Ce diaporama a bien été signalé.
Nous utilisons votre profil LinkedIn et vos données d’activité pour vous proposer des publicités personnalisées et pertinentes. Vous pouvez changer vos préférences de publicités à tout moment.
customer	...
Vous avez terminé ce document.
Télécharger et lire hors ligne.
Prochain SlideShare
169 hd-led-bildschirm-display-screen-notebook-fur-acer-aspire-7736-6948-7736z-4015-7736z-4088-7736z-4809-7736z-4905
Prochain SlideShare
169 hd-led-bildschirm-display-screen-notebook-fur-acer-aspire-7736-6948-7736z-4015-7736z-4088-7736z-4809-7736z-4905
Télécharger pour lire hors ligne et voir en mode plein écran


Project Management Methodologies

Télécharger pour lire hors ligne

Livres associés

Gratuit avec un essai de 30 jours de Scribd

Tout voir

Project Management Methodologies

  1. 1. Project  Management  Methodologies:     According  to  the  book  “The  Definitive  Guide  to  Project  Management”  project  is  a   task  with  a  defined  beginning  and  end,  to  meet  unique  goals  and  objectives  that  will   bring  some  beneficial  change  or  added  value  to  something.  With  that,  the  definition   of   project   management   is   “the   discipline   of   planning,   organizing,   motivating   and   controlling  resources  to  achieve  specific  goals”1 .   There  are  many  challenges  in  the  project  management,  the  main  one  is  to  achieve  all   the  goals  dealing  with  the  restrictions:  scope,  time,  quality  and  budget.  This  is  called   the   Iron   Triangle   of   project   management   because   it   is   very   rare   to   change   one   constraint   (scope,   time   and   budget)   without   impacting   in   the   other   ones   and   the   quality  is  directly  affected  by  those  three   constraints.    Another   challenge   in   project   management  is  to  optimize  the  allocation   of   inputs   and   integrates   them   to   meet   the   objectives   and   goals   defined   in   the   beginning.  Every  project  is  different,  so  it   is   very   important   to   estimate   the   costs   correctly  in  the  beginning  and  keep  track   of  it  during  the  role  project.   Approaches:   There  are  several  approaches  to  managing  projects,  in  this  research  I  will  focus  in   two  of  them:  the  Waterfall  and  Agile.   Regardless  of  the  methodology  implemented,  all  of  them  must  consider  carefully  the   overall   project   objectives,   timeline,   cost   and   the   roles   and   responsibilities   of   the   participants  in  order  to  get  the  best  output.   The  Waterfall  approach:   Before  explain  the  Waterfall  approach  I  will  run  through  the  traditional    approach,   since   the   Waterfall   is   based   on   it.   In   the   traditional   approach   there   are   five   developmental  components,  it  is  a  sequence  of  steps  to  be  completed  during  the   project.  They  are:   1-­‐ Initiation   2-­‐ Planning  and  design   3-­‐ Execution  and  construction   4-­‐ Monitoring  and  controlling  systems   5-­‐ Completion   It   doesn’t   mean   that   every   project   should   have   every   stage.   Some   projects   terminated  before  they  reach  completion,  some  go  through  steps  2,  3  or  4  multiple   Figure  1  -­  The  Iron  Triangle  of  project  management  
  2. 2. times.   Many   industries   use   variations   of   these   project   stages.   The   Waterfall   approach  is  one  of  those  variations,  when  series  of  tasks  are  implemented  in  a  linear   sequence.     It  has  7  steps:   1. Requirements  specification:  finding  what  customer  of  project  wants.     2. Design   3. Construction  (implementation  or  coding)   4. Integration:  integrate  the  design  and  construction   5. Testing  and  debugging:  ensuring  the  output  of  the  project  meets  the  agreed   requirements.   6. Installation   7. Maintenance:  getting  the  output  of  the  project  working  in  the  real  world.     It  differs  from  the  traditional  approach  because  in  the  Waterfall  model  it  is  implied   that  you  should  move  to  the  next  phase  only  when  the  preceding  phase  is  a  100%   completed  and  perfected.  For  example,  you  just  move  to  coding  after  the  design  is   100%  approved  at  tested.   It  is  usually  used  in  software  development  because  make  easier  for  the  team  that  is   working  since  you  won’t  have  to  change  problems  in  the  design  after  coding  and  will   have  to  do  the  coding  everything  again,  what  is  hard  and  takes  a  lot  of  time.   The   positive   point   about   this   approach   is   that   you   spend   time   early   making   the   requirements  specifications  at  the  phase  one  and  defining  the  tasks  for  each  step,  so   you  save  time  and  effort  latter  in  the  process  since  everything  is  well  defined.   This  model  works  well  for  small  and  well-­‐defined  projects  with  defined  budget,  but   often  fails  in  bigger  ones  because  of  the  undefined  nature  of  them  it  is  harder  to   plan  each  step  and  define  the  requirements  before  starts.   Because  the  problems  to  implement  it  in  some  cases  there  was  introduced  various   modified   Waterfall   models   that   Steve   McConnell   called   the   Rapid   Development   models2 .  The  pure  approach  requires  a  lot  of  testing  and  documents  after  each  step   leading  you  to  come  back  after  every  step  to  the  requirements  specifications.    The   Rapid   Development   models   allowed   you   to   overlap   each   phase   and   create   subprojects  in  one  project.  But  the  use  of  it,  as  in  the  pure  Waterfall  approach,  is   recommended  just  when  you  have  your  problem  well  framed  and  still  needs  all  the   requirements  defined  before  starting.   Weakness:   As  every  model,  the  Waterfall  has  your  weakness.  It  is  not  recommended  to  use  in   some  cases  when  clients  do  not  know  exactly  what  they  want,  what  makes  hard  to   do   the   first   requirements.   Sometimes   needs   and   limitations   appear   during   the   implementation   or   test   phase,   so   the   requirements   must   change,   changing   the   design  and  the  next  phases  as  well.  Other  case  that  Waterfall  methodology  is  not  a   good  choose  is  when  the  team  that  creates  or  design  the  software  do  not  know  the  
  3. 3. capabilities  of  the  technology  that  will  be  implemented.  That  can  cause  important   changes  during  the  implementation  phase  in  order  to  adapt  the  idea  to  the  existent   technology.   This   last   case   was   a   key   point   in   my   last   project   at   Hyper   Island.   We   design  an  application  for  Facebook  and  Pinterest,  and  because  we  didn’t  know  the   limitations  of  the  second  one,  we  had  a  significant  delayed  on  the  implementation   phase  of  our  application,  since  we  had  to  change  all  the  idea,  what  made  impossible   to  deliver  by  the  deadline  of  the  project.   The   Waterfall   methodology   is   very   rigid   so   it   is   not   recommended   also   when   the   problem  constant  changes,  needing  to  reframe  the  phase  one  and  redoing  all  the   work  done  before.   The  Agile  approach:   The  Agile  approach  is  very  different  from  the  traditional  model.  More  focus  on  the   customers   need,   it   is   based   on   the   principles   of   human   interaction   and   human   collaboration.  It  is  a  very  flexible  and  interactive  technique  normally  used  to  manage   the   design   and   build   of   new   products   or   services   in   technology,   creative   and   marketing  industries.   In  this  methodology  the  project  is  divided  in  small  tasks  that  will  be  executed,  as  it   will  be  demanded.  It  is  not  a  pre-­‐planned  process  as  the  Waterfall  approach.  Each   small  task  is  part  of  a  delivery  cycle,  called  iteration  that  contains  a  plan,  a  small   deliverable,  test  and  feedback.  Because  of  this  frequent  prototypes  done  after  each   execution,  this  methodology  is  the  most  consistent  in  project  management,  since  it   gets  inputs  from  customers  and  individuals  from  the  industry  every  iteration.     Figure  2:  Agile  Project  Management  Iteration   This  approach  is  better  used  for  projects  that  are  too  complex  to  understand  as  a   role,  so  you  divide  it  in  small-­‐scale  projects  or  elements  to  understand  better  what  
  4. 4. you  have  to  do  and  gain  more  flexibility  to  change  things.  Since  you  have  smaller   tasks  to  achieve  (each  iteration),  this  methodology  is  more  dynamic  than  the  one   before,  enabling  the  user  to  refine  the  requirements  of  the  project  if  it  is  needed   without  loosing  much  time.  Because  of  this  dynamism,  the  Agile  approach  it  is  also   recommended   when   you   have   a   fast   moving   scenario,   unstable   situation   or   undefined  budget  or  final  product.   It  is  very  important  to  get  the  client  actively  involved  in  the  project  when  using  this   process,  so  you  can  develop  something  that  the  customers  wants  and  the  client  also,   but  it  demands  a  lot  of  time  of  the  client,  what  sometimes  is  hard.   Because   of   the   dynamism   of   this   methodology   and   the   constant   testing   with   the   customers,  the  end  product  can  be  very  different  from  the  one  that  was  planned  in   the  beginning.  It  is  very  important  during  this  process  to  up  date  the  team  and  the   client.  There  are  many  techniques  used  in  the  office  to  make  sure  that  everyone  is   updated,   the   Scrum   is   the   most   popular   one   in   creative   and   new   technologies   business.   The  Scrum:   The  Scrum  is  the  main  tool  used  at  the  Agile  project  management.  The  project  is   divided  in  sprints  –  2  to  4  weeks  phases  of  work  that  the  deliver  is  completed,  tested   and  documented.  The  sprints  should  be  planned  in  a  meeting  with  all  the  members   before   it   starts.   There   they   will   define   the   goal   and   assign   each   individual   responsibilities.   Everyday  there  will  be  a  15  minutes  meeting  to  report  the  progress,  discuss  what  will   be   done   today   and   what   is   needed   to   ensure   that   the   task   will   be   done.   Those   meeting  are  important  to  update  the  team  of  the  status  of  the  project  and  changes   that  occur.   Roles  of  the  team  members:   1-­‐  Product  owner:  the  expert  on  the  product  being  developed.  In  most  of  the  cases  is   the  direct  contact  between  the  client  and  the  company.   2-­‐   Scrum   master:   is   the   responsible   for   managing   the   process,   making   sure   that   everyone  is  updated  and  understanding  the  process.  This  person  is  also  responsible   to  reallocate  the  resources  and  help  everyone  complete  your  task.  Normally  is  the   project  manager  or  some  one  with  high  facilitation  skills.   3-­‐   Team:   the   people   working   on   the   project.   They   have   freedom   and   ownership   about  their  tasks  to  change  the  approach  when  needed.   When  the  sprint  is  over,  the  scrum  master  should  organize  a  retrospective  meeting   to  reflect  about  the  process  and  to  decide  what  need  to  be  improved  for  the  next   sprint.    
  5. 5.   Figure  3:  Scrum     Other  tools  used  for  support  the  project  management:   As  the  Scrum,  there  are  several  tools  used  to  support  the  project  management  that   are  less  specific  for  the  approach  chose.     The  Scrum  is  very  specific  for  the  Agile  methodology,  but  there  are  other  tools  to   support  the  project  management.  The  importance  of  those  tools  is  to  keep  the  team   aligned  and  updated  about  every  step  of  the  process  and  help  the  project  manager   organize  the  scope,  time,  budget  and  quality.   There  are  several  softwares  that  help  that  process,  giving  tools  to  organize  the  tasks,   goals,  team,  emails,  finance  and  calendar,  as  Trello,  Lighhouse  and  Basecamp.   To  organize  the  testing  and  keep  track  of  bugs  when  you  are  developing  a  software   or  website,  there  are  programs  as  Jira  and  16bugs.  With  that  the  project  manager   has  a  historical  of  the  problems  and  how  it  was  solved.   It  is  important  to  document  every  step  of  the  process,  and  those  softwares  help  on   that.  For  meeting,  calls,  interviews  or  focus  groups  is  important  to  document  then   recording   and   writing   summaries   so   you   can   keep   track   of   the   evolution   of   the   project,   feedback   and   inputs.   To   share   those   documents   the   servidor   of   the   company,   Dropbox   or   Google   Drive   can   be   used   but   the   Google   Drive   is   more   efficient  since  you  can  see  the  changes  while  the  other  user  is  doing  it,  not  needed   to  update  every  change,  and  you  can  aces  remotely.   When   working   remotely,   to   communicate   between   the   members   of   the   team,   instant  messages  are  very  useful  because  speed  the  communication.  But  for  more   complicated  and  longer  topics  calls  and  emails  are  better.  Applications  as  Skype  and   Activecollab   enable   the   members   of   the   team   to   do   remotely   conferences   and   increase  the  collaboration  between  the  team.  
  6. 6. Reflections:   From  my  previous  experience  in  workplace  and  Hyper  Island  it  is  very  hard  to  use   one  methodology  as  it  was  developed.  It  is  needed  to  make  arrangements  so  it  will   make  your  work  more  efficient.   During   Hyper   Island,   since   the   communication   with   the   client   was   limited,   the   Waterfall  approach  was  used  in  most  of  the  projects  since  the  problem  was  previous   framed  and  defined,  this  approach  was  more  efficient  to  define  the  tasks  for  each   member  of  the  group  and  it  was  reduced  in  just  the  first  four  steps.  Not  having  a   final  product  in  most  of  the  cases  made  easier  to  implement  this  methodology  since   there  was  no  testing,  so  was  rare  the  cases  that  we  had  to  came  back  to  the  first   phase   and   redefine   requirements,   goals   and   objectives.   It   was   just   needed   if   someone  from  the  group  pointed  some  problem  during  the  design  or  implementing   phase.   In   the   order   hand,   it   is   impossible   to   know,   besides   by   the   feedback   gave   from  the  industry  leaders,  if  our  solution  will  work  if  installed.   For   the   Run   a   Creative   Business   module   was   the   first   time   that   we   tried   to   implement  the  Agile  methodology.  Since  it  was  a  bigger  group  and  more  tasks  than   the   normal,   was   important   to   implement   a   methodology   that   allowed   us   to   keep   track  of  the  role  of  each  member  and  someone  to  facilitate  the  needs  of  the  team.   We  had  to  adapt  the  methodology  because  there  was  more  than  one  project  for  the   team,  and  we  had  to  do  smaller  sprints  since  we  had  just  4  weeks  to  do  the  project.   The  Scrum  meetings  were  essential  for  us,  being  the  only  time  that  the  entire  group   was  together,  so  we  could  up  date  everyone  and  manage  the  sources  to  make  sure   that  all  the  tasks  were  done  by  the  deadline.  The  meeting  with  all  members  took  a   long  time,  so  we  restructured  and  the  meetings  to  plan  the  sprint  were  done  just   with  one  member  of  each  project,  keeping  the  reflections  and  daily  meetings  with   everyone.   The  experience  in  the  last  module,  Showcase,  was  different.  We  decided  to  keep  the   Waterfall   methodology,   since   we   were   a   small   group   with   a   very   clear   goal   and   objective,  but  the  lack  of  knowledge  from  us  about  the  technology  that  we  wanted   to  develop  reflected  in  delays  in  our  project.  Because  since  the  beginning  for  all  of  us   was  very  important  to  delivery  something  done  and  tested  in  the  market,  we  had  to   change  our  idea  and  start  everything  again.  For  that,  we  decided  to  implement  the   Agile  methodology,  again  with  shorter  sprints,  so  every  member  of  the  team  would   have  a  clear  task  and  Scrum  meeting  were  done  everyday,  to  force  us  to  delivery   results   faster   than   in   the   other   approach.   In   that   case,   was   very   important   the   flexibility  gave  by  the  Agile  methodology  and  the  meeting  were  very  useful  to  update   and  reallocate  the  member  of  the  group.  In  the  end,  was  very  positive  the  change,   and  we  were  able  to  delivery  two  final  products.  I  believe  that  was  possible  because   when   you   have   clear   tasks   divided   you   create   an   ownership   for   that   task,   what   encourages  you  to  work  harder  to  see  the  final  product.   Conclusion:   The  two  main  keys  to  a  project  to  success  are  good  people  and  good  planning.  To   meet  all  the  goals  of  the  project  it  is  important  that  the  project  manager  keeps  
  7. 7. everyone  that  is  working  motivated  and  interested  and  simultaneously  keeps  the   customer  satisfied.   Because  of  this  last  experience,  I  believe  that  when  planning  digital  projects  the  Agile   methodology  can  be  the  best  way  to  manage  your  project.  The  Scrum  meeting  are   very   useful   to   make   the   team   aligned   and   the   ownership   created   by   dividing   the   tasks  is  very  important  to  make  everyone  motivated.   The  only  occasion  that  I  fell  that  the  Waterfall  process  can  be  better  is  when  you   have  a  small  project,  with  the  problem  and  final  product  already  defined.  Using  the   Agile  in  that  case  can  make  the  team  waste  time  and  go  though  processes  that  is  not   needed.   But  it  is  rare  the  projects  that  have  everything  defined,  most  of  then  change  a  lot   during   the   time,   and   you   find   out   more   about   the   customer’s   needs   during   the   testing.   About   the   tools,   I   believe   that   the   Scrum   is   essential   when   using   the   Agile   methodology,  but  adaptations  should  be  done  depending  of  the  project,  company  or   people  involved.  A  place  to  store  the  data,  as  Google  Drive,  is  important  as  well,  but   other   tools   I   believe   that   you   should   test   and   see   if   the   team   adapts   to   then.   To   organize  the  tasks  of  the  project,  from  my  experience,  Trello  is  the  software  with  the   better  user  experience  and  more  intuitive  to  learn  how  to  use.  
  8. 8. References:   Figure  1:  Mindtools.com.  2012.  Iron  Triangle  of  Project  Management  -­‐  PM  Tools  from   MindTools.com.  [online]  Available  at:   http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newPPM_54.htm  [Accessed:  20  Aug  2013].   Figure  2:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Agile_Project_Management_by_Planbox.png   Figure  3:  Anderson,  A.  2013.  Untitled  paper,  paper  presented  at  A  little  bit  about  agile  &  scrum,   Hyper  Island,  Manchester,  UK,  July,  4.   Other  references:   AgileConnection.  2013.  AgileConnection.  [online]  Available  at:  http://www.agileconnection.com/   [Accessed:  20  Aug  2013].   Anderson,  A.  2013.  Untitled  paper,  paper  presented  at  A  little  bit  about  agile  &  scrum,  Hyper   Island,  Manchester,  UK,  July,  4.   Articles.techrepublic.com.com.  n.d..  techrepublic.com.com.  [online]  Available  at:   http://articles.techrepublic.com.com/5100-­‐10878_11-­‐ 6118423.html?part=rss&tag=feed&subj=tr  [Accessed:  20  Aug  2013].   Brown,  W.,  Mccormick,  H.  and  Thomas,  S.  2000.  AntiPatterns  in  project  management.  New  York:   Wiley.   Chapman,  C.  2008.  15  Useful  Project  Management  Tools  |  Smashing  Magazine.  [online]  Available   at:  http://www.smashingmagazine.com/2008/11/13/15-­‐useful-­‐project-­‐management-­‐tools/   [Accessed:  20  Aug  2013].   Cleland,  D.  and  Ireland,  L.  2006.  Project  management  :  strategic  design  and  implementation.  New   York:  McGraw-­‐Hill.   D.  BENINGTON,  H.  2011.  Production  of  Large    Computer  Programs.  p.  350–361.   Highsmith,  J.  2010.  Agile  project  management.  Upper  Saddle  River,  NJ:  Addison-­‐Wesley.   Macconnell,  S.  1996.  Rapid  development.  Redmon:  Microsoft  Press.   Mindtools.com.  2012.  Project  Management  Tools  from    MindTools.com.  [online]  Available  at:   http://www.mindtools.com/pages/main/newMN_PPM.htm  [Accessed:  20  Aug  2013].   Mindtools.com.  2012.  Iron  Triangle  of  Project  Management  -­  PM  Tools  from  MindTools.com.   [online]  Available  at:  http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newPPM_54.htm  [Accessed:  20   Aug  2013].   Mindtools.com.  2012.  Agile  Project  Management  -­  Project  Management  Tools  From  MindTools.com.   [online]  Available  at:  http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/agile-­‐project-­‐management.htm   [Accessed:  20  Aug  2013].   Nokes,  S.  and  Kelly,  S.  2007.  The  definitive  guide  to  project  management.  Harlow:  Financial  Times   Prentice  Hall.   Scrumalliance.org.  2013.  Scrum  Alliance:  Transforming  the  World  of  Work  -­  Scrum  Alliance.   [online]  Available  at:  http://www.scrumalliance.org/  [Accessed:  20  Aug  2013].  
  9. 9. Syque.com.  2002.  Project  Management.  [online]  Available  at:   http://www.syque.com/improvement/Project%20Management.htm  [Accessed:  20  Aug  2013].   Trello.com.  n.d..  Trello.  [online]  Available  at:  http://trello.com  [Accessed:  20  Aug  2013].   Wysocki,  R.  and  Mcgary,  R.  2003.  Effective  Project  Management.  New  York:  Wiley.  
  • VanessaOliveira128

    Jun. 2, 2015


Nombre de vues


Sur Slideshare


À partir des intégrations


Nombre d'intégrations









Mentions J'aime