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Effective
Learning Service

Time Management
University of Bradford, School of Management                Time Management



                             TIME MANAGEMENT

This booklet is about managing your time more effectively. It looks at how
you currently manage time, offers a range of advice, and presents case
studies of students with time management problems.

First, how well do you manage time?

Try this Time Management Questionnaire.


Score yourself on the following questions:
 2 for "always", 1 for "sometimes",
0 for "never" and total your score
at the end of the questionnaire. Be honest!


        I do things in order of priority.



        I accomplish what needs to be done during the day.



        In the past I have always got academic work done on time.



        I feel I use my time effectively.



        I tackle difficult or unpleasant tasks without wasting time.



        I force myself to make time for planning.



        I am spending enough time planning.



        I prepare a daily or weekly ‘will do’ list.



        I prioritise my list in order of importance, not urgency (importance
   is what you want to do; urgent is what you have to do.)


        I am able to meet deadlines without rushing at the last minute.




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University of Bradford, School of Management                 Time Management




        In the past I have kept up-to-date on my reading and course
   assignments.


        I prevent interruptions from distracting me from high priority
   tasks.


        I avoid spending too much time on trivial matters.



        I feel I spend enough time on course work.



        I plan time to relax and be with friends in my weekly schedule.



        I have a weekly schedule on which I record fixed commitments
   such as lectures and tutorials.


        I try to do the most important tasks during my most energetic
   periods of the day.


        When travelling to and from the University I make use of free time
   to read course work.


        I regularly reassess my activities in relation to my goals.



        I have discontinued any wasteful or unprofitable activities or
   routines.


        I judge myself by accomplishment of tasks rather than by amount
   of activity or "busy-ness".


        I decide what needs to be done and am not controlled by events
   or what other people want me to do.


        I have a clear idea of what I want to accomplish during the coming
   semester.


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University of Bradford, School of Management                 Time Management




        I am satisfied with the way I use my time.



        I usually turn up on time for commitments.




                   Your Total Score




YOUR SCORE


☺   47 - 50 points: Congratulations! You are an excellent manager of
your own time.

☺  38 - 46 points: Generally you are a good time manager, but you
may still find the article and the advice that follows of interest to you.

   30 - 37 points: You are managing your time fairly well, but
sometimes feel overwhelmed. Suggest that you read the rest of this
booklet and particularly the article that follows.

    25 - 36 points: Your course here is likely to be stressful and less than
satisfying unless you take steps to begin to manage your time more
effectively. Suggest that you read the rest of this information booklet and
attend a ‘Time Management’ workshop organised by the School. If you
are an MBA student, you may like to take time management as one of the
three skills for independent study on the PDP module.


     Less than 25 points: Your life is out of control. Suggest you read
the rest of this information booklet and attend a ‘Time Management
workshop’ organised by the School. You might also want to talk to the
Effective Learning Officer about developing your own time management
personal action plan.




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University of Bradford, School of Management              Time Management




      TAKE 10 MINUTES OUT OF YOUR LIFE TO READ THIS
                        ARTICLE


This article by Andrew Northedge is on the most important skill to learn
at university – managing your study time (Source: ‘The Guardian’,
24/9/1991, with their permission).


                  Schedule for Passing the Test of Time

 I was in a student coffee bar during my first week at university
 soaking in the atmosphere when a lad from Oldham, of
 conspicuously cool and languid manner, announced calmly that
 he intended to get a first. He would work 25 hours a week,
 study five hours a day on weekdays and leave the weekends
 free. That would be sufficient.

 I was vaguely committed to endless hours of work. I imagined
 that at some point I would spend weeks of intensive study. The
 vice-chancellor had told us in his address to Freshers to look at
 the person on either side and note that in all probability one of
 us would not be around the following year. The message struck
 home: I would turn myself into a paragon of academic virtue. I
 could see that the lad from Oldham had got it all wrong, or was
 bluffing.

 Three years later he sailed to his first whilst other friends
 struggled to very modest achievements. As I discovered when
 sharing his lodgings, he worked more or less to the plan he had
 outlined. He slept late in the mornings, only stirring himself if
 there was a lecture to attend. He played cards with the rest of
 us after lunch. Then he moved to his desk and stayed there until
 around seven. The evenings he spent more wildly than most –
 hence the late mornings.

 Nevertheless, when I came to look back I realised he had
 studied more than anyone else I knew. Through sticking
 assiduously to a modest but well-defined, realistic plan, he had
 achieved a great deal. He had enjoyed work much more, too.

 He argued that it was not possible to work productively at
 intensively intellectual tasks for more than a few hours at a
 time. I aimed to do much more. But I was easily distracted. By
 the time it was apparent that whole stretches of a day had
 slipped away, I felt so guilty that I blotted studies out of my
 mind, comforting myself with the thought of all the days which
 lay ahead.




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 I was too inexperienced at looking after my own affairs to
 realise I was already failing one of the major tests of student
 life: the organisation of time. I thought that success in studying
 was to do with how brilliantly clever and original you were. I had
 yet to discover that one of the central challenges of adult life is
 time management.

 At School the work timetable was defined for us and teachers
 made sure we fitted all that was required into the school year.
 At university however, I was in trouble! Time came in great
 undifferentiated swathes. What to do with it all? With 168 hours
 in a week – or 105, allowing nine a day for sleeping and eating
 – how many was it reasonable to spend on study? Individuals
 vary and different subjects make different demands.

 Nevertheless with a target you can plan your studies, not just
 stumble ahead in hope. Even the sketchiest of weekly
 timetables, setting aside 40 hours to cover all study, is an
 invaluable aid in defining time. Then you can divide it into
 segments and use it strategically, rather than let it dribble
 away.

 Defining what to do is harder. Take the booklists. How many
 books are students expected to read? How long should a book
 take? It took me so long to read just a few pages that I felt
 defeated when I looked ahead. Should I take notes? How many?
 What would I need them for?

 I would sit in the library for a whole day, dipping into one book
 after another, often with glazed-over eyes. What was my
 purpose? How would I know when I had achieved it? By
 comparison I went to lectures gratefully – at least I knew when
 they started and finished. Although my lecture notes weren’t up
 to much, I could tell myself I had accomplished something,
 which would bring down my anxiety level.

 Much later I discovered I could learn a great deal from close
 reading of selected sections; that taking notes could sometimes
 be very satisfying and at other times was not necessary. The
 trick was to take control; to decide what I wanted to find out –
 something specific – and then work at it until I had taken in
 enough to think about for the time being.

 Dividing big jobs into smaller sub-tasks helps to bring work
 under control, allows you to set targets and check your
 progress. There is so much pressure to be ambitious – to go for
 the long dissertation, to read the huge tomes. Yet achievement
 arises out of quite modest activities undertaken on a small
 scale. The trouble with the big tasks is that you keep putting
 them off. Their scope and shape is unclear and we all flee from
 uncertainty. The more you define your work as small, discrete,
 concrete tasks, the more control you have over it.


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         Organising tasks into the time available can itself be divided into
         strategy and application. It is useful to think of yourself as
         ‘investing’ time. Some tasks require intense concentration and
         need to be done at a prime time of day, when you are at your
         best and have time to spare. Others can be fitted in when you
         are tired, or as ‘warm-up’ activities at the start of a session.
         Some, such as essay writing, may be best spread over several
         days. Some need to be done straight away.

         There are few reliable guidelines. Essentially you have to keep
         circling round a self-monitoring loop: plan an approach to a
         task, try it out, reflect afterwards on your success in achieving
         what you intended and then revise your strategy.

         Once you start to think strategically, you begin to take control of
         your studies rather than letting them swamp you.




        Summary


                     THE FOUR MAIN POINTS OF THE ARTICLE




Make yourself a          If you have a plan       Dividing jobs into         Energy levels: use
plan for study and       of study- when to        smaller sub-tasks          the time you have
stick to it              study, what to           will help you bring        to best advantage.
                         study, how to            the work under
                         study- then you          control and give           Link your physical
                         feel more in             you more of a              energy levels to the
                         control                  sense of                   tasks available.
                                                  achievement and
                                                  accomplishment




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University of Bradford, School of Management              Time Management



                        GET A GRIP ON TIME


Some commentators advise that you should keep a record of how you use
time over a day or a week, so you can see how well (or not) you have
used it.

Although this is good advice and can highlight interesting areas for
improvement, few people (outside of time management classes) have the
patience to do this!

The most effective and sustainable time management systems are those
that are the simplest and make the task of managing your time as easy as
possible.



Getting Started

There are three elements to scheduling and prioritising time:

                                                                For students, at the start
                                                                of any semester, you can
                                                                start by recording in a
             Have a long term view                              diary or time sheet the
                                                                dates of important
                                                                events, e.g. exams and
                                                                assignment submission
                                                                dates. Blank calendars
                                                                can be downloaded free
                                                                from the Internet or via
                                                                Microsoft Office software.
                       Prioritisation of tasks




                                   Daily scheduling of tasks




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                       PRIORITISATION OF TASKS

 Above all, this is the key to the effective management of time. With this
 system, you simply prioritise all the tasks you need to accomplish in a
 particular time period into three categories (see below). You can use
 yellow ‘Post-it’ stickers to list the items and to move across columns.


PRIORITY


                                Important

                                                               Pending




   Rank tasks in each column in order of time scale and priority


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University of Bradford, School of Management                 Time Management


                             ALLOCATING TIME

Prioritisation is an important stage of the process of time management.

But the big issue for students is allocating and using effectively the free
time they have for independent study. They know when they have to
attend lectures and tutorials; that’s not the problem. The problem is
managing free time so that independent course work and revision is done
without frantic rushing at the last minute.

Try this exercise.

There are 168 hours in a week. Start by calculating the estimated time
you spend on the following activities:

      Activity                                 Calculation          Each total
Number of hours of sleep each night
                                                             X 7=
Number of hours per day grooming
(washing; grooming; dressing)                                X 7=

Number of hours for meals/snacks per
day - including preparation time                             X 7=

Total travel time (weekdays)
                                                             X 5=
Total travel time (weekends)
                                                             X 2=
Number of hours of work (paid            or
voluntary employment) per week

Estimated number of hours in scheduled
lectures and tutorials per week

Number of average hours per week on
leisure, family and social activity

Other things you have to do, e.g.
chores, domestic and family
responsibilities etc


                                                                    Total=

                 Plus 7 extra leeway hours:                     +   7=

                                                              Grand Total=



Now go to the next page.


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168 Hours

There are 168 hours in any week. Deduct the total committed hours from
168 to give you an approximate idea how much free time you have left for
independent study and course work.



Deduct total hours=                 from 168 =                free time




Allocating Time

With your free time in mind, and the need to allocate differing amounts of
time to independent course work, you need to plan ahead and allocate
time to the tasks you need to do.

However, you need to allocate time on the basis of what is:

1. Priority
2. Important
3. Pending

(See page 8)


Priority tasks are obviously the ones you need to concentrate on, and you
need to work out exactly when you are going to schedule time for these.

You can then schedule time on a weekly block basis, using a calendar
similar to the one on the next page, and on a daily task basis: see
example on page 12.




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University of Bradford, School of Management               Time Management


   Weekly Planner


        Sunday      Monday      Tuesday    Wednesday   Thursday   Friday   Saturday
6.00


7.00


8.00


9.00


10.00


11.00


12.00


13.00


14.00


15.00


16.00


17.00


18.00


19.00


20.00


21.00


22.00


23.00


24.00




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University of Bradford, School of Management                Time Management


Daily Schedule

Once you have a time plan over a block period, you can then look at a
daily plan. A simple daily organiser is all that is needed.

Yellow stickers are useful to list each item for the day; there is a sense of
satisfaction gained from taking these off as each planned task is
accomplished.

However, the number of daily tasks scheduled should be manageable for
any one day otherwise you will inevitably get stressed.
Be fair to yourself – don’t give yourself more daily tasks than you can
realistically manage. The Effective Learning Officer can give you an A3
sized poster along the lines of what is illustrated below, or you can easily
make your own.


                              TO DO TODAY




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                        YOUR ATTITUDE TO TIME



Planning is important, but you also need to think about your attitude to
time and time management.




                                Three Big Time
                              Management Issues
                                 for Students




   PERFECTIONISM              PROCRASTINATION            POOR PLANNING:

 Trying to get things        Putting off starting          Problems with
 perfect – this causes       until the last minute      planning ahead and
   tasks to stack up                                      balancing tasks




     Can be result of one or more of:
                                                        Can result from:
        Anxiety about what is expected of
                                                           Not much
        them
                                                           experience/practise in
        Anxiety about writing –worried
                                                           doing this
        about the quality of their work
                                                           Not much sense of
        Wanting to live up to other people’s
                                                           time
        standards
                                                           Boredom with one or
        Wanting to live up to their own
                                                           more subjects
        image of themselves
        Feeling overwhelmed; feel ‘frozen’
        by all the tasks
        Cultural dimensions: come from a
        society that is relaxed about time




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University of Bradford, School of Management                Time Management




                    THE TRAP OF PERFECTIONISM

  Doing your best is about working as well as you can in the time
  available. Sometimes your talents and interest in the task will lead to
  exceptional results; other times the results are less spectacular.

  Living your life as a perfectionist, however, will inevitably deny you
  peace of mind- because demanding ‘perfection’ from yourself or
  others usually results in failure.

  And even if you achieve an exceptional result, the chances are that
  you'll still not be satisfied, as you'll find additional reasons for
  thinking the result was not good enough. That's the destructive
  nature of perfectionism and that's why it destroys self-esteem.
  Nothing is ever good enough.

  Being a perfectionist may also hinder your future chances of success,
  in either your personal or your professional life, because you'll
  eventually be anxious about taking any new actions that might
  produce an imperfect result. You may also make unreasonable
  demands on others.

  Preventing perfectionism begins by saying ‘no’ to making
  unreasonably high demands of yourself or others that produce only
  failure and frustration. It also means saying ‘goodbye’ to the
  expectations of others in the past that may have moulded you to this
  way of thinking.

  The new way of thinking requires you to choose goals that are easier
  to achieve within reasonable time limits. Moderate your
  expectations, and stop focusing or fixating on faults and flaws.
  You could start this process by:

       Describing one situation or part of your life in which you would
       like to be less of a perfectionist?

       What are some specific ways that you could moderate your goals
       in that particular situation/area?

       What consequences might follow from such changes?

  You can simply have this discussion with yourself. But you can also
  talk to the Effective Learning Officer (in confidence) about this issue.




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University of Bradford, School of Management               Time Management




PROCRASTINATION AND DISTRACTION



Problem getting star
 Do you have a problem
 getting started with work?
 And once started, do you
 get distracted easily from
 reading or from starting a
 written assignment or other
 course related task?




     Yes? Well, you are not the only one. A study by O’Brien in 2002
     suggested that over a third of students feel that procrastination is a
     significant problem for them. Another study by Taraban et al (1999)
     found that many students tended to over-condense their work close to
     academic deadlines and failed to make use of learning support services
     and resources earlier in the semester. However, this is a recipe for stress
     and poor results!

     Students know that procrastination is poor practice, so why do they do it?

     A study, by Burka and Yuen (1983), suggested that procrastination occurs
     because it is often a means of distancing oneself from stressful activities;
     the most difficult tasks are often put to one side mentally until the last
     possible minute. The researchers suggested that recognising,
     understanding and dealing with the underlying stressful aspects of the
     tasks faced can assist in reducing the extent of procrastination.




And procrastination is the cousin to distraction.

Sometimes you need distractions when you study; it is your mind’s way of
saying ‘you’ve had enough for one day, so let’s switch off’.

However, if distractions are deflecting you from starting work, or your
mind continually wanders from your reading, then you need to ask
yourself why is this happening?



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University of Bradford, School of Management               Time Management


You get distracted because (tick which apply):

       Other students around you are doing or saying things that appear
       to be more interesting
       You are struggling to make sense of a subject(s) you find either
       difficult or irrelevant
       You feel the subject is presented (in text books or lectures) in an
       uninteresting way
       You are not sure what is expected of you
       You do not like to be still or seated for too long
       You are not making notes as you read



If you have a problem getting started, are you aware of the things you
do, or say to yourself, to put the dreaded moment off?




Once you have started, what things easily distract you from a task?




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University of Bradford, School of Management               Time Management


Getting Started

Difficulties in getting started on work are often more connected to anxiety
(about getting poor results), than the actual difficulty levels of the work
involved.

Try this strategy to get started. Just set yourself 10 minutes initially to
do one relatively easy task.

At the end of 10 minutes, set yourself another 10 minutes to accomplish
another small and manageable task.

At the end of this time, see how you feel then. The chances are you will
have gained momentum from the two short study periods and you will
want to continue.

Motivation can come from action; it does not always have to precede it!




Avoiding Distractions


   Start with the unpleasant tasks first – get them out of the way
   early. The problem with postponing unpleasant tasks is that you leave
   them until the last minute and then you have to rush to finish them.

   Set yourself a short time limit for reading: 40 – 45 minutes tends
   to be the maximum time most people can read before their
   concentration slips. At the end of the set time, stop and take a break.
   The relatively short time you set yourself for reading at any one
   stretch will help concentrate your mind.

   Combine short bursts of reading, with active reading. When you
   read, make notes of the key ideas or points. Continually looking for
   main points in any paragraph and highlighting or summarising them in
   your own words, will help keep your mind focused.

   If you don’t like sitting down for too long, try the read-walk
   technique. You read for just 20 minutes at any one time, but then
   get up and walk around for 10 minutes. As you walk you think about
   what you have just read. You then return to reading for another 20
   minutes, then walk again. Do this over several hours. It really works!

   Distraction problems can occur when the subject being studied appears
   totally removed from the real world. So, to overcome this, as you read,
   keep asking yourself, ‘how does this relate to real life?’ Try and
   connect the subject to the world about you and your everyday life.




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University of Bradford, School of Management              Time Management


   If you find a particular set book hard to follow, try another that
   offers you a simpler or clearer explanation of the same subject.
   Finding an easier book initially to read will ease you onto the set book
   in due course.

   If other students are distracting you, go somewhere else where others
   are concentrating and working. Where others are working quietly, you
   are likely to do the same.




                    Five More Tips for Managing Time



 1. Get organised: the Wall Street Journal reported that the average
    U.S. executive wastes six weeks per year searching for misplaced
    information. That ends up being about five hours wasted each
    week.


 2. A chaotic working area can add to your feelings that things are
     getting out of control. If your working area is in a mess- with
     papers, books everywhere – this will slow your progress. You have
     to hunt around for what you need, wasting time in the process.


 3. Having a neat working area has a positive psychological effect. It
     can speed your work because it makes you feel more efficient and
     in control- and you will respond positively to this feeling.


 4. Concentrate on one thing at a time: forget the other things you
    have to do; just focus on one task at a time.


 5. Always finish what you start – this gives you a sense of
    accomplishment. But don't start more than you can finish in one
    session.




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University of Bradford, School of Management               Time Management




                      STUDENT CASE STUDIES


   1. Under-Estimating Time to Complete Tasks




         Zak keeps missing deadlines for handing in
         assignments. He tends to underestimate the length of
         time it takes to complete the different stages of writing
         essays and reports. This is a very common problem for
         many students.




What Zak could do about this:

       He could map out his week, so he is clear exactly where he spends
       his time (see the exercises on pages 9-13 of this booklet).

       He could be more conscious of the ways he avoids getting started
       on work or gets distracted easily from work he has to do (see pages
       15-18 of this booklet).

       He could try making his study time more organised, more
       pleasurable. The booklets, ‘Accelerated Learning,’ and ‘Effective
       Note Making’, available from the Effective Learning Service, offer
       advice respectively on effective learning and note making
       strategies.




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   2. Anxiety About Beginning a Task




      Suzy often delays starting an assignment because
      she is worried about her writing ability generally, which leads
      to a fear of getting started. She rarely leaves enough time to
      redraft and proof-read work, so her writing is full of
      unnecessary errors. Suzy is afraid of failing, but her fear is
      leading to the thing that worries her most.




What she could do about this:

       A written assignment does not have to begin when she makes time
       to sit down and write it. Suzy could begin to plan her ideas for the
       assignment as soon as they occur to her. The process of writing
       the assignment can begin as soon as she knows the assignment
       title.

       Suzy should not worry about organising her ideas into a readable
       form at this stage. The important thing is to gain confidence by just
       noting her ideas for the assignment. The more practise she gets at
       doing this the better.

       Suzy should also set herself more than one day for writing her
       assignment, and not attempt to try to start and finish it in one
       session. She could, for example, set aside time simply to write the
       first draft. The draft can be written out quickly, roughly, and
       without worrying about spelling, punctuation or grammar at this
       stage.

       Suzy can then put the work to one side and then come back to it
       later to improve it gradually and over one or more additional
       sessions.

       Suzy could find someone to work with: a ‘study buddy’ who will
       give constructive feedback to her, and vice versa. Both will benefit
       from this.




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University of Bradford, School of Management                Time Management




3. Over-Inflating the Task (Imagining it bigger than it really is)




      Bob has a tendency to build a task up in his mind into
      something bigger than it really is and beyond what is really
      expected of him by his tutors.

      He becomes convinced he cannot deliver adequately what he
      thinks is expected of him by the university in the time
      available. This reduces his confidence, increases his anxiety
      and, like Suzy, leads to procrastination in starting
       assignments.




What he could do about this:

       Bob should not fall into the trap of perfectionism (see page 14).
       ‘Perfection’ as a concept and a life target is impossible to attain. It
       is a slippery eel of an ambition, as perfection will always elude us; a
       voice in our head will always say ‘do more, more, more’. It may be
       that others have pushed him too hard and too far in the past in this
       direction. He needs to aim at doing his best in a conscientious way.
       If he makes mistakes, so what? This is how we learn.

       He also needs to ‘deconstruct’ the assignment by re-phrasing the
       task into simple, manageable terms. With assignment questions,
       for example, he could try writing a mini-essay (50 words) that
       simply highlights the main point, or by explaining to another person
       his opinion on the subject. When you do this you reduce seemingly
       difficult tasks into something within your grasp. Even complex
       concepts have a core or key point, around which other ideas
       revolve. Get to the core, understand the core, and you start to
       control the written task.

       Bob could also break the assignment task down into easy
       manageable sub-tasks, and tackle each one of these separately.
       Often it is the apparent magnitude of the assignment task,
       combined with ‘perfectionism’ tendencies, which lead to
       procrastination. Dividing tasks up into bite-sized chunks can be the
       way out of this emotional impasse.




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University of Bradford, School of Management              Time Management




4. Problems Prioritising Time Available



      Jayne finds it difficult to prioritise her time. She tends to
      get overwhelmed with all the things required of her. This
      includes course work and the chores she feels she has to do
      for others in her household.




What she could do about this:

   Perhaps Jayne needs to start by looking at the issue of the chores she
   feels she has to do at home. Are other people supporting her enough
   with her studies? If not, why not? Is the issue of perfectionism –
   about chores – one that she also needs to consider (see page 14)?
   She may need to deal with this issue too, to resolve the problem.

   Regarding course work, she could use the worksheets in this booklet to
   help her prioritise what must be done in the short to longer terms.

   For example, Jayne could start each day by listing in writing the
   things she has to do on that day, and into the near future. There is
   something very satisfying about having a list of things to do and
   ticking these off one by one when you do them! You start to feel more
   in control. However she needs to avoid starting with an unrealistically
   long list of things to do at the start of the day.




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References

Burka, J. B. and Yuen, L. M. (1983). Procrastination: Why You Do It and
What to Do About It. Reading, Massachussetts: Addison-Wesley.

O'Brien, W.K. (2002). Applying the transtheoretical model to academic
procrastination. Dissertation Abstracts International. Section B: The
Sciences and Engineering. 62(11-B): 5359.

Taraban, R., Maki, W.S., and Rynearson, K. (1999). Measuring study time
distributions: Implications for designing computer-based courses.
Behavior Research Methods, Instruments and Computers. 31(2), 263-269.




                             Further Reading

These are all the titles in booklets in the ‘Effective Learning’ series:

          1. Return to Part-time Study
          2. Return to Full-time Study
          3. The First Semester
          4. Time Management
          5. Accelerated Learning
          6. 20 Tips for Effective Learning
          7. Six Steps to Effective Reading
          8. Effective Note Making
          9. Effective Writing
          10.Essay Writing (1) stages of essay writing
          11.Essay Writing (2) planning and structuring your essays
          12.Essay Writing (3) finding your own voice in essays
          13. References and Bibliographies
          14. Report Writing
          15. Pass Your Exams
          16. Your Assignment Results – and how to improve them
          17. Presentations
          18. Group Work
          19. Introduction to Research and Research Methods
          20. Foundations of Good Research
          21. Writing Your Management Project Report or Dissertation


You can download any of these from the School of Management
Homepages: Resources– Effective Learning link, or contact the
Effective Learning Service, tel. 4414 (internal), Email:
C.Neville@Bradford.ac.uk, or visit room 0.10 Airedale Building at the
School of Management.




Effective Learning Service                                                 23
University of Bradford, School of Management               Time Management


The booklets can also be found in the School of Management library, in
the foyer of the Airedale Building and in the main entrance/foyer of the
Emm Lane building.

In the School of Management and J.B. Priestley libraries, there is a study
skills section at D.371.30281


Recommended reading:

Forsyth,P. (2003) Sucessful Time Management, London: Kogan Page.

Haynes, M.E. (2000) Make Every Minute Count, London: Kogan Page.

Croft, C. (1996) Time Management, Thompson Business Press.

Cottrell, S. (2003) The Study Skills Handbook, Basingstoke: Palgrave
(contains lots of bite-sized chunks of advice and information presented in
a lively and visually interesting way. This is an excellent general study
skills guide for all undergraduate or postgraduate students).

Giles, K. and Hedge, N. (1998) The Manager’s Good Study Guide
Maidenhead : Open University Press. (A study skills guide written for
business studies students and contains advice and information presented
in a clear, readable and subject-specific way.)

Marshall, L. and Rowland.F. (1998) A Guide to Learning
Independently, Maidenhead: Open University Press.

Turner, J. (2002) How to Study: a short introduction, London: Sage.


Other learning material may be available, e.g. videos on time
management. Please enquire at library reception.



Some Useful Internet Sites:

www.support4learning.org.uk/education/key_skills.htm (a good
all-round site for study skills advice and information)

www.bized.ac.uk/ (a study support site for business studies students)




© This booklet was written by Colin Neville, Effective Learning Officer,
University of Bradford, School of Management and must not be
reproduced without permission. Last updated August 2006.
C.Neville@bradford.ac.uk



Effective Learning Service                                                 24

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Timemanagement

  • 2. University of Bradford, School of Management Time Management TIME MANAGEMENT This booklet is about managing your time more effectively. It looks at how you currently manage time, offers a range of advice, and presents case studies of students with time management problems. First, how well do you manage time? Try this Time Management Questionnaire. Score yourself on the following questions: 2 for "always", 1 for "sometimes", 0 for "never" and total your score at the end of the questionnaire. Be honest! I do things in order of priority. I accomplish what needs to be done during the day. In the past I have always got academic work done on time. I feel I use my time effectively. I tackle difficult or unpleasant tasks without wasting time. I force myself to make time for planning. I am spending enough time planning. I prepare a daily or weekly ‘will do’ list. I prioritise my list in order of importance, not urgency (importance is what you want to do; urgent is what you have to do.) I am able to meet deadlines without rushing at the last minute. Effective Learning Service 1
  • 3. University of Bradford, School of Management Time Management In the past I have kept up-to-date on my reading and course assignments. I prevent interruptions from distracting me from high priority tasks. I avoid spending too much time on trivial matters. I feel I spend enough time on course work. I plan time to relax and be with friends in my weekly schedule. I have a weekly schedule on which I record fixed commitments such as lectures and tutorials. I try to do the most important tasks during my most energetic periods of the day. When travelling to and from the University I make use of free time to read course work. I regularly reassess my activities in relation to my goals. I have discontinued any wasteful or unprofitable activities or routines. I judge myself by accomplishment of tasks rather than by amount of activity or "busy-ness". I decide what needs to be done and am not controlled by events or what other people want me to do. I have a clear idea of what I want to accomplish during the coming semester. Effective Learning Service 2
  • 4. University of Bradford, School of Management Time Management I am satisfied with the way I use my time. I usually turn up on time for commitments. Your Total Score YOUR SCORE ☺ 47 - 50 points: Congratulations! You are an excellent manager of your own time. ☺ 38 - 46 points: Generally you are a good time manager, but you may still find the article and the advice that follows of interest to you. 30 - 37 points: You are managing your time fairly well, but sometimes feel overwhelmed. Suggest that you read the rest of this booklet and particularly the article that follows. 25 - 36 points: Your course here is likely to be stressful and less than satisfying unless you take steps to begin to manage your time more effectively. Suggest that you read the rest of this information booklet and attend a ‘Time Management’ workshop organised by the School. If you are an MBA student, you may like to take time management as one of the three skills for independent study on the PDP module. Less than 25 points: Your life is out of control. Suggest you read the rest of this information booklet and attend a ‘Time Management workshop’ organised by the School. You might also want to talk to the Effective Learning Officer about developing your own time management personal action plan. Effective Learning Service 3
  • 5. University of Bradford, School of Management Time Management TAKE 10 MINUTES OUT OF YOUR LIFE TO READ THIS ARTICLE This article by Andrew Northedge is on the most important skill to learn at university – managing your study time (Source: ‘The Guardian’, 24/9/1991, with their permission). Schedule for Passing the Test of Time I was in a student coffee bar during my first week at university soaking in the atmosphere when a lad from Oldham, of conspicuously cool and languid manner, announced calmly that he intended to get a first. He would work 25 hours a week, study five hours a day on weekdays and leave the weekends free. That would be sufficient. I was vaguely committed to endless hours of work. I imagined that at some point I would spend weeks of intensive study. The vice-chancellor had told us in his address to Freshers to look at the person on either side and note that in all probability one of us would not be around the following year. The message struck home: I would turn myself into a paragon of academic virtue. I could see that the lad from Oldham had got it all wrong, or was bluffing. Three years later he sailed to his first whilst other friends struggled to very modest achievements. As I discovered when sharing his lodgings, he worked more or less to the plan he had outlined. He slept late in the mornings, only stirring himself if there was a lecture to attend. He played cards with the rest of us after lunch. Then he moved to his desk and stayed there until around seven. The evenings he spent more wildly than most – hence the late mornings. Nevertheless, when I came to look back I realised he had studied more than anyone else I knew. Through sticking assiduously to a modest but well-defined, realistic plan, he had achieved a great deal. He had enjoyed work much more, too. He argued that it was not possible to work productively at intensively intellectual tasks for more than a few hours at a time. I aimed to do much more. But I was easily distracted. By the time it was apparent that whole stretches of a day had slipped away, I felt so guilty that I blotted studies out of my mind, comforting myself with the thought of all the days which lay ahead. Effective Learning Service 4
  • 6. University of Bradford, School of Management Time Management I was too inexperienced at looking after my own affairs to realise I was already failing one of the major tests of student life: the organisation of time. I thought that success in studying was to do with how brilliantly clever and original you were. I had yet to discover that one of the central challenges of adult life is time management. At School the work timetable was defined for us and teachers made sure we fitted all that was required into the school year. At university however, I was in trouble! Time came in great undifferentiated swathes. What to do with it all? With 168 hours in a week – or 105, allowing nine a day for sleeping and eating – how many was it reasonable to spend on study? Individuals vary and different subjects make different demands. Nevertheless with a target you can plan your studies, not just stumble ahead in hope. Even the sketchiest of weekly timetables, setting aside 40 hours to cover all study, is an invaluable aid in defining time. Then you can divide it into segments and use it strategically, rather than let it dribble away. Defining what to do is harder. Take the booklists. How many books are students expected to read? How long should a book take? It took me so long to read just a few pages that I felt defeated when I looked ahead. Should I take notes? How many? What would I need them for? I would sit in the library for a whole day, dipping into one book after another, often with glazed-over eyes. What was my purpose? How would I know when I had achieved it? By comparison I went to lectures gratefully – at least I knew when they started and finished. Although my lecture notes weren’t up to much, I could tell myself I had accomplished something, which would bring down my anxiety level. Much later I discovered I could learn a great deal from close reading of selected sections; that taking notes could sometimes be very satisfying and at other times was not necessary. The trick was to take control; to decide what I wanted to find out – something specific – and then work at it until I had taken in enough to think about for the time being. Dividing big jobs into smaller sub-tasks helps to bring work under control, allows you to set targets and check your progress. There is so much pressure to be ambitious – to go for the long dissertation, to read the huge tomes. Yet achievement arises out of quite modest activities undertaken on a small scale. The trouble with the big tasks is that you keep putting them off. Their scope and shape is unclear and we all flee from uncertainty. The more you define your work as small, discrete, concrete tasks, the more control you have over it. Effective Learning Service 5
  • 7. University of Bradford, School of Management Time Management Organising tasks into the time available can itself be divided into strategy and application. It is useful to think of yourself as ‘investing’ time. Some tasks require intense concentration and need to be done at a prime time of day, when you are at your best and have time to spare. Others can be fitted in when you are tired, or as ‘warm-up’ activities at the start of a session. Some, such as essay writing, may be best spread over several days. Some need to be done straight away. There are few reliable guidelines. Essentially you have to keep circling round a self-monitoring loop: plan an approach to a task, try it out, reflect afterwards on your success in achieving what you intended and then revise your strategy. Once you start to think strategically, you begin to take control of your studies rather than letting them swamp you. Summary THE FOUR MAIN POINTS OF THE ARTICLE Make yourself a If you have a plan Dividing jobs into Energy levels: use plan for study and of study- when to smaller sub-tasks the time you have stick to it study, what to will help you bring to best advantage. study, how to the work under study- then you control and give Link your physical feel more in you more of a energy levels to the control sense of tasks available. achievement and accomplishment Effective Learning Service 6
  • 8. University of Bradford, School of Management Time Management GET A GRIP ON TIME Some commentators advise that you should keep a record of how you use time over a day or a week, so you can see how well (or not) you have used it. Although this is good advice and can highlight interesting areas for improvement, few people (outside of time management classes) have the patience to do this! The most effective and sustainable time management systems are those that are the simplest and make the task of managing your time as easy as possible. Getting Started There are three elements to scheduling and prioritising time: For students, at the start of any semester, you can start by recording in a Have a long term view diary or time sheet the dates of important events, e.g. exams and assignment submission dates. Blank calendars can be downloaded free from the Internet or via Microsoft Office software. Prioritisation of tasks Daily scheduling of tasks Effective Learning Service 7
  • 9. University of Bradford, School of Management Time Management PRIORITISATION OF TASKS Above all, this is the key to the effective management of time. With this system, you simply prioritise all the tasks you need to accomplish in a particular time period into three categories (see below). You can use yellow ‘Post-it’ stickers to list the items and to move across columns. PRIORITY Important Pending Rank tasks in each column in order of time scale and priority Effective Learning Service 8
  • 10. University of Bradford, School of Management Time Management ALLOCATING TIME Prioritisation is an important stage of the process of time management. But the big issue for students is allocating and using effectively the free time they have for independent study. They know when they have to attend lectures and tutorials; that’s not the problem. The problem is managing free time so that independent course work and revision is done without frantic rushing at the last minute. Try this exercise. There are 168 hours in a week. Start by calculating the estimated time you spend on the following activities: Activity Calculation Each total Number of hours of sleep each night X 7= Number of hours per day grooming (washing; grooming; dressing) X 7= Number of hours for meals/snacks per day - including preparation time X 7= Total travel time (weekdays) X 5= Total travel time (weekends) X 2= Number of hours of work (paid or voluntary employment) per week Estimated number of hours in scheduled lectures and tutorials per week Number of average hours per week on leisure, family and social activity Other things you have to do, e.g. chores, domestic and family responsibilities etc Total= Plus 7 extra leeway hours: + 7= Grand Total= Now go to the next page. Effective Learning Service 9
  • 11. University of Bradford, School of Management Time Management 168 Hours There are 168 hours in any week. Deduct the total committed hours from 168 to give you an approximate idea how much free time you have left for independent study and course work. Deduct total hours= from 168 = free time Allocating Time With your free time in mind, and the need to allocate differing amounts of time to independent course work, you need to plan ahead and allocate time to the tasks you need to do. However, you need to allocate time on the basis of what is: 1. Priority 2. Important 3. Pending (See page 8) Priority tasks are obviously the ones you need to concentrate on, and you need to work out exactly when you are going to schedule time for these. You can then schedule time on a weekly block basis, using a calendar similar to the one on the next page, and on a daily task basis: see example on page 12. Effective Learning Service 10
  • 12. University of Bradford, School of Management Time Management Weekly Planner Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday 6.00 7.00 8.00 9.00 10.00 11.00 12.00 13.00 14.00 15.00 16.00 17.00 18.00 19.00 20.00 21.00 22.00 23.00 24.00 Effective Learning Service 11
  • 13. University of Bradford, School of Management Time Management Daily Schedule Once you have a time plan over a block period, you can then look at a daily plan. A simple daily organiser is all that is needed. Yellow stickers are useful to list each item for the day; there is a sense of satisfaction gained from taking these off as each planned task is accomplished. However, the number of daily tasks scheduled should be manageable for any one day otherwise you will inevitably get stressed. Be fair to yourself – don’t give yourself more daily tasks than you can realistically manage. The Effective Learning Officer can give you an A3 sized poster along the lines of what is illustrated below, or you can easily make your own. TO DO TODAY Effective Learning Service 12
  • 14. University of Bradford, School of Management Time Management YOUR ATTITUDE TO TIME Planning is important, but you also need to think about your attitude to time and time management. Three Big Time Management Issues for Students PERFECTIONISM PROCRASTINATION POOR PLANNING: Trying to get things Putting off starting Problems with perfect – this causes until the last minute planning ahead and tasks to stack up balancing tasks Can be result of one or more of: Can result from: Anxiety about what is expected of Not much them experience/practise in Anxiety about writing –worried doing this about the quality of their work Not much sense of Wanting to live up to other people’s time standards Boredom with one or Wanting to live up to their own more subjects image of themselves Feeling overwhelmed; feel ‘frozen’ by all the tasks Cultural dimensions: come from a society that is relaxed about time Effective Learning Service 13
  • 15. University of Bradford, School of Management Time Management THE TRAP OF PERFECTIONISM Doing your best is about working as well as you can in the time available. Sometimes your talents and interest in the task will lead to exceptional results; other times the results are less spectacular. Living your life as a perfectionist, however, will inevitably deny you peace of mind- because demanding ‘perfection’ from yourself or others usually results in failure. And even if you achieve an exceptional result, the chances are that you'll still not be satisfied, as you'll find additional reasons for thinking the result was not good enough. That's the destructive nature of perfectionism and that's why it destroys self-esteem. Nothing is ever good enough. Being a perfectionist may also hinder your future chances of success, in either your personal or your professional life, because you'll eventually be anxious about taking any new actions that might produce an imperfect result. You may also make unreasonable demands on others. Preventing perfectionism begins by saying ‘no’ to making unreasonably high demands of yourself or others that produce only failure and frustration. It also means saying ‘goodbye’ to the expectations of others in the past that may have moulded you to this way of thinking. The new way of thinking requires you to choose goals that are easier to achieve within reasonable time limits. Moderate your expectations, and stop focusing or fixating on faults and flaws. You could start this process by: Describing one situation or part of your life in which you would like to be less of a perfectionist? What are some specific ways that you could moderate your goals in that particular situation/area? What consequences might follow from such changes? You can simply have this discussion with yourself. But you can also talk to the Effective Learning Officer (in confidence) about this issue. Effective Learning Service 14
  • 16. University of Bradford, School of Management Time Management PROCRASTINATION AND DISTRACTION Problem getting star Do you have a problem getting started with work? And once started, do you get distracted easily from reading or from starting a written assignment or other course related task? Yes? Well, you are not the only one. A study by O’Brien in 2002 suggested that over a third of students feel that procrastination is a significant problem for them. Another study by Taraban et al (1999) found that many students tended to over-condense their work close to academic deadlines and failed to make use of learning support services and resources earlier in the semester. However, this is a recipe for stress and poor results! Students know that procrastination is poor practice, so why do they do it? A study, by Burka and Yuen (1983), suggested that procrastination occurs because it is often a means of distancing oneself from stressful activities; the most difficult tasks are often put to one side mentally until the last possible minute. The researchers suggested that recognising, understanding and dealing with the underlying stressful aspects of the tasks faced can assist in reducing the extent of procrastination. And procrastination is the cousin to distraction. Sometimes you need distractions when you study; it is your mind’s way of saying ‘you’ve had enough for one day, so let’s switch off’. However, if distractions are deflecting you from starting work, or your mind continually wanders from your reading, then you need to ask yourself why is this happening? Effective Learning Service 15
  • 17. University of Bradford, School of Management Time Management You get distracted because (tick which apply): Other students around you are doing or saying things that appear to be more interesting You are struggling to make sense of a subject(s) you find either difficult or irrelevant You feel the subject is presented (in text books or lectures) in an uninteresting way You are not sure what is expected of you You do not like to be still or seated for too long You are not making notes as you read If you have a problem getting started, are you aware of the things you do, or say to yourself, to put the dreaded moment off? Once you have started, what things easily distract you from a task? Effective Learning Service 16
  • 18. University of Bradford, School of Management Time Management Getting Started Difficulties in getting started on work are often more connected to anxiety (about getting poor results), than the actual difficulty levels of the work involved. Try this strategy to get started. Just set yourself 10 minutes initially to do one relatively easy task. At the end of 10 minutes, set yourself another 10 minutes to accomplish another small and manageable task. At the end of this time, see how you feel then. The chances are you will have gained momentum from the two short study periods and you will want to continue. Motivation can come from action; it does not always have to precede it! Avoiding Distractions Start with the unpleasant tasks first – get them out of the way early. The problem with postponing unpleasant tasks is that you leave them until the last minute and then you have to rush to finish them. Set yourself a short time limit for reading: 40 – 45 minutes tends to be the maximum time most people can read before their concentration slips. At the end of the set time, stop and take a break. The relatively short time you set yourself for reading at any one stretch will help concentrate your mind. Combine short bursts of reading, with active reading. When you read, make notes of the key ideas or points. Continually looking for main points in any paragraph and highlighting or summarising them in your own words, will help keep your mind focused. If you don’t like sitting down for too long, try the read-walk technique. You read for just 20 minutes at any one time, but then get up and walk around for 10 minutes. As you walk you think about what you have just read. You then return to reading for another 20 minutes, then walk again. Do this over several hours. It really works! Distraction problems can occur when the subject being studied appears totally removed from the real world. So, to overcome this, as you read, keep asking yourself, ‘how does this relate to real life?’ Try and connect the subject to the world about you and your everyday life. Effective Learning Service 17
  • 19. University of Bradford, School of Management Time Management If you find a particular set book hard to follow, try another that offers you a simpler or clearer explanation of the same subject. Finding an easier book initially to read will ease you onto the set book in due course. If other students are distracting you, go somewhere else where others are concentrating and working. Where others are working quietly, you are likely to do the same. Five More Tips for Managing Time 1. Get organised: the Wall Street Journal reported that the average U.S. executive wastes six weeks per year searching for misplaced information. That ends up being about five hours wasted each week. 2. A chaotic working area can add to your feelings that things are getting out of control. If your working area is in a mess- with papers, books everywhere – this will slow your progress. You have to hunt around for what you need, wasting time in the process. 3. Having a neat working area has a positive psychological effect. It can speed your work because it makes you feel more efficient and in control- and you will respond positively to this feeling. 4. Concentrate on one thing at a time: forget the other things you have to do; just focus on one task at a time. 5. Always finish what you start – this gives you a sense of accomplishment. But don't start more than you can finish in one session. Effective Learning Service 18
  • 20. University of Bradford, School of Management Time Management STUDENT CASE STUDIES 1. Under-Estimating Time to Complete Tasks Zak keeps missing deadlines for handing in assignments. He tends to underestimate the length of time it takes to complete the different stages of writing essays and reports. This is a very common problem for many students. What Zak could do about this: He could map out his week, so he is clear exactly where he spends his time (see the exercises on pages 9-13 of this booklet). He could be more conscious of the ways he avoids getting started on work or gets distracted easily from work he has to do (see pages 15-18 of this booklet). He could try making his study time more organised, more pleasurable. The booklets, ‘Accelerated Learning,’ and ‘Effective Note Making’, available from the Effective Learning Service, offer advice respectively on effective learning and note making strategies. Effective Learning Service 19
  • 21. University of Bradford, School of Management Time Management 2. Anxiety About Beginning a Task Suzy often delays starting an assignment because she is worried about her writing ability generally, which leads to a fear of getting started. She rarely leaves enough time to redraft and proof-read work, so her writing is full of unnecessary errors. Suzy is afraid of failing, but her fear is leading to the thing that worries her most. What she could do about this: A written assignment does not have to begin when she makes time to sit down and write it. Suzy could begin to plan her ideas for the assignment as soon as they occur to her. The process of writing the assignment can begin as soon as she knows the assignment title. Suzy should not worry about organising her ideas into a readable form at this stage. The important thing is to gain confidence by just noting her ideas for the assignment. The more practise she gets at doing this the better. Suzy should also set herself more than one day for writing her assignment, and not attempt to try to start and finish it in one session. She could, for example, set aside time simply to write the first draft. The draft can be written out quickly, roughly, and without worrying about spelling, punctuation or grammar at this stage. Suzy can then put the work to one side and then come back to it later to improve it gradually and over one or more additional sessions. Suzy could find someone to work with: a ‘study buddy’ who will give constructive feedback to her, and vice versa. Both will benefit from this. Effective Learning Service 20
  • 22. University of Bradford, School of Management Time Management 3. Over-Inflating the Task (Imagining it bigger than it really is) Bob has a tendency to build a task up in his mind into something bigger than it really is and beyond what is really expected of him by his tutors. He becomes convinced he cannot deliver adequately what he thinks is expected of him by the university in the time available. This reduces his confidence, increases his anxiety and, like Suzy, leads to procrastination in starting assignments. What he could do about this: Bob should not fall into the trap of perfectionism (see page 14). ‘Perfection’ as a concept and a life target is impossible to attain. It is a slippery eel of an ambition, as perfection will always elude us; a voice in our head will always say ‘do more, more, more’. It may be that others have pushed him too hard and too far in the past in this direction. He needs to aim at doing his best in a conscientious way. If he makes mistakes, so what? This is how we learn. He also needs to ‘deconstruct’ the assignment by re-phrasing the task into simple, manageable terms. With assignment questions, for example, he could try writing a mini-essay (50 words) that simply highlights the main point, or by explaining to another person his opinion on the subject. When you do this you reduce seemingly difficult tasks into something within your grasp. Even complex concepts have a core or key point, around which other ideas revolve. Get to the core, understand the core, and you start to control the written task. Bob could also break the assignment task down into easy manageable sub-tasks, and tackle each one of these separately. Often it is the apparent magnitude of the assignment task, combined with ‘perfectionism’ tendencies, which lead to procrastination. Dividing tasks up into bite-sized chunks can be the way out of this emotional impasse. Effective Learning Service 21
  • 23. University of Bradford, School of Management Time Management 4. Problems Prioritising Time Available Jayne finds it difficult to prioritise her time. She tends to get overwhelmed with all the things required of her. This includes course work and the chores she feels she has to do for others in her household. What she could do about this: Perhaps Jayne needs to start by looking at the issue of the chores she feels she has to do at home. Are other people supporting her enough with her studies? If not, why not? Is the issue of perfectionism – about chores – one that she also needs to consider (see page 14)? She may need to deal with this issue too, to resolve the problem. Regarding course work, she could use the worksheets in this booklet to help her prioritise what must be done in the short to longer terms. For example, Jayne could start each day by listing in writing the things she has to do on that day, and into the near future. There is something very satisfying about having a list of things to do and ticking these off one by one when you do them! You start to feel more in control. However she needs to avoid starting with an unrealistically long list of things to do at the start of the day. Effective Learning Service 22
  • 24. University of Bradford, School of Management Time Management References Burka, J. B. and Yuen, L. M. (1983). Procrastination: Why You Do It and What to Do About It. Reading, Massachussetts: Addison-Wesley. O'Brien, W.K. (2002). Applying the transtheoretical model to academic procrastination. Dissertation Abstracts International. Section B: The Sciences and Engineering. 62(11-B): 5359. Taraban, R., Maki, W.S., and Rynearson, K. (1999). Measuring study time distributions: Implications for designing computer-based courses. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments and Computers. 31(2), 263-269. Further Reading These are all the titles in booklets in the ‘Effective Learning’ series: 1. Return to Part-time Study 2. Return to Full-time Study 3. The First Semester 4. Time Management 5. Accelerated Learning 6. 20 Tips for Effective Learning 7. Six Steps to Effective Reading 8. Effective Note Making 9. Effective Writing 10.Essay Writing (1) stages of essay writing 11.Essay Writing (2) planning and structuring your essays 12.Essay Writing (3) finding your own voice in essays 13. References and Bibliographies 14. Report Writing 15. Pass Your Exams 16. Your Assignment Results – and how to improve them 17. Presentations 18. Group Work 19. Introduction to Research and Research Methods 20. Foundations of Good Research 21. Writing Your Management Project Report or Dissertation You can download any of these from the School of Management Homepages: Resources– Effective Learning link, or contact the Effective Learning Service, tel. 4414 (internal), Email: C.Neville@Bradford.ac.uk, or visit room 0.10 Airedale Building at the School of Management. Effective Learning Service 23
  • 25. University of Bradford, School of Management Time Management The booklets can also be found in the School of Management library, in the foyer of the Airedale Building and in the main entrance/foyer of the Emm Lane building. In the School of Management and J.B. Priestley libraries, there is a study skills section at D.371.30281 Recommended reading: Forsyth,P. (2003) Sucessful Time Management, London: Kogan Page. Haynes, M.E. (2000) Make Every Minute Count, London: Kogan Page. Croft, C. (1996) Time Management, Thompson Business Press. Cottrell, S. (2003) The Study Skills Handbook, Basingstoke: Palgrave (contains lots of bite-sized chunks of advice and information presented in a lively and visually interesting way. This is an excellent general study skills guide for all undergraduate or postgraduate students). Giles, K. and Hedge, N. (1998) The Manager’s Good Study Guide Maidenhead : Open University Press. (A study skills guide written for business studies students and contains advice and information presented in a clear, readable and subject-specific way.) Marshall, L. and Rowland.F. (1998) A Guide to Learning Independently, Maidenhead: Open University Press. Turner, J. (2002) How to Study: a short introduction, London: Sage. Other learning material may be available, e.g. videos on time management. Please enquire at library reception. Some Useful Internet Sites: www.support4learning.org.uk/education/key_skills.htm (a good all-round site for study skills advice and information) www.bized.ac.uk/ (a study support site for business studies students) © This booklet was written by Colin Neville, Effective Learning Officer, University of Bradford, School of Management and must not be reproduced without permission. Last updated August 2006. C.Neville@bradford.ac.uk Effective Learning Service 24