18. Elementet Kryesore te Marketingut Taktik Zhvillimi i Produktit Zhvillimi i Sherbimit Gjetja e burimit Vendosja e Cmimit Shperndarja Sherbimi Forca Shitese Promovimi i Shitjeve Reklamimi Ofron Vlere Komunikon Vlere Produkti Cmimi Vendi Promovimi Marketingu Taktik
19. Vendimet kryesore te manaxhimit te marketingut mund te klasifikohen ne nje nga kategorite e meposhtme : 4P’te e marketingut jane variablat qe manaxheret e marketingut mundte kontrollojne me qellim qe te kenaqin konsumatoret ne tregun e synuar! PRODUKTI PROMOVIMI VENDI CMIMI TREGU I SYNUAR
25. Cikli i Jetes se Produktit Hyrja Zhvillimi Preferenca e Markes Pjekuria Besnikeria ndaj markes Ngopja Renia Volumi i Shitjeve Koha Shitjet dobet Fitimet humbje pozitive por pozitive por Pozitive por Cmimi I larte minimum stabel Kostot te larta stabel Konkurenca E dobet Ne kulmin e saj
26. Pjesa e Tregut Rritja e Tregut I larte I ulet E larte E ulet Matrica e Bostonit (Matrica Rritje/Pjesa e Tregut) 2. Lopet me Para 1. Yjet 3. Pikepyetjet (Femije me problem) 4. Qente
61. Kompania duhet te zhvilloje rregullisht produkte te reja nese do qe te ece me shijet dhe kerkesat konsumatore qe jane vazhdimisht ne ndryshim! Tregje Ekzistues Tregje te Reja Produkte Ekzistuese Produkte te Reja Penetrimi i Tregut Zhvillimi i Produktit Zhvillimi i Tregut Diversifikimi
62. Gjatesia e Kanalit - Kanali i Distribucionit mund te perfshije disa nga kombinacionet e meposhtme
68. Metodat e Venies se Cmimit - Kostot e produktit duhet te caktojne nje cmim dysheme; Vlera ne perdorim eshte cmim maksimum qe do te paguaje nje konsumator .
71. Cmimi - ashtu si produkti - ndervepron ngushte me elementet e tjere te marketingut miks
77. Objektivat e Promocionit duhet t ’ i pershtaten tregut qe synon kompania dhe nevojave te tij! TE PAINFORMUAR Te informuar per produktin Kuptojne produktin Besojne te produkti E BLEJNE Besimi Perceptimi i Perfitimit Informacioni Stimuli Promocional Dyshon Indiferent Nuk kupton Harron
81. Miksi i mjeteve te promocionit eshte i ndryshem ne tregjet konsumatore dhe ato industriale . Mallrat Konsumatore Mallrat Industriale Marredheniet Publike Promocioni i Shitjeve Shitjet Personale Reklamimi Frekuenca e Perdorimit Rendesia relative e mjeteve te promocionit per mallrat konsumatore dhe ato industriale.
82. Ku duhet te alternoni vendimin per blerjen ne kanalit e distribucionit? Si duhet te alokoni burimet ?
84. Konsumatoret vleresojne mjete te ndryshme promocioni ne varesi se ku jane ne procesin e tyre te vendimarrjes per blerjen . Njohja e Problemit Kerkimi i Informacionit Vleresimi i Alternativave Vendimi per Blerjen Vleresimi Pas-blerjes Reklamimi, Publiciteti Reklamimi, Shitjet Personale Shitjet Personale Promovim i Shitjeve, Shitje Personale Reklamimi, Shitjet Personale
111. Barrierat ne tregun nderkombetar Mjedisi i konkurrencës Mjedisi ekonomik dhe financiar Mjedisi teknologjik Mjedisi kulturor Mjedisi politik e ligjor Mjedisi gjeografik (infrastruktura) Mjedisi i distribuimit
117. Strategjia – per menyren e realizimit te qellimeve Realizimi I strategjise Shfrytezimi optimal I resurseve dhe perparsive konkurruese I
118. 3. MARKETING MIX I - Instrumenti operativ I politikave te marketingut Cmimi DISTRIBU IMI PROMOC IONI P rodukti
Notes de l'éditeur
This is an information slide -- the point is to note how a taxonomy/ framework can help discipline thoughts about the marketing mix. · Ultimately this is an argument about consistency -- as discussed earlier -- and should be positioned as such. The selection of the marketing mix -- particularly distribution and promotion must be consistent with the product type itself. Price as well -- although this is not advocating simple cost-plus pricing -- is determined by the product itself. Discussion/ Approach: · COVER UP THE RIGHT HAND SIDE OF THE SLIDE and ask a member of the audience to comment on what the rest of the marketing mix might look like and why? · Ask members of the audience to classify their own products.
Product development - sales are zero, investment costs are high Introduction - profits do not exist, heavy expense of product introduction Growth - rapid market acceptance and increasing profits Maturity - slowdown in sales growth. Profits level-off. Increase outlay to compete Decline - sales fall-off and profits drop Here is very important to emphasize that marketing strategies are very different for a product in the introductory phase and in the saturation. Products have a life cycle. They are born and at some point they decline toward obsolescence · The key point is that at various points in the life cycle different marketing strategies and mixes apply, based on CUSTOMER response and COMPETITOR response. The general point is that marketing decisions should always be sensitive to their context -- one aspect of which is the point a product might be in its life cycle. · It should be easy to get the audience to accept this concept at the level of common sense, without necessarily taking the (reductive) next step of assuming that there is one-and-only one marketing mix applicable for each stage in the life cycle. These decisions will be contingent on a range of other factors, and the PLC might not be the strongest factor (industry might well be more important for instance) · Marketing always and especially in contemporary Russia requires FLEXIBILITY and controlled EXPERIMENT.
The business portfolio is the collection of businesses and products that make up the company. In portfolio analysis, management evaluates the businesses for their strategic fit in meeting company objectives. Question Mark – High growth, low share businesses. Strategy must decide between further investment to move question marks to star status or pashing the product out. A question mark requires a lot of cash both to keep up with a rapidly growing market and improve its share position. Stars – High growth, high market share. Stars are the market leader in these fast-growth markets. Stars often require heavy investment to build/maintain share in rapidly expanding markets. You may wish to discuss the importance of market share to product profitability at this point. Cash Cows – Low growth, high market share. When the market’s annual growth rate falls to less than 10% the stars becomes cash cows. Cows generate profits for investment in other businesses. Dogs – Low growth and low share. Dogs are often targets for divestment, but may still be profitable and contribute to othe organizational goals.
Distribution is possibly the hardest of the 4 Ps to manage · It requires complex relationships with independent businesses -- it is not fully under the control of the firm; hence inherent potential for conflict · Yet for all this: distribution is the key link with the end use customer who is supposed to be the “first mover” of marketing. It should probably be mentioned at this point -- although we stress it later -- that barter adds further complexity to the distribution relationship and further distance between manufacturer and customer. · Distribution -- as other elements of the marketing mix involves Discussion/ Approach: · We are moving toward the territory where we will learn as much form the audience as we will be able to teach them. Therefore try to get dialogue going at this point. · What are their views on the state of distribution in the country ? · What problems are they encountering? · What methods do they use to try to get product to market and information back from the market?
Value depends on how deeply established in the market place the brand is -- brand loyalty is can be really valuable (as well as inexplicable at times) · Brand equity can be enormous and represents years of heavy investment in advertising. Audience should be aware that establishing a brand is really not cheap. (Reference the PEPSI campaign somewhere in the discussion on brands -- and the $500 million that Pepsi is investing in effectively re-launching the brand) · But brands once established have enormous value for the manufacturer/ distributor: they reduce marketing costs -- or rather improve the effectiveness of marketing because of the high existing level of awareness and loyalty; they give manufacturer greater power in distribution channel -- this is especially important where thousands of brands compete for limited retail space. They can establish a price premium and defend against simple price competition. And they are capable of being managed indefinitely -- less vulnerable to obsolescence through product life cycle. Discussion/ Approach: · Read the slide -- establish that brands are really expensive to establish but can create huge benefits. · Cost of establishing brands is less where competition is less fierce -- may be cheaper to establish brand in an emerging consumer market than in established market.
New product ideas come from internal and external sources. Internal sources account for over 55 % of all new product ideas. These can come from R&D activities or from company staff involved in design and production. Company sales people and managers can also brainstorm new ideas. External sources include customers, competitors, distributors, suppliers and others.
Indirect Distribution Pros: Allows wide coverage product availability purchase convenience Allows distributor value addition information disbursement S ervice breaking up lot sizes/bundling assortments Cons: Lack of control of sale and price Lack of customers feed back Direct Sale Pros: Better feedback from customers Tighter control of marketing mix in the channel Cons: Expensive
Elasticity – use CARANA material to describe
CILJ- sredstvo za usklađivanje aktivnosti i komuniciranjem među sudionicima akcija Sredstvo za oblikovanje mjera kontrola i nedzora
Temelji se na usvojenim planovima i odabranim strategijama Kreativno usklađeni elementi i postupci marketinga Suština primjene - elemenata MIX- A NE MOGU DJELOVATI NEZAVISNO NEGO ISKLJUČIVO U KOMBINACIJI ZA SVAKI PROIZVOD I ZA SVAKO TRŽIŠTE