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Using Simulations in Higher Education

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Using Simulations in Higher Education

  1. 1. Online Simulation in Higher Education Kumiko Borman WRIT 671 November 18, 2009
  2. 2. What is simulation? <ul><li>“ The act of imitating the behavior of a situation , problem , or process by means of something suitably analogous. The technique of representing the real world . ” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simulation should imitate the internal processes and not merely the results of the thing being simulated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Group or Meeting or Facility Simulation v.s Virtual Simulation - Branching stories , Game-based, Virtual lab s Simple to highly complex </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PBL (Problem Based Learning) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers are no longer just a presenter of information. Students become participants. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Brief History <ul><li>1955 - Simulation exercise for the U.S. Air Force logistics system was developed </li></ul><ul><li>1956 - The first widely known business game TOP MANAGEMENT SYSTEM for management seminars </li></ul><ul><li>1957 - BUSINESS MANAGEMENT GAME was developed for a consulting firm </li></ul><ul><li>1957 - MANAGEMENT DECISION GAME was used in a business policy class at the University of Washington </li></ul><ul><li>By 1961, more than 100 business games were in existence and more than 30,000 executives had played at least one </li></ul>
  4. 4. Why Simulation? <ul><li>Realistic opportunities to practice skills & apply knowledge - connecting theory to practice </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive, dynamic </li></ul><ul><li>More engaging learning environment </li></ul><ul><li>Motivate students </li></ul><ul><li>Foster independent learning and critical thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Offers opportunities to develop communication, collaboration, leadership skills </li></ul><ul><li>Students “create knowledge” by trial and error </li></ul>
  5. 5. Who uses simulation? <ul><li>Wide range of disciplines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nursing, Public Health Care, Dental Health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business , Marketing, Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finance, Accounting, Economics, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mathematics, Statistics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer Science, Programming, Networking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engineering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>History </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication, Language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Philosophy </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. How are they used? Some examples: <ul><li>Students are assigned to run a company against each other </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching children asthma management </li></ul><ul><li>Replaying history </li></ul><ul><li>Students use certain programming syntax to smoothly run traffic lights </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching nurse anesthesia in a operating room </li></ul><ul><li>Students play stakeholder roles and learn the effects of proposed engineering development project </li></ul><ul><li>Students create the best-performing portfolio using trading simulation </li></ul><ul><li>Stock market game </li></ul>
  7. 7. Second Life <ul><li>Low cost, secure space </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid development </li></ul><ul><li>Communication centered </li></ul><ul><li>Online lecture, virtual community, poster session, scavenger hunts </li></ul>
  8. 8. Problems & Limitations <ul><li>They entail significant time, money, and space </li></ul><ul><li>Students and faculty too busy to develop and learn the technology </li></ul><ul><li>Simulation does not fit course contents </li></ul><ul><li>Unsatisfactory simulation model </li></ul><ul><li>Faculty resistance to change pedagogy </li></ul><ul><li>Students resistance to technology </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of institutional and technical support </li></ul><ul><li>Administrative problems </li></ul><ul><li>Students did not like the simulation </li></ul>
  9. 9. What do teachers think? <ul><li>They first became aware of it because… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I played as a student </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Through colleagues and publishers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>They adopted simulation because… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is appropriate for the course </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is the best simulation model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is integrative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to administer, has good support </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Their teaching objectives are… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To give students decision-making experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To integrate theory with practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To have students experience teamwork </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To have students engage in critical thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>They stopped to use because… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Curriculum change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time it took versus learning benefits achieved </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. 1 - not likely at all What is the likelihood that you will stop using simulation? Scale Response n % Cumulative % 1 207 63.5 63.5 2 53 16.3 79.8 3 36 11.0 90.8 4 9 2.8 93.6 5 8 2.5 96.0 6 3 0.9 96.9 7 4 1.2 98.2 8 2 0.6 98.8 9 2 0.6 99.4 10 2 0.6 100.0
  11. 11. 1 - complete accomplishment How well are you accomplishing learning objectives? Scale Response n % Cumulative % 1 51 16.2 16.2 2 98 31.1 47.3 3 86 27.3 74.6 4 12 3.6 78.4 5 9 2.9 81.3 6 6 1.9 83.2 7 10 3.0 86.3 8 24 7.6 94.0 9 12 3.8 97.8 10 7 2.2 100.0s
  12. 12. What did students think? <ul><li>Spent more time on assignments </li></ul><ul><li>It was motivating </li></ul><ul><li>It forced me to make better decisions </li></ul><ul><li>The visual helped me tremendously. </li></ul><ul><li>I don’t think it could ever be as good as a live class. </li></ul><ul><li>I had more freedom to explore various answers and scenarios, and go back to change answers </li></ul><ul><li>It was nice to have unlimited time to ponder a topic before you respond. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.smg2000.org/teachers_page2.html </li></ul>
  13. 13. Evaluation <ul><li>Qualitative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Survey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus Group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quantitative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Test Performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Survey </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Tips for Success <ul><li>Get colleagues recommendations for software </li></ul><ul><li>Simulation is directly connected to the course textbook </li></ul><ul><li>Explicit learning objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Deals with realistic and down-to-earth problems </li></ul><ul><li>Simulation is easy to learn </li></ul><ul><li>Start with simple examples </li></ul><ul><li>Provide orientation session at the beginning </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the program </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporating reflective component </li></ul><ul><li>Immediate and frequent feedback </li></ul>
  15. 15. Conclusion <ul><li>Simulation can greatly enhance students’ learning experience if properly implemented. </li></ul><ul><li>Instructors need to be fully committed and willing to spend time learning the software, preparing the students, setting objectives, and developing content. </li></ul><ul><li>Simulation is a great tool in teaching procedures, decision making, critical thinking, and teamwork. </li></ul><ul><li>If used well, both students and instructors are satisfied with the results and experience. </li></ul>