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  1. 1. Multiple Intelligences and Multimedia Technology How do we learn to understand the world around us?
  2. 2. Multiple Intelligences <ul><li>Diverse preferred modes of learning for each individual </li></ul><ul><li>Different ways of information processing </li></ul><ul><li>Result of years of scientific brain research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stroke victims </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accident victims </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alzheimers patients </li></ul></ul>Gardner 1983
  3. 3. Definition of Intelligence <ul><li>The ability to solve problems that one encounters in real life </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to generate new problems to solve </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to make something or offer service that is valued within one’s culture </li></ul>Howard Gardner Gardner, 1983
  4. 4. Research Findings <ul><li>Intelligence is not fixed at birth.  It changes and grows through life.  It can be improved and expanded. </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligence can be taught and improved by activating levels of perception. </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligence is a multiple phenomenon that occurs in many different parts of the brain/mind/body system. </li></ul><ul><li>A stronger, more dominant intelligence can be used to train (improve or strengthen) a weaker intelligence. </li></ul><ul><li>Most persons possess all intelligences – but in varying strengths (at varying times) </li></ul>Gardner, 1983
  5. 5. How can we help our children develop their intelligences? <ul><li>Stage 1: Awaken - trigger the intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 2: Amplify - strengthen by practice </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 3: Teach - learn and acquire specific knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 4: Transfer the intelligence to real life - Knowing how to live in the real world </li></ul>Neurons (brain cells) make connections between different parts of the brain.
  6. 6. Frames of Mind <ul><li>“ The ways in which intelligences combine and blend are as varied as the faces and personalities of individuals” </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligence is changeable – not stagnant </li></ul><ul><li>Genetics influences intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>BUT providing a nurturing, positive, and stimulating learning environment is very important! </li></ul>Unique Gardner, 1983
  7. 7. Eight Intelligences <ul><li>Verbal-Linguistic Intelligence – word player </li></ul><ul><li>Logical-Mathematical Intelligence - questioner </li></ul><ul><li>Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence - mover </li></ul><ul><li>Visual-Spatial Intelligence - visualizer </li></ul><ul><li>Musical-Rhythmic Intelligence – music lover </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal Intelligence - socializer </li></ul><ul><li>Intrapersonal Intelligence - individualizer </li></ul><ul><li>Naturalist Intelligence – nature lover </li></ul>Gardner, 1983
  8. 8. The Word Player <ul><li>Verbal Linguistic Learner </li></ul><ul><li>Uses words effectively </li></ul><ul><li>Has highly-developed auditory skills </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoys reading, playing word games, and writing </li></ul><ul><li>Has good memory for verse, lyrics, or trivia </li></ul><ul><li>Great for repetition and memorization when young </li></ul><ul><li>Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Web 2.0 tools – blogs, wikis, twitter </li></ul><ul><li>Social networking – Facebook/My Space </li></ul><ul><li>Email/texting </li></ul><ul><li>Word processors </li></ul><ul><li>Desktop publishing, </li></ul><ul><li>Programs for creating poetry </li></ul><ul><li>Multimedia authoring </li></ul><ul><li>Audio/video recording </li></ul>poet
  9. 9. The Questioner <ul><li>Logical-Mathematical Learner </li></ul><ul><li>Thinks conceptually and abstractly </li></ul><ul><li>Is able to see and explore patterns and relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoys reasoning, calculating, playing logic games, solving puzzles. </li></ul><ul><li>Likes brain teasers, logical puzzles, and strategy games. </li></ul><ul><li>Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Database </li></ul><ul><li>Spreadsheet </li></ul><ul><li>Problem-solving software </li></ul><ul><li>Strategy games </li></ul><ul><li>Multiplayer video games </li></ul><ul><li>Simulations </li></ul><ul><li>Calculators </li></ul><ul><li>Multimedia authoring </li></ul>scientist
  10. 10. The Visualizer <ul><li>Visual-Spatial Learner </li></ul><ul><li>Thinks in terms of physical space </li></ul><ul><li>Notices images and thinks in pictures </li></ul><ul><li>Learns best through drawings, designs, and imagery </li></ul><ul><li>Likes mazes, jigsaw puzzles, films, diagrams, maps, charts </li></ul><ul><li>Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Drawing and paint programs </li></ul><ul><li>Reading programs with visual clues </li></ul><ul><li>Color coding </li></ul><ul><li>Programs/webs with maps, charts, diagrams </li></ul><ul><li>Spreadsheets and graphs </li></ul><ul><li>Multimedia and video </li></ul>architect
  11. 11. The Music Lover <ul><li>Musical-Rhythmic Learner </li></ul><ul><li>Shows sensitivity to rhythm, melody, and sound </li></ul><ul><li>Notices non-verbal sounds in the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Learns more easily if sung or tapped out. </li></ul><ul><li>Musical intelligence develops very early </li></ul><ul><li>Most closely aligned to the verbal/linguistic </li></ul><ul><li>Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Programs/webs with stories with sound </li></ul><ul><li>Reading programs associating letters/sounds/music </li></ul><ul><li>Music and midi composition software </li></ul><ul><li>Multimedia </li></ul><ul><li>Audio and video </li></ul><ul><li>Karaoke </li></ul>End-state: composer
  12. 12. The Mover <ul><li>Bodily-Kinesthetic Learner </li></ul><ul><li>Likes movement </li></ul><ul><li>Communicates well through body language </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoys physical activity </li></ul><ul><li>Excels at hands-on learning </li></ul><ul><li>Processes knowledge through bodily sensations – moving, touching, manipulation, role plays, creative movement </li></ul><ul><li>Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Wii & interactive video games </li></ul><ul><li>Simulations </li></ul><ul><li>Clickers, smart board touch screen, joystick, mouse or touchpad </li></ul><ul><li>Keyboarding and word processing </li></ul><ul><li>Animation programs </li></ul>dancer
  13. 13. The Socializer <ul><li>Interpersonal Learner </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoys interacting with others </li></ul><ul><li>Learns best through group activities </li></ul><ul><li>Sensitivity to facial expressions, voice and gestures and has ability to respond effectively to those cues </li></ul><ul><li>Understands and cares about people </li></ul><ul><li>Likes to socialize </li></ul><ul><li>Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Social networking </li></ul><ul><li>Blogs, wikis, twitter </li></ul><ul><li>Group presentations using multimedia </li></ul><ul><li>Decision making programs </li></ul><ul><li>Multiplayer video games </li></ul><ul><li>Group video production </li></ul><ul><li>Texting </li></ul><ul><li>Smart phones </li></ul>leader
  14. 14. The Individual <ul><li>Intrapersonal Learner </li></ul><ul><li>Is in tune with their personal inner feelings, moods, and motivations </li></ul><ul><li>Has an accurate picture of personal strengths and limitations </li></ul><ul><li>Has capacity for self-discipline </li></ul><ul><li>Learns best through independent study and introspection </li></ul><ul><li>Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Computer assisted instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional games </li></ul><ul><li>Programs that build self-improvement skills and self-awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorming or problem solving software </li></ul><ul><li>Web 2.0 blog & wiki journals </li></ul>Reflective Individual
  15. 15. The Nature Lover <ul><li>Naturalistic Learner </li></ul><ul><li>Sensitivity to the world of nature </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrates ability to empathize with animals </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoys working with plants, (gardening, farming and horticulture </li></ul><ul><li>Has a natural sense of science and natural living energy forces (weather and physics) </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoys cooking and working with products of nature </li></ul><ul><li>Sees patterns in nature </li></ul><ul><li>Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive real time weather and nature websites </li></ul><ul><li>Science programs and websites and software programs </li></ul><ul><li>Global ecology websites and advocacy organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Real time cameras and video sites </li></ul>botanist
  16. 16. What knowledge is important today? <ul><li>“ If knowledge doubles every year or two, we certainly cannot multiply the number of hours or teach twice as quickly. Some choice, some decisions about what can be omitted, is essential.” </li></ul><ul><li>The first dilemma: </li></ul><ul><li>What should be taught? </li></ul><ul><li>Howard Gardner – 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>From Multiple Intelligences after Twenty Years </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.pz.harvard.edu/PIs/HG_MI_after_20_years.pdf     </li></ul>
  17. 17. Howard Gardner <ul><li>What should be highlighted: facts, information? data? If so, which of the countless facts that exist? </li></ul><ul><li>Subject matters and disciplines--if so, which ones? </li></ul><ul><li>Which science, which history? </li></ul><ul><li>Should we nurture creativity, critical thinking? </li></ul><ul><li>If there is to be an additional focus, should it be arts, technology, a social focus, a moral focus? </li></ul>
  18. 18. What Should be the Focus of Education? <ul><li>What is Special about Human Beings </li></ul><ul><li>“ Human beings have done many terrible things but countless members of our species have done wonderful things as well: works of art, works of music, discoveries of science and technology , heroic acts of courage and sacrifice. </li></ul><ul><li>Our youngsters must learn about these achievements, come to respect them, have time to reflect about them (and what it took to achieve them) and aspire some day to achieve anew in the same tradition…or perhaps even to found a new tradition.” </li></ul>Howard Gardner, 2003
  19. 19. How do we learn? <ul><li>Bloom's Taxonomy Learning Domains </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive - intellectual capability, ie., knowledge, or 'think' </li></ul><ul><li>Affective - feelings, emotions and behaviour, ie., attitude, or 'feel' </li></ul><ul><li>Pscyhomotor and Multisensory  - manual and physical skills, ie., skills, or 'do' </li></ul>
  20. 20. How do we learn? <ul><li>Bloom's Taxonomy Learning Domains </li></ul>Cognitive intellectual capability knowledge 'think' Affective feelings emotions behavior attitude 'feel' Pscyhomotor Multisensory manual and physical skills 'do'
  21. 21. Learning Changes the Brain <ul><li>Some kind of stimulus to the brain starts the learning process. </li></ul><ul><li>The stimulus is sorted and processed at several levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Results in formation of memory.  </li></ul><ul><li>Either doing something we already know how to do - or we are doing something new. </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulation is doing something new - lighting up the brain scan. </li></ul><ul><li>Once a task is learned, the brain lights up less. </li></ul>What we do know...
  22. 22. How Does the Brain Work?
  23. 23. Neuroscience <ul><li>Technology paved the way for understanding more about how brain works. </li></ul><ul><li>Enabled researchers to understand and see inside the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Brain scanners developed - Brain Imaging Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(MRI) Magnetic Resonance Imaging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(PET) Positron Emission Tomography – Radioactive glucose used to determine activity in different parts of the brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(EEG) Electroencephalography – Electrodes give us readings about electrical output of the brain </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Secret Life of the Brain <ul><li>PBS Web - http://www.pbs.org/wnet/brain/index.html </li></ul>
  25. 25. The Left Brain versus the Right Brain Argument Simplification of a Very Complex Neurological System Go to Neuroscience for Kids
  26. 26. Two Cerebral Hemispheres Left and Right <ul><li>Left Hemisphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Processes things more in parts and sequentially </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Musicians process music in left hemisphere </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Right Hemisphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual and performing arts have been considered right-brain &quot;frills&quot; but trained musicians and artists use more left-brain and novice musicians use more right. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher-level mathematicians, problem solvers, and chess players actually have more right-brained activity, but beginners use more left brain. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain <ul><li>L-Mode (left brain) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The verbal, analytic mode </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step-by-step style of thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using words, numbers and other symbols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strings things out in sequences, like words in a sentence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>R-Mode (right brain) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The visual, perceptual mode </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses visual information and processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All at once, like recognizing the face of a friend </li></ul></ul>Go to: http://www.drawright.com/ Betty Edwards Ways of Knowing and Seeing
  28. 28. &quot;You have two brains: a left and a right. Modern brain scientists now know that your left brain is your verbal and rational brain; it thinks serially and reduces its thoughts to numbers, letters and words… Your right brain is your nonverbal and intuitive brain; it thinks in patterns, or pictures, composed of ‘whole things,’ and does not comprehend reductions, either numbers, letters, or words.&quot; From The Fabric of Mind, by the eminent scientist and neurosurgeon, Richard Bergland. Viking Penguin, Inc., New York 1985. p.1
  29. 29. The Lobes <ul><li>Frontal Lobe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Area around your forehead </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involved in purposeful acts like judgment, creativity, problem solving, and planning . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parietal Lobe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Top back area of the brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Processes higher sensory and language functions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Temporal Lobe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Left and right side above and around the ears </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily responsible for hearing , memory, meaning, and language. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some overlap in functions of the lobes. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Occipital Lobe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Back of the brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily responsible for vision </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Stages of Development Through Sensory Experiences in the First Year <ul><li>Brain Activity by Age </li></ul>
  31. 31. Brain Activity <ul><li>Auditory Cortex </li></ul><ul><li>Visual Cortex </li></ul><ul><li>Frontal Cortex </li></ul><ul><li>Motor Cortex </li></ul>thinking hearing seeing moving
  32. 32. The Resting Brain <ul><li>PET Scans Show Brain Function </li></ul><ul><li>Four Different Slices of the Same Brain </li></ul><ul><li>Mapping of Cerebral Function </li></ul><ul><li>Resting Brain Shows No “hotspots” </li></ul>http://www.crump.ucla.edu/software/lpp/clinpetneuro/function.html
  33. 33. Visual Activity <ul><li>Subject exposed to visual stimulation consisting of both pattern and color. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased activity in the stimulated brain PET image (arrowhead). </li></ul><ul><li>Region of increased activity corresponds to the primary visual cortex. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Thinking Activity <ul><li>Increased activity in the stimulated brain PET image (arrowhead). </li></ul><ul><li>Region of increased activity corresponds to the frontal cortex. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Motor or Kinesthetic Activity <ul><li>Motor stimulation of the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Subject to hop up and down on his right foot. </li></ul><ul><li>Motor task of a movement of the right foot caused: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cortical metabolic activation of the left motor strip (horizontal arrowhead) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caused supplementary motor cortex (vertical arrow, top). </li></ul></ul>Cerebellum
  36. 36. <ul><li>Subject listened to some music. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased activity in the PET image containing the auditory cortex. </li></ul><ul><li>Nonverbal stimuli (music) predominantly activates the nondominant (right) hemisphere. </li></ul><ul><li>Simultaneous stimulation with language and music would cause a more bilateral activation of the auditory cortex. </li></ul>Auditory Activity