored inside the computer
• 32. the first full-scale computer with electronic stored programs Maurice V. Wilkes and his team at the university of Cambridge constructed the EDSAC design was based on that of von Neumann
• 34. a computer milestone achieved by Dr. Presper Eckert and Dr. John Mauchly, the team that invented the ENIAC computer the first commercially available computer
• 37. First Generation - 1940-1956: Vacuum Tubes Second Generation - 1956-1963: Transistors Third Generation - 1964-1971: Integrated Circuits Fourth Generation - 1971-Present: Microprocessors Fifth Generation - Present and Beyond: Artificial Intelligence
• 38. The first computers used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory, and were often enormous, taking up entire rooms very expensive to operate use a great deal of electricity generated a lot of heat, which was often the cause of malfunctions
• 39. UNIVAC and ENIAC computers are examples of first-generation computing devices UNIVAC was the first commercial computer delivered to a business client, the U.S. Census Bureau in 1951
• 41. Transistors:  replaced vacuum tubes and ushered in the second generation of computers  invented in 1947 but did not see widespread use in computers until the late 50s  far superior to the vacuum tube, allowing computers to become smaller, faster, cheaper, more energy-efficient and more reliable than their first-generation predecessors
• 42. 2nd generation computers moved from cryptic binary machine language to symbolic, or assembly, languages, which allowed programmers to specify instructions in words High-level programming languages were also being developed at this time (e.g. early versions of COBOL and FORTRAN. COBOL and FORTRAN - the first computers that stored their instructions in their memory, which moved from a magnetic drum to magnetic core technology
• 44. The development of the integrated circuit was the hallmark of the third generation of computers Transistors were miniaturized and placed on silicon chips, called semiconductors, which drastically increased the speed and efficiency of computers.
• 46. first generation filled an entire room 4 th generation could now fit in the palm of the hand The Intel 4004 chip, developed in 1971, located all the components of the computer - from the central processing unit and memory to input/output controls on a single chip
• 47. in 1981 IBM introduced its first computer for the home user in 1984 Apple introduced the Macintosh Microprocessors also moved out of the realm of desktop computers and into many areas of life as more and more everyday products began to use microprocessors.
• 49. still in development, though there are some applications, such as voice recognition, that are being used today the use of parallel processing and superconductors is helping to make artificial intelligence a reality
• 51. 5th 4th 3rd 2nd 1st
• 53. According to Purpose General Purpose Computer Special Purpose Computer
• 54. are designed to handle a variety of tasks. This is possible by utilizing the stored-program concept. That is, a program or series of instructions is prepared for each application and input to and temporarily stored in the computer
• 55. Special-Purpose Computer also known as dedicated computers, are designed around a specific application or type of application
• 56. According to Data Handled Analog Computer Digital Computer Hybrid Computer
• 57. operates in a completely opposite way to the digital computer. all operations in an analog computer are performed in parallel. data are represented in an analog computer as voltages, a very compact but not necessarily robust form of storage (prone to noise corruption). A single capacitor (equivalent to the digital's computer use of a transistor) in an analog computer can represent one continuous variable
• 58. a machine that specialize in counting of items that are distinct from one another. e.g. text, integers
• 59. in which a digital computer is used to control and organize inputs and outputs to and from attached analogue devices; for instance analogue devices might be used to help generate initial values for iterations
• 60. According to Capacity Microcomputer Minicomputer Mainframe Computer Super Computer
• 61. is generally synonymous with personal computer (PC), or a computer that depends on a microprocessor. Microcomputers are designed to be used by individuals, whether in the form of PCs, workstations or notebook computers
• 62. a midsized computer. In size and power, minicomputers lie between workstations and mainframes
• 63. a very large and expensive computer capable of supporting hundreds, or even thousands, of users simultaneously. The distinction between small mainframes and minicomputers is vague, depending really on how the manufacturer wants to market its machines
• 64. the fastest type of computer. Supercomputers are very expensive and are employed for specialized applications that require immense amounts of mathematical calculations
• 66. a complete, working computer. The computer system includes not only the computer, but also any software and peripheral devices that are necessary to make the computer function
• 67. It refers to the physical equipment or components of an electronic data processing.
• 68. It gives information to the computer system so that it can perform its tasks
• 69. is similar to that of a standard typewriter, but it includes extra keys such as function keys and the numeric pad
• 71. a device that controls the movement of the cursor or pointer on a display screen; originally designed by Xerox
• 73. which performs the same tasks as the mouse, operates with a rotating metal ball inset in a small, boxlike device and does not require a desktop
• 75. is a pressure-sensitive pad that is smaller, more accurate, thinner, and less expensive to build than the trackball
• 77. was designed initially to read penciled or graphic information on exam answer sheets.
• 79. a device that can read text or illustrations printed on paper and translate the information into a form the computer can use. A scanner works by digitizing an image -- dividing it into a grid of boxes and representing each box with either a zero or a one, depending on whether the box is filled in
• 81. record images in digital form
• 83. are small mobile computers that accept input through a penlike instrument called a stylus that you use to write on the computer’s screen
• 85. device for converting sound waves into electrical energy
• 87. is a camera that is in some way connected to the World Wide Web, or Internet
• 89. a small, touch-sensitive pad, usually a couple of inches square, which acts as an alternative to a mouse on some notebook/palmtop computers. It works by sensing fingertip pressure
• 91. a manual control consisting of a vertical handle that can move freely in two directions; used as an input device to computers or to devices controlled by computers
• 93. a type of display screen that has a touch-sensitive transparent panel covering the screen. Instead of using a pointing device such as a mouse or light pen, you can use your finger to point directly to objects on the screen
• 95. An input device that utilizes a light-sensitive detector to select objects on a display screen. A light pen is similar to a mouse, except that with a light pen you can move the pointer and select objects on the display screen by directly pointing to the objects with the pen
• 97. an input device that enables you to enter drawings and sketches into a computer. A digitizing tablet consists of an electronic tablet and a cursor or pen. A cursor (also called a puck) is similar to a mouse, except that it has a window with cross hairs for pinpoint placement, and it can have as many as 16 buttons.
• 99. a pointing and drawing device shaped like a pen. You use a stylus with a digitizing tablet or touch screen
• 101. is an input device used to scan a pattern of lines using optical sensing techniques. The line attern is coded information about the item to which it relates (e.g. the price and description of an item of merchandise)
• 103. is a device, which responds to an input quantity by generating a functionally related output usually in the form of an electrical or optical signal
• 105. permits users to input printed or typewritten documents with a scanner
• 107. involves the use of a special pen on a monitor surface, as with a personal digital assistant
• 109. activated by user’s voice after voice has been programmed into the computer; currently accepts limited number of vocal commands
• 111. these devices display information that has been held or generated within a computer
• 112. peripheral that uses ink or toner to output documents, images, and plain text files onto paper
• 114. display consisting of a device that takes signals from a computer and displays them on a CRT screen
• 116. a device that draws pictures on paper based on commands from a computer. Plotters differ from printers in that they draw lines using a pen. As a result, they can produce continuous lines, whereas printers can only simulate lines by printing a closely spaced series of dots. Multicolor plotters use different-colored pens to draw different colors.
• 118. a device used to produce sound
• 120. increase a message as temporary output that computer users hear
• 122. are reduced sized photographic reproductions of printed information on film cards. The cards can be read using microfiche readers and printed using microfiche printers
• 124. a piece of hardware that is used for both providing information to the computer and receiving information
• 125. the modem modulates the computer output to an acceptable signal for transmission and then demodulates the signal back for computer input
• 127. computer hardware that holds and spins a magnetic or optical disk and reads and writes information on it
• 129. a rigid magnetic disk mounted permanently in a drive unit
• 131. a direct-access disk, has information recorded on it with a laser beam that burns pits into its surface
• 133. the main part of a personal computer. The system unit includes the chassis, microprocessor, main memory, bus, and ports, but does not include the keyboard or monitor, or any peripheral devices
• 134. MOTHERBOARD CD-ROM POWER SUPPLY HARD DRIVE CPU FAN POWER CORDS HEAT SINK FLOPPY DRIVE VIDEO CARD ZIP DRIVE MODEM EXTRA CASE SOUND CARD FAN RIBBON CABLE
• 136. is the brains of the computer. Sometimes referred to simply as the processor or central processor, the CPU is where most calculations take place
• 137. supervises or monitors the functions performed by the entire computer system according to conditions set forth by the stored program
• 138. the part of a computer that performs all arithmetic computations, such as addition and multiplication, and all comparison operations. The ALU is one component of the CPU (central processing unit).
• 139. is somewhat like an electronic filing cabinet capable of holding data or instructions
• 140. ROM(Read  RAM(Random Access) Only) contains the pre-programmed computer instructions such as the Basic Input Output System (BIOS) and special is used to store the programs data that the computer uses and data that you will run. throughout its processing.
• 141. the main circuit board of a microcomputer. The motherboard contains the connectors for attaching additional boards. Typically, the motherboard contains the CPU, BIOS, memory, mass storage interfaces, serial and parallel ports, expansion slots, and all the controllers required to control standard peripheral devices, such as the display screen, keyboard, and disk drive. Collectively, all these chips that reside on the motherboard are known as the motherboard's chipset
• 143. an interface on a computer to which you can connect a device. Personal computers have various types of ports. Internally, there are several ports for connecting disk drives, display screens, and keyboards. Externally, personal computers have ports for connecting modems, printers, mice, and other peripheral devices
• 145. a connector in a computer into which an expansion card can be plugged. The connector supplies power to the card and connects it to the data bus, address bus and control signals of the motherboard
• 147. A collection of wires through which data is transmitted from one part of a computer to another
• 149. computer instruction or data. Anything that can be stored electronically is software
• 150. System Software  Application Software
• 151. consist of programs designed to facilitate the use of the computer by the user. Any software required to support the production or execution of application programs but which is not specific to any particular application
• 152. a set of program designed to efficiently manage the resources of the computer system.
• 154. is a system program that converts the English-like instructions used by computer programmers into the machine-readable code used by the hardware
• 155. perform such standard tasks as organizing and maintaining data files, translating programs written in various languages to a language acceptable to the computer
• 156. is a type of program that solves specific user-oriented processing problems
• 158. program accepts words typed into a computer and processes them to produce edited text
• 159. system allows you to use different typefaces, specify various margins and justifications, and embed illustrations and graphs directly into the text. The most powerful desktop publishing systems enable you to create illustrations, while less powerful systems let you insert illustrations created by other programs
• 160. are computer programs that let people electronically create and manipulate spreadsheets (tables of values arranged in rows and columns with predefined to relationships to each other). Spreadsheets are used for mathematical calculations such as accounts, budgets, statistics and so
• 161. a set of programs is necessary to facilitate adding new data as well as modifying and retrieving of existing data within a database
• 162. interactive hardware or software played for entertainment, challenge, or educational purposes
• 163. Public Domain Software  Freeware  Shareware  Commercial Software
• 164. Has no copy right  Free to use or make copy of  Can be copied, used in other programs, or charged by anyone
• 165. Has a copyright  Can only give away exact copies of the software  Can not be changed or used in another program without the copyright holder’s permission
• 166. Has a copyright  Allowed to use software paying for it 1. can be a demo 2. can set an amount of time you can use the software 3. Can trust that you will pay for it if you like the software
• 167. Has the most resistive copyright  Have to buy the software before you can use it.  Can usually make one copy of the software as a backup copy  Can not copy, look at the program’s code, change, or use the software in another program.
• 168. 1. MANAGEMENT used in school management such as budget, inventory, student records, etc. 1. LEARNING INSTRUCTION teacher-centered instruction student-centered learning 1. EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH for gathering and processing
• 170. a group of computers and other devices connected together.
• 171. is a group of computers and associated devices that share a common communications line and typically share the resources of a single processor or server within a small geographic area (for example, within an office building)
• 172. a data network designed for a town or city. (MAN) A data network intended to serve an area the size of a large city. Such networks are being implemented by innovative techniques, such as running optical fibre through subway tunnels.
• 173. are built to provide communication solutions for organizations or people who need to exchange digital information between two distant places (in one country or in two different countries)
• 174. the computers are within a limited geographic area, such as a campus or military base
• 175. a network contained within a user's home that connects a person's digital devices
• 177. All devices are connected to a central cable, called the bus or backbone. Bus networks are relatively inexpensive and easy to install for small networks. Ethernet systems use a bus topology
• 178. All devices are connected to one another in the shape of a closed loop, so that each device is connected directly to two other devices, one on either side of it. Ring topologies are relatively expensive and difficult to install, but they offer high bandwidth and can span large distances
• 179. All devices are connected to a central hub. Star networks are relatively easy to install and manage, but bottlenecks can occur because all data must pass through the hub
• 181. A tree topology combines characteristics of linear bus and star topologies. It consists of groups of star- configured workstations connected to a linear bus backbone cable
• 183. Types of Cables Used in Networks
• 184.  Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Cable   Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Cable  Microwave   Coaxial Cable   Fiber Optic Cable
• 185. Unshielded twisted pair (UTP) is the most popular and is generally the best option for school networks. The quality of UTP may vary from telephone-grade wire to extremely high-speed cable. The cable has four pairs of wires inside the jacket. Each pair is twisted with a different number of twists per inch to help eliminate interference from adjacent pairs and other electrical devices. The tighter the twisting, the higher the supported transmission rate and the greater the cost per foot.
• 187. A disadvantage of UTP is that it may be susceptible to radio and electrical frequency interference. Shielded twisted pair (STP) is suitable for environments with electrical interference; however, the extra shielding can using Token Ring topology. make the cables quite bulky. Shielded twisted pair is often used on networks
• 189. are very high-frequency radio signals that are transmitted through open space.
• 190. Coaxial cabling has a single copper conductor at its center. A plastic layer provides insulation between the center conductor and a braided metal shield. The metal shield helps to block any outside interference from fluorescent lights, motors, and other computers. Although coaxial cabling is difficult to install, it is highly resistant to signal interference. In addition, it can support greater cable lengths between network devices than twisted pair cable.
• 192. Fiber optic cable has the ability to transmit signals over much longer distances than coaxial and twisted pair. It also has the capability to carry information at vastly greater speeds. This capacity broadens communication possibilities to include services such as video conferencing and interactive services. The cost of fiber optic cabling is comparable to copper cabling; however, it is more difficult to install and modify.
• 194. provide a special form of microwave transmission. It requires earth stations, or “dishes,” that transmit and receive signals to and from the orbited satellite
• 196. A wide collection of computer networks
• 197. The software program you use to access the World Wide Web
• 198. Uses the text in a web site to index so that search engine users can find it by typing it by selecting the appropriate category.
• 199. Uses human editors to place the site into a hierarchy or outline of topics so that users can find it by selecting the appropriate category.
• 200. A method of naming documents or places on the internet
• 201. it refers to all of the publicly accessible web sites in the world
• 202. in an electronic message sent from one computer to another.