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1) Present unreal conditionals Are used to talk about conditions that are not true in the present and about the imagined results of these conditions.
Present unreal conditionals have a past form of the verb in the if clause and would/could/might + base form in the result clause. If we had a car, we would drive to the mall.
Were is used for all persons of be in the if clause. (I, you, she, he, we, they were ) If I were the teacher, I’d give a lot less homework.
The if clause expresses a condition that is not true at the present time. The condition might be highly unlikely or impossible.
The result clause tells what would happen if this untrue condition were true. It expresses the imagined result of an imagined condition.
If I were a cat, I would sleep all day. If I had time, I would study another language. If I had a lot of money, ….. If I were you, I wouldn’t worry.
2) Past unreal conditionals Are used to talk about conditions that were not true in the past and They express the imagined result of an imagined condition in the past
Past unreal conditionals have a past perfect form of verb in the If clause and would/could/might + have + past participle of the verb in the result clause
The if clause of the past unreal conditional expresses a condition that was not true in the past. The result clause tells what would have happened if the untrue condition had been true.
Present unreal If I were you, I would watch the weather forecast.
Past unreal If I had studied , I would have passed the test.
In present unreal conditionals , the condition and result are sometimes highly unlikely but possible. In past conditionals , the condition and therefore the result is never possible
If you were coming tonight, we could go to a movie (highly unlikely, but possible) If you had come last night, we could have gone to a movie. (impossible; you didn’t come last night.)
Other forms of conditionals “ mixed conditionals ” conditions in one time can relate to results in another time If I had studied something practical, I could be making more money now.
Hope is about what is possible (like factual and future conditionals) I hope I can come to the picnic .
Wish Wish is about what is not likely or not possible. Wish about the present : wish + past form of verb or would or could + base form He wishes he had more money. W ish about the past : wish + past perfect We wish you had been here.