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1.The four types of market structures we study in economics are
perfect competition, monopoly, oligopoly, and monopsony.
True
False
2. The long run is considered to be the period when a firm's
inputs are mainly variable and at least one input is fixed.
True
False
3.The government regulates a pure monopoly by setting price
where AVC (average variable costs) = D (demand).
True
False
4.Monopolies, since no close substitutes nor competitors exist,
can price whatever they want and still maximize total revenues.
True
False
5.As competition increases in markets, the demand curve for
products becomes more price elastic and downward pressure on
prices tends to ensue.
True
False
6. As an imperfect competitor produces more and more output,
we can assume that eventually marginal costs will continue to
rise and marginal revenues to fall.
TRUE
FALSE
7. Generally speaking, consumer surplus will be highest in a
perfectly competitive market structure.
True
False
8.The point where imperfect competitors will price their
products and earn the highest level of total revenues is at the
midpoint of the demand curve where total revenues are highest
on the total revenue curve.
True
False
In general, we can expect higher barriers of entry for a
monopolistically competitive market structure than an oligopoly
market structure.
True
False
10. Monopolistic competition would represent the market
structure within which Coca-Cola and Pepsi Cola firms operate.
True
False
11. The perfect competitor can produce as much as it wants or
as little as it wants with no effects on market price whatsoever.
True
False
12. Oligopolies and monopolies attempt reduce output and raise
price, thereby incurring overcapacity and waste to society.
True
False
13.Redistribution of income from wealthier individuals to
lower-income individuals by government in the form of higher
taxes and progressive tax systems actually tends to lower
prosperity because it weakens the link between productive
activity and the reward derived from it, encourages resources to
flow into wasteful rent-seeking activities, as well as higher tax
rates required to finance redistribution result in resources being
devoted toward tax avoidance activities.
True
False
14. Decreasing the percentage tariff price on an imported good
will result in greater market share for the foreign producer in
the domestic country.
True
False
15.Which market structure can earn long-run economic profits?
a.
Perfect competition
b.
Monopolistic competition
c.
Oligopoly
d.
Monopoly
e.
c and d only
16. All firms produce where
a.
short-run profits are less than long-run profits
b.
average total costs are greater than marginal costs
c.
marginal revenues are greater than or equal to marginal costs
d.
marginal benefits are greater than marginal profits
17. A perfect competitor is a __________ and can earn
economic profits ____________.
a.
price maker, never
b.
price maker, in both the short run and long run
c.
price taker, in only the short run
d.
price taker, in both the short run and long run
e.
price maker, in only the long run
18.The upward-sloping portion of a long-run average total cost
curve is the result of
a.economies of scale.
b.diseconomies of scale.
c.diminishing returns.
d.the existence of fixed resources.
19. The law of diminishing marginal returns explains the
general shape of the firm's
a.
both short-run and long-run cost curves.
b.
the laws of diminishing returns has nothing to do with cost
curves.
c.
short-run cost curves.
d.
long-run cost curves.
20. Which of the following labor resources will likely have the
most inelastic supply schedule in the short run?
a.
construction laborers
b.
filling station attendants
c.
dentists
d.
sales clerks
21. If Congress suddenly passes legislation that required all
U.S. workers to receive the same annual pay, we would expect
a.
less human capital investment.
b.
a shortage of workers to fill the least desirable jobs.
c.
a surplus of workers to fill the easy, desirable jobs.
d.
all of the above.
22. Economic profit
a.
does not exist in competitive markets.
b.
provides incentive for investors to undertake risky projects.
c.
motivates entrepreneurial innovation.
d.
does all of the above.
e.
is both b and c.
23.The demand curve of the perfect competitor is
a.
downward sloping.
b.
upward sloping.
c.
perfectly inelastic.
d.
perfectly elastic.
24. An import tariff on an imported good will result in
a.
higher domestic consumer prices for that good.
b.
increased market share for the domestic producer.
c.
increased revenues for the domestic government.
d.
deadweight losses to society.
e.
only a, b, and c.
f.
a, b, c, and d.
25. A nation benefits from international trade if it
a.
exports good for which it is a low opportunity cost producer.
b.
imports more than it exports.
c.
exports more than it imports.
d.
imports goods for which it is a low opportunity cost producer.

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1.The four types of market structures we study in economics are .docx

  • 1. 1.The four types of market structures we study in economics are perfect competition, monopoly, oligopoly, and monopsony. True False 2. The long run is considered to be the period when a firm's inputs are mainly variable and at least one input is fixed. True False 3.The government regulates a pure monopoly by setting price where AVC (average variable costs) = D (demand). True False 4.Monopolies, since no close substitutes nor competitors exist, can price whatever they want and still maximize total revenues. True False
  • 2. 5.As competition increases in markets, the demand curve for products becomes more price elastic and downward pressure on prices tends to ensue. True False 6. As an imperfect competitor produces more and more output, we can assume that eventually marginal costs will continue to rise and marginal revenues to fall. TRUE FALSE 7. Generally speaking, consumer surplus will be highest in a perfectly competitive market structure. True False 8.The point where imperfect competitors will price their products and earn the highest level of total revenues is at the midpoint of the demand curve where total revenues are highest on the total revenue curve.
  • 3. True False In general, we can expect higher barriers of entry for a monopolistically competitive market structure than an oligopoly market structure. True False 10. Monopolistic competition would represent the market structure within which Coca-Cola and Pepsi Cola firms operate. True False 11. The perfect competitor can produce as much as it wants or as little as it wants with no effects on market price whatsoever. True False
  • 4. 12. Oligopolies and monopolies attempt reduce output and raise price, thereby incurring overcapacity and waste to society. True False 13.Redistribution of income from wealthier individuals to lower-income individuals by government in the form of higher taxes and progressive tax systems actually tends to lower prosperity because it weakens the link between productive activity and the reward derived from it, encourages resources to flow into wasteful rent-seeking activities, as well as higher tax rates required to finance redistribution result in resources being devoted toward tax avoidance activities. True False 14. Decreasing the percentage tariff price on an imported good will result in greater market share for the foreign producer in the domestic country. True False 15.Which market structure can earn long-run economic profits?
  • 5. a. Perfect competition b. Monopolistic competition c. Oligopoly d. Monopoly e. c and d only 16. All firms produce where a. short-run profits are less than long-run profits b. average total costs are greater than marginal costs c. marginal revenues are greater than or equal to marginal costs
  • 6. d. marginal benefits are greater than marginal profits 17. A perfect competitor is a __________ and can earn economic profits ____________. a. price maker, never b. price maker, in both the short run and long run c. price taker, in only the short run d. price taker, in both the short run and long run e. price maker, in only the long run 18.The upward-sloping portion of a long-run average total cost curve is the result of a.economies of scale.
  • 7. b.diseconomies of scale. c.diminishing returns. d.the existence of fixed resources. 19. The law of diminishing marginal returns explains the general shape of the firm's a. both short-run and long-run cost curves. b. the laws of diminishing returns has nothing to do with cost curves. c. short-run cost curves. d. long-run cost curves. 20. Which of the following labor resources will likely have the most inelastic supply schedule in the short run? a. construction laborers
  • 8. b. filling station attendants c. dentists d. sales clerks 21. If Congress suddenly passes legislation that required all U.S. workers to receive the same annual pay, we would expect a. less human capital investment. b. a shortage of workers to fill the least desirable jobs. c. a surplus of workers to fill the easy, desirable jobs. d. all of the above.
  • 9. 22. Economic profit a. does not exist in competitive markets. b. provides incentive for investors to undertake risky projects. c. motivates entrepreneurial innovation. d. does all of the above. e. is both b and c. 23.The demand curve of the perfect competitor is a. downward sloping. b. upward sloping. c.
  • 10. perfectly inelastic. d. perfectly elastic. 24. An import tariff on an imported good will result in a. higher domestic consumer prices for that good. b. increased market share for the domestic producer. c. increased revenues for the domestic government. d. deadweight losses to society. e. only a, b, and c. f. a, b, c, and d. 25. A nation benefits from international trade if it
  • 11. a. exports good for which it is a low opportunity cost producer. b. imports more than it exports. c. exports more than it imports. d. imports goods for which it is a low opportunity cost producer.