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Science & Technology

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Science & Technology

  1. 1. CURRENT ISSUES,PROBLEMS IN NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY PRESENTED BY- Cecilia F. Espinosa (Cez) Ed D ( 2nd SEM, 2014-2015) 07 DECEMBER,2014 1
  2. 2.  National Development  The Electronic Revolution, its implications  Transfer technology  Effects & Benefits of automation in Organizations  Job employment  Filipino reaction and Capability to adapt New Technology/ Innovation  Current Issues, Problems & Recommendations
  3. 3. SCIENCE V.S TECHNOLOGY  The words science and technology can and often are used interchangeably.  But the goal of science is the pursuit of knowledge for its own sake while the goal of technology is to create products that solve problems and improve human life. Simply put, technology is the practical application of science.
  4. 4. Is Technology related to Science? Technology is the practical application of science. without science, technology can not be developed. In other words science is the theory behind the technology.
  5. 5. Science & Technology of National Development  Science and technology is the pivot of any nation’s development.  A nation without science and technology is definitely a backward nation. Such nation will be considered undeveloped.  Science and technology is associated with modernity and it is an essential tool for rapid development. Modern gadgets in all aspects of human
  6. 6. Modern gadgets in all aspects of human comfort are inventions of science and technology.  Electricity,  aircraft, telephone, television, Computers  and other forms of machinery  Production of medicine and treatment of diseases.
  7. 7. Science & Technology for national Development Has played an important and vital role, in the development of this great nation and the wide-world.  Computer was one of the greatest invention that makes the world interconnected. The exploration/ adaptation in computer technology makes the era as computer revolution.
  8. 8. Computer Revolution Charles Babbage Father of Computer  Charles Babbage, (/ˈbæbɪdʒ/; 26 December 1791 – 18 October 1871) was an English polymath.[1] He was a mathematician, philosopher, inventor and mechanical engineer,  Considered a "father of the computer",[2]
  9. 9. Babbage's work Computer- occupied almost one huge room Search engine
  10. 10.  The 1st Apple Computer
  11. 11. Bill Gates Father of Microsoft  William Henry "Bill" Gates III (born 28 October 1955) is an American business magnate, philanthropi st, investor, computer programmer, and inventor. Gates is the former chief executive and chairperson of Microsoft,
  12. 12. Steve Jobs 1955-2011 Inventor: Apple Computer  Steve Jobs co-founded Apple Computers with Steve Wozniak. Under Jobs' guidance, the company pioneered a series of revolutionary technologies, including the iPhone and iPad
  13. 13. Co- Founder of Steve job  Stephen (or Stephan) Gary "Steve" Wozniak[1]:18 (born August 11, 1950),[3] known as "Woz", is an  American inventor, electronics engineer, and computer programmer who co-founded Apple Computer (now Apple Inc.)with SteveJobs and Ronald Wayne. Wozniak single-handedly designed both the Apple I and Apple II computers in the late 1970s. These computers contributed significantly to the microcomputer revolution.[4]
  14. 14. Young Entrepreneurs In 1980, a Texas teenager names Michael Dell bought his first computer. He immediately took the computer apart to see if he could rebuild it. Though Dell entered college intending to become a doctor, his real interest lay in the computer company he started from his college dorm room . By 2003, that small company had grown into a global corporation called Dell, Inc. – the most profitable company in the computer industry. Michael Dell, 1999.
  15. 15. By the 1980s, computers were transforming American business and everyday life. Apple Computers and Microsoft made computers and software affordable for millions of Americans. Technological advances made other electronics, such as video games and cell phones, possible.
  16. 16. The late 20th century became known as the “information age.” Computers, cell phones, and satellites made communication and information access fast and easy. The Internet, a worldwide network of computers, transformed business, education, and entertainment.
  17. 17. New communications technologies enabled companies to do business around the world. Multinational corporations began doing business in many different countries at one time. Globalization has made products cheaper and available to more people, but this comes at a price: economic woes that affect one region are now often felt in other regions.
  18. 18. Computers changed the way business operates. Many people in locations around the world might be involved in one purchase.
  19. 19. History of computers in the Philippines  1960-Computers were introduced by IBM Philippines, Inc.  As mainframes, was more on data storage,and not just anyone can operate the computer,it needed a highly trained technician to use it and translate its data,the language used by these computers  Binary language a series of 0's and 1's,it was not a user friendly machine and it was very expensive, in the Philippines only multi-national companies had one
  20. 20. History of computer in the Philippines 1970 a highly evolved computer came in to the scene,Apple with its Apple1 had a great impact on the Philippine market, this new computers were compact and space needed was very small, these computers were called mini's or personal computers popularly called PC's,this started an era of computerization in the Philippines, because of its affordability and the introduction of a new Operating System developed.
  21. 21. History of Computer in the Philippines  1980-1990 Windows 3-11 was born a new operating system that was very easy to use, during the control for the computer market in the Philippines was intense.  Apple came out with their Apple 11,Apple 11+,Apple 11 C's and the Apple Mac's, in which IBM retaliated with their 256,286,386,486  Pentium class units P-1,P-2,P-3,which made IBM predominant in the field of computers in the Philippines
  22. 22. Computer Company & Distributor IBM Philippines Incorporated o is a multi-national company engaged selling computers and computer services. o Main services are IT and management o consulting, site preparation, application development, systems integration, IT outsourcing, project management, networking services, facilities management, education and business continuity & recovery services. o It started its operation on July 20, 1937, it was officially registered as Watson Business Machines, a subsidiary of the IBM World Trade Corporation in the Philippines. It officially adopted the name IBM Philippines in 1954.
  23. 23. Computer Company & Distributor 1994, Hitachi Global Storage Technologies Philippines Corporation in engaged in the production of smaller form factor hard disk drives, head gimbal assemblies and sliders. Hitachi offices are located in Metro Manila and in Laguna Technopark in Binan, Laguna. IBM Philippines, Inc.
  24. 24. Computers company and Distributors  Infocom (Philippines) CorporationWistron Infocom (Philippines) Corporation, a subsidiary of Acer Computers, is one of the Philippines' top exporters with a total shipment of 474 million US dollars worth of laptop computers, mother boards and peripherals, fax machines integrated circuits, microelectronics, and software for various computer brands in 2004.  Winstron, being one of the largest inWistron vestors in Subic, accounted for 66% of Subic’s total export earnings for 2004.
  25. 25. Computer Company and distributors  Acer Philippines, Inc.  Fujitsu Philippines
  26. 26. R. A. Act No. 8792 of Philippines Electronic Commerce Act of 2000 Republic The State recognizes the vital role of information and communications technology (ICT) in nation-building; the need to create an information- friendly environment which supports and ensures the availability, diversity and affordability of ICT products and services;
  27. 27. * ICT impact on different fields * on society * Education * Communication * Scientific Exploration * Military Force * Economic Structure * Recreation * Transportation * Knowledge Management * Information Institution * Materials * Community-end use
  28. 28. ICT Information and communication technologies are those technologies, which enable society to create, collect, consolidate, communicate, manage and process information in multimedia and various digital formats for different purposes by using telecommunication techniques.
  29. 29. “ICT is the use of computer based information systems and communications systems to process, transmit, and store data and information.”
  30. 30. The convergence of computers, microelectronics and communications constitute the information and communication technology for the purpose of acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of information.
  31. 31. Education No nation can develop without ICT based education. It is regarded as the fuel of development. ICT based education is the essential ingredient in developing new ideas, in course content and curriculum and in the creation of materials and methods of learning and teaching. Students need ICT for pursuing academic studies; teachers need ICT based information for teaching.
  32. 32. Communication ICT plays an important role to develop the system of communication. It has linked up the district Parts of the world. The present systematic and developed communication mediums such as telephone, fax , telegram, e-mail, cellular phone etc. are the results of ICT. They have decreased our time, distance and made the world closer to us.
  33. 33. Scientific-Exploration The proliferation of information and communication technology is increasing day by day. By the help of ICT, the scientists have been able to invent new inventions such as computer, cable TV , the rocket by which men have landed on moon, mars and are trying to live there. Thus ICT is playing a vital role in exploring and inventing new scientific inventions.
  34. 34. Military-Force To protect any country from the attack of enemies, a strong and well-organized military force is a must. ICT plays as a key role to strong and organized the military force of any country by providing real information. So , it is an important component for the military sector.
  35. 35. Economic-Structure Strong economical structure is the key for the development of any country. Mainly, a)ICT handle the economical structure of any country now a days. b) It strengthens the economy by providing proper knowledge about the economy of the developed countries. c) ICT can play an important factor for establishing a strong economy.
  36. 36. Recreation ICT has given us a number of recreational components , such as television , radio, tape recorder , V.C.R, D.V.D, Mp3, gramophone, etc. by which we pass our leisure sitting in our own place.
  37. 37. Transportation ICT plays a significant role in our transport field. It has decreased the distance of place, saved our valuable time and established easy transporting. so we can travel hundreds of miles within a very short time, send goods any where swiftly. All of this facilities are the gift of ICT.
  38. 38. Knowledge-Management ICT has made more easier to process knowledge and disseminate knowledge to the users. It has increased the efficiency of the knowledge professionals in organizing and managing knowledge. Information Source Retrieve by knowledge professional Manage Based on user needs Supply
  39. 39. Impact of ICT on information institutions ICT plays important roles on library and others information institutions, which are shown below: * ICT has made information processing on digital format. *It has made networking and sharing of information resources possible. * It has saved the space of library by creating library materials in digital format. * It has ensured online accessing and files transferring. * It has increased the working speed of the library. Information Professional Internet User
  40. 40. Impact on library materials Due to the invention of and use of ICT in libraries, some radical changes have found on library materials, which are given below: * Digital information’s can be sent in multiple copies simultaneously over information’s networks in fractions of a minute or even of a second * Digital information’s may be free or cheaper than print equivalents. * Information can be cut or copied and pasted from one document to another very easily. * ICT has ensured the digital information anywhere, anytime accessible. E-Books E- Journal E-magazine E- Newspaper
  41. 41. Impact on user community ICT has influenced deeply on user community by different ways. These ways are indicated below steps to step: *ICT has increased the level of technology literacy of user community * It has increased the demand for better and faster access to information * It has aggravated discrepancies between the information poor and information rich * It has established a balance service for all stages of users. * It has kept the users update by providing current information. * It has made users skilled in using technological components i.e. computer operating internet browsing, e-mailing, chatting, etc. rapidly. Relative Friends ParentsClassmates You
  42. 42. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER www.yourlegalconsultants.com info@yourlegalconsultants.com
  43. 43. Philippine Technology Transfer Act of 2009  Republic Act No. 10055, entitled "An Act Providing the Framework and Support System for the Ownership, Management, Use, and Commercialization of Intellectual Property Generated from Research and Development Funded by Government and for Other Purposes.
  44. 44. CONCEPT OF TRANSFER The aim of the transfer of a specific technology is to enable the receiver to use it in the same conditions and with the same benefits as the provider, for the purpose of technological innovation. In fact, to speak of transfer implies that there is an agreement reached by consensus (licence, project, personnel recruitment...) between the provider and the receiver of the technology for this purpose.
  45. 45. 25 January 2015 48 TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER It is a process which is mainly concerned with the transfer of technology from the research areas to the “Production and Quality Assurance” environment . The Process by which existing knowledge , facilities or capabilities developed under R & D funding are utilized to fulfill public and private need. “Technology Transfer” includes a range of formal & informal cooperation between technology developers and technology seekers.
  46. 46. 25 January 2015 49 Varied Roles IDEA Research Development Production Manufacturing Distribution Start-up Firms R & D Firms Larger Companies Universities Research Institutes MARKET
  47. 47. 25 January 2015 50 Ways “Technology” is Transferred  Consulting  Graduating students (“moving heads”)  Faculty moving on (“moving heads”)  Collaborative research  Patenting and licensing  Service and outreach (“extension”)  Spin-off companies
  48. 48. 25 January 2015 51 Technology Transfer Agents R&D Units • Universities • Public Research Centers • Technology Institutes (institutions, labs etc) Companies • Supplier of technology and R&D to third parties • Spin-off, start-ups • Large R&D department • Competitors, suppliers… (technological alliances)
  49. 49. 25 January 2015 52 TYPES OF TECHNOLOGY 1) EMERGING TECHNOLOGY- is an innovative technology that currently is undergoing bench scale testing, in which a small version of the technology is tested in a laboratory. 2) INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY- is a technology that has been field tested and applied to a hazardous waste problem at a site, but lack a long history of full-scale use. 3) ESTABLISHED TECHNOLOGY- is a technology for which cost and performance information is readily only after a technology has been used at many different sites and the result fully documented is that technology considered. established.
  50. 50. 25 January 2015 53 CONSTITUENTS OF TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER PROCESS Technology Transfer Technology Promotion Technology Deployment Technology innovation Technology Development Technology Research Technology Assessment Technology Information and Communication Technology Investment Technology Collaboration Technology Commercialization
  51. 51. 25 January 2015 54 PRAMOTION INNOVATION RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT ASSESSMENT INFORMATION & COMMUNICATION INVESTMENT COLLABORATION COMMERCIALI ZATION
  52. 52. 25 January 2015 55 CONTENT OF TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER Proper Research Paper work Pricing Publicity Partnership People’s Acceptance 6 P
  53. 53. 25 January 2015 56 Proper Research – By proper research we mean firstly that in which the result are reproducible and issues such as scale up, stability etc and other practical now has been addressed, also that in which problem were taken up in first place. Proper work- This refer to institutional and guidelines regarding IP Protection licensing modalities etc. which must be in place beforehand. In the absence of these, decision get delayed, lack of fairness in decision e.g. case of X institute, which came up with good technology but since no guidance were there, kept running around for two years and then gave up.
  54. 54. 25 January 2015 57 Pricing – most difficult and critical area of Transfer of technology. - Too high price can put off buyer, leaving the technology unsold. - Too price a result in revenue loss. - There are basically two model regarding pricing 1) Price charged for a technology should depend upon market force i.e. impact of the technology irrespective of amount spent on developing it. 2) Price charged should include all expenses involved in developing it. Publicity – It is important to identify and then approach buyer i.e. adopt targeted Publicity and not blanket publicity. Specific journal, website, letters to manufacturer, personal selective visit etc. are some common approach which help in locating buyer.
  55. 55. 25 January 2015 58 Partnership – this means working along with industry. Industry takes it up, manufacturer and makes available to society. Partnership are important to ensure your technology is successfully adopted simply conveying the details may not be sufficient. People’s Acceptance – It is no use trying to develop a technology which people will not accept e.g. due to religious reason/social concern etc. genetically modified food, irradiated vegetables processed beef in India, improved capsule made of non-vegetarian material.
  56. 56. Process technologist • central focus for transfer activities • collates documentation from donor site • perform initial assessment of transferred project for a) feasibility b) compatibility with site capabilities c) establishes resource requirements Representative Review documentation to determine compliance with Marketing authorization (MA) Review analytical methods with QC to determine capability, equipment training requirements. Initiate conversion of donor site documentation into local system/format Initiate or confirm regulatory requirement, e.g. change to manufacturing license , variations to MA if process changes needed, etc. 25 January 2015 59 Proposed Team Member and Their Responsibilities
  57. 57. Production representative Review process instructions (with process technologist) to confirm capacity/ capability Considers any safety implication e.g. solvents, toxic, sanitizing materials Consider impact on local standard operating procedures (SOPs) Consider training requirement of supervisors/ operator Engineering representative Review (with production representative) equipment requirement Initiate required engineering modification/ change/ part purchase. Review preventative maintenance/ calibration impact, e.g. use of more aggressive ingredients: more temperature sensitive process, and modifies accordingly.25 January 2015 60
  58. 58. 25 January 2015 61 FUNCTION OF TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TEAM 1) Coordinate- Coordinating between technology users and developer, between researcher and manufacturers is important element of technology transfer. 2) Nurture- A main ingredient for moving technology from a research laboratory to a new business enterprises successfully in an environment that is supportive for entrepreneurship. 3) LINK- Cataloging resources related to business enterprises & connecting would be entrepreneurship / researcher and other technology developers to outside group & organization which can help in the process of starting new product, companies etc. such linkage provide referrals for individual business counseling, sources of financing.
  59. 59. 25 January 2015 62 FACTOR AFFECTING TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER Categories (Characteristics ) Technology Technology Developer Individuals using Technology Organizations Research Policies
  60. 60. The Association of University Technology Managers (AUTM) The association was founded in 1974 as the Society of University Patent Administrators to address the objective of getting research out for public use. The first meeting in 1974 had 75 participants. Today, the association claims over 3,500 members worldwide.
  61. 61. Philippines:  University-industry partnerships in science and technology have been limited.  But there are several specific examples of U- I collaboration reported in the national study (see WIPO website). They indicate that;  The contents of the agreements between universities and industry are very different depending on individual cases
  62. 62. Institution using Technology Transfer University of the Philippines University of Sto Tomas Ateneo University
  63. 63. Job Employment  Computer engineer a) Software b) Hardware c) Programming d) Virus Software and scanner • Technicians • Computer Shops • Software Installer • Hardware Servicing • Networking • Service Provider • Call center agents  Encoder  Auto-cad Operator  Network ‘system analyst  And other related work
  64. 64. Technology Innovation Innovation in Computers The world of computers has taken giant strides forward in the past 50 years, • many of which are the direct result of research in physical areas like plasma physics, nanotechnology, quantum mechanics, superconductors and others. •This research is ongoing, delivering even smaller devices that can perform billions of calculations in the palm of your hand.
  65. 65. INNOVATION Major Computing Cycle Source: Morgan Stanley 2009
  66. 66. Tablets
  67. 67. SmartPhones
  68. 68. Ubiquitous computing
  69. 69. Filipino Reactions & Capabilities in New Technology  Expensive- pag iipunuan ko. Mag loan kaya ako. Need na meron din ako n’yan. Magaan at manipis lang ang unit.
  70. 70. Current Issues and Problems  Scammers  Online Prostitution  Cybersex ( cam to cam)  Online Games- Clash of Clan, dota
  71. 71. Reactions/ Recommendations The above discussion indicates that information and communication technology is the life blood of modern research upon which depends our economical structure, standard of living and our progress
  72. 72. The End
  73. 73. CURRENT ISSUES,PROBLEMS IN NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Thank you PRESENTED BY- Cecilia F. Espinosa Ed D ( 2nd SEM, 2014-2015) 06 DECEMBER,2014 77

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