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Schools of Psychology

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EDUC 201: Foundation of Education

Topic: Schools of Psychology

-structuralism
-functionalism
-behaviorism
- gestalt approach

EDUC 201: Foundation of Education

Topic: Schools of Psychology

-structuralism
-functionalism
-behaviorism
- gestalt approach

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Schools of Psychology

  1. 1. EDUC 201 Foundation of Education TOMAS CLAUDIO MEMORIAL COLLEGE Taghangin, Morong, Rizal Prof. Minda Dela Vega CANDICE CAMILLE A. SANTIA GO
  2. 2. SCHOOLS OF PSYCHOLOGY
  3. 3. STRUCTURALISM
  4. 4. STRUCTURALISM ○ Proponents: Wilhelm Wundt and Edward Titchener ○ Considered to be the first “school” of psychology ○ sought to analyze the adult mind (the sum total of experience from birth to the present) in terms of the simplest definable components and then to find how these components fit together to form more complex experiences as well as how they correlated to physical events
  5. 5. TITCHENER… ○ the founder of structuralism ○ attempted to classify the structures of the mind ○ It is true, nevertheless, that observation is the single and proprietary method of science, and that experiment, regarded as scientific method, is nothing else than observation safeguarded and assisted. [Systematic Psychology]
  6. 6. TITCHENER… ○ that the goal of psychology was to study mind and consciousness ○ defined consciousness as the sum total of mental experience at any given moment, and the mind as the accumulated experience of a lifetime ○ Introspection
  7. 7. ELEMENTS OF THE MIND ○ Sensations (elements of perception) ○ Images (elements of ideas) ○ Affections (elements of emotions)
  8. 8. BEHAVIORISM
  9. 9. BEHAVIORISM ○ Proponents: John Watson and B.F. Skinner ○ an approach to psychology that combines elements of philosophy, methodology, and theory ○ “Psychology should concern itself with the observable behavior of people and animals, not with unobservable events that take place in their minds”
  10. 10. IN EDUCATION… ○ a change in external behavior achieved through a large amount of repetition of desired actions, the reward of good habits and the discouragement of bad habits ○ the "teacher" is the dominant person in the classroom ○ the “learner” does not have any opportunity for evaluation or reflection within the learning process
  11. 11. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING ○ Ivan Pavlov ○ Is known for his work in classical conditioning or stimulus substitution ○ Classical conditioning differs from operant or instrumental conditioning, in which a behavior is strengthened or weakened, depending on its consequences ○ http://m.youtube.com/watch?v=hhqumfpxuzI
  12. 12. CONNECTIONISM THEORY ○ Edward L. Thorndike ○ Is known for the original S-R framework of behavioral psychology ○ Learning is the result of association forming between stimuli and responses. Such associations or habits become strengthened or weakened by the nature and frequency of the S-R pairings.
  13. 13. THREE PRIMARY LAWS ○ Law of Effect ● S-R bond is strengthened when consequence is positive and weakened when consequence is negative ○ Law of Exercise ● The more an S-R bond is practiced, the stronger it will become ○ Law of Readiness ● The more readiness the learner has to respond to the stimulus, the stronger will be the bond between them. 13
  14. 14. JOHN WATSON ○ Humans are born with a few reflexes and the emotional reactions of love and rage. All other behavior is learned through stimulus-response associations through conditioning. ○ Baby Albert Experiment ○ http://m.youtube.com/watch?v=FMnhyGozLyE 14
  15. 15. Operant Conditioning ○ B.F. Skinner ○ with themodification of "voluntary behaviour" or operant behaviour ○ Operant behavior operates on the environment and is maintained by its consequences ○ Reinforcement is the key element ○ http://m.youtube.com/watch?v=SUwCgFSb6Nk 15
  16. 16. FUNCTIONALISM
  17. 17. FUNCTIONALISM (FUNCTIONAL PSYCHOLOGY) ○ Proponents: Dewey, Mead, Carr and Angeli ○ Founder: William James ○ a general psychological philosophy that considers mental life and behavior in terms of active adaptation to the person's environment
  18. 18. FUNCTIONALISM ○ a theory of the mind in contemporary philosophy, developed largely as an alternative to both the identity theory of mind and behaviourism ○ Its core idea is that mental states (beliefs, desires, being in pain, etc.) are constituted solely by their functional role – that is, they are causal relations to other mental states, sensory inputs, and behavioral outputs
  19. 19. TYPES OF FUNCTIONALISM ○ Hilary Putnam ○ inspired by the analogies noted between the mind and the theoretical "machines" or computers capable of computing any given algorithm ○ Jerry Fodor and Zenon Pylyshyn ○ based on the rejection of behaviouristtheories in psychology and their replacement with empirical cognitive models of the mind Machine-State Functionalism Psychofunctionalism
  20. 20. TYPES OF FUNCTIONALISM ○ David Lewis ○ is concerned with the meanings of theoretical terms in general ○ Daniel Dennett ○ postulate the existence of an entire hierarchical series of mind levels (analogous to homunculi) which became less and less sophisticated in terms of functional organization and physical composition all the way down to the level Analytic Functionalism Homuncular Functionalism
  21. 21. GESTALT APPROACH
  22. 22. GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY ○ Proponents: Max Wertheimer, Wolfgang Kohler and Kurt Koffka ○ Means “form” or “configuration” ○ the whole is other than the sum of its parts ○ Learners are active ○ Perception
  23. 23. GESTALT LAWS ○ Law of Closure individuals perceive objects as being whole when they are not complete ○ Law of Similarity elements within an assortment of objects are perceptually grouped together if they are similar to each other ○ Law of Proximity when an individual perceives an assortment of objects they perceive objects that are close to each other as forming a group
  24. 24. ○ Law of Good Continuation ● Individuals have the tendency to continue contours whenever the elements of the pattern establish and implied direction ○ Law of Good Pragnanz ● The stimulus will be organized into as good a figure as possible ○ Law of Figure/ Ground ● individuals tend to pay attention and perceive things in the foreground first.
  25. 25. INSIGHT LEARNING ○ Developed by Wolfgang Kohler ○ the abrupt realization of a problem's solution ○ The important aspect of learning was not reinforcement, but the coordination of thinking to create new organizations.
  26. 26. REFERENCES ○ Lucas, Maria Rita D. and Corpuz, Brenda B. (2007). Facilitating Learning: A Metacognitive Process. Quezon City: Lorimar Publishing Inc. ○ Zulueta, Francisco M. and Maglaya, Elda M. (2007). Foundations of Education. Mandaluyong City: National Bookstore ○ Structuralism . [On-line]. Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Structuralism_(psycholo gy) ○ Behaviorism. [On-line]. Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Behaviorism ○ Functionalism . [On-line]. Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Functional_psychology ○ Gestalt Approach. . [On-line]. Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gestalt_psychology
  27. 27. REFERENCES ○ Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov [On-Line]. http://m.youtube.com/watch?v=hhqumfpxuzI ○ Baby Albert Experiment [On-Line]. http://m.youtube.com/watch?v=FMnhyGozLyE ○ BF Skinners Operant Conditioning Chamber [On-Line]. http://m.youtube.com/watch?v=SUwCgFSb6Nk

Remarques

  • Introspection
    - the process of examining your own thoughts or feelings
    - a reflective looking inward

  • Learners do not just collect information as is but they actively process and restructure data in order to understand it.

    Perception
    - the ability to see, hear, or become aware of something through the senses

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